key terms - St James School

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Religious attitudes to matters of life

KEY TERMS

MORALITY
-

a system of ethics about what is right or wrong.

ETHICS
-

the theory relating to morality.

ABSOLUTE MORALITY
-

what is morally right and wrong applies to all circumstances,
at all times.

RELATIVE

MORALITY
-

what is morally right or wrong in any situation depends upon
its particular circumstances.

SANCTITY OF LIFE
-

life is sacred because it is God
-
given.

VALUE OF LIFE
-

the value of a person over and above physical value.

QUALITY OF LIFE
-

a measu
re of fulfilment.

FERTILITY TREATMENT
-

medical procedure to assist an infertile couple to have a
child.

IN VITRO FERTILISATION (IVF)
-

a scientific method of making a woman pregnant,
which does not involve sex. Conception occurs via sperm and egg being pl
aced into a
test tube.

TEST
-
TUBE BABY
-

term used for a baby created outside of the woman’s body.

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
-

sperm medically inserted into the vagina to assist
pregnancy.

SURROGACY
-

woman’s egg fertilised artificially by another woman’s par
tner.

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION BY HUSBAND (AIH)
-

when a woman is made pregnant
by the sperm of her husband, but not through having sexual relations with him.

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION BY DONOR (AID or DI)
-

when a woman is made
pregnant by the sperm of a ma
n other than her partner but not through having sexual
relations with him.

SEXUAL INTERCOURSE
-

sexual activity involving more than one person, for reasons
of procreation or pleasure.

TRANSPLANT SURGERY

-

when someone else’s organs are put into a patient.

BLOOD TRANSFUSION

-

when a patient is given extra blood as part of an operation.

HUMAN GENETIC ENGINEERING

-

the modification of gene make
-
up to change the
features of a human.

EMBRYOLOGY

-

the study of human embryos.

EMBRYO

-

fertilised ovum at about 12
-
1
4 days when implanted into the wall of the
womb.

DESIGNER BABIES

-
babies with gender and characteristics chosen by their parents,
which is currently illegal.

STEM CELL

-

a cell, most often taken from a 4
-
5 day old embryo, whose role in the
body is yet to b
e determined.

SAVIOUR SIBLINGS

-

a sibling (brother or sister), genetically compatible with a sick
child is implanted and born to use stem cells to treat the sick child.

CLONING

-

the scientific method by which animals or plants can be created which have
e
xactly the same genetic make
-
up as the original, because the DNA of the original is
used.

HUMAN
-
ANIMAL HYBRID EMBRYO

-

an embryo made from human DNA and animal
eggs for purposes of experimentation.

HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION

-

testing products, usually medicines, on paid
volunteers.

CONCEPTION

-

the moment the sperm fertilises the egg.

QUICKENING

-

the first detectable movements of the foetus.

ENSOULMENT

-

the belief that at one moment the foetus receives a soul (some
believe

it doesn’t).

VIABLE

-

the point at which a foetus could survive if it were to be born.



Religious attitudes to drug abuse

KEY TERMS

DRUG
-

a substance which, when taken, affects the body or mind.

PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
-

drugs legally obtained only with a do
ctor’s consent.

DRUG ABUSE
-

using drugs in a way that harms the user.

ILLEGAL DRUGS
-

drugs which are illegal to possess, sell or use, put into three
classifications according to their potential harm and addictiveness.

SOCIAL DRUGS
-

legal drugs which a
re still addictive, such as alcohol, nicotine, caffeine,
etc.

LEGAL DRUGS
-

drugs that can be purchased legally. Some have age restrictions.

SOLVENTS
-

some aerosols, glue and gas lighter refills abused by sniffing, which can
cause hallucinations and can b
e fatal.

CAFFEINE
-

a mild legal stimulant found in coffee, chocolate etc.

DRUG CLASSIFICATION
-

three legal categories by which illegal drugs are classified in
British law according to the level of harm they do and how addictive they are.

CANNABIS
-

a cla
ss B drug which is usually smoked, which some wish to be legalised.

TOBACCO
-

used in cigarettes and cigars, it contains nicotine an addictive social drug.

ALCOHOL
-

an addictive social drug found in beer, wine, spirits, etc.

REHABILITATION (REHAB)
-

proc
ess by which addicts are helped to defeat their
addiction to drugs.






Religious attitudes to crime and punishment

KEY TERMS

CRIME
-

an offence that is punishable by law e.g. Stealing.

DUTY
-

a moral or legal obligation.

RESPONSIBILITY
-

a duty to care
for or having control over something or
someone.

CONSCIENCE
-

the inner feeling you are doing right or wrong.

CRIME AGAINST THE PERSON
-

wrongdoing that directly harms a person e.g.
Murder, assault.

CRIME AGAINST PROPERTY
-

damaging items that belong to so
mebody else e.g.
Vandalism.

RELIGIOUS OFFENCE
-

an offence against religion e.g. Blasphemy, sacrilege.

PUNISHMENT
-

something done to a person because they have broken a law.

PROTECTION
-

keeping the public from being harmed, threatened or injured by
crimi
nals.

RETRIBUTION
-

an aim of punishment
-

to get your own back:’an eye for an eye’.

DETERRENCE
-

an aim of punishment
-

to put people off committing crimes.

REFORM
-

an aim of punishment to change someone’s behaviour.

VINDICATION
-

an aim of punishment t
hat means offenders must be punished to
show that the law must be respected and right.

REPARATION
-

an aim of punishment designed to help an offender to put
something back into society.

FORGIVENESS
-

showing grace and mercy and pardoning someone for what

they
have done wrong.

REPENTENCE
-

being truly sorry and trying to change one’s behaviour so as not to
do the same again.

YOUNG OFFENDER
-

a person under 18 who has broken the law.

IMPRISONMENT
-

when a person is put in jail for committing a crime.

PRI
SON REFORM
-

a movement that tries to ensure offenders are treated
humanely in prison.

DEATH PENALTY
-

capital punishment; form of punishment in which a prisoner is
put to death for crimes committed.

COMMUNITY SERVICE
-

unpaid work that an offender perfo
rms for the benefit
of the local community rather than going to prison.

ELECTRONIC TAGGING
-

an offender has to wear an electronic device which
tracks their movement to ensure restrictions of movement are observed.

FINE
-

money paid as punishment for a cr
ime or other offence.

PROBATION
-

an alternative to prison where an offender has to meet regularly
with a probation officer to ensure that they do not re
-
offend. Movement may be
restricted.

PAROLE
-

when a prisoner is released without having completed the
ir sentence,
because they have behaved well and accepted their guilt. The prisoner is monitored
to try to ensure that they do not re
-
offend.

LIFE IMPRISONMENT
-

a prison sentence that (theoretically) keeps people in
prison until they die.

EARLY RELEASE
-

when a prisoner is allowed out of prison even though they have
not completed their sentence or fulfilled their sentence, or fulfilled the criteria
for getting parole.







Religious attitudes to the rich and poor in British society

KEY TERMS

WEALTH
-

a

large amount of money or investments.

POVERTY
-

being without money, food to other basic needs of life (being poor).

DEBT
-

situation where a person or organisation owes more money than they possess.

INHERITANCE
-

when a friend of family member leaves yo
u money or property in their
will when they die.

EXCESSIVE SALARIES
-

also known as ‘fat cat’ salaries, large amounts of money earned,
plus possibly bonuses and share options.

POVERTY TRAP
-

not being able to break out of poverty.

MINIMUM WAGE
-

the lega
l minimum amount which must be paid to a worked in the UK.

CHARITY
-

giving to the needy.

CHARITY
-

an organisation that does not work for profit and which usually works to help
others.

NATIONAL LOTTERY (LOTTO)
-

regular gambling competition, avialble t
o all over
-
16s
and which offers large prizes, but also gives money to charity. ‘Lotto’ is now its official
name.

PERSONAL WEALTH
-

money, possessions and investments owned by an individual person.