Genetic Engineering - escience

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Nassry Mohammad








August 22
, 2010

Final Project


Project Title
: Genetic Engineerin
g

Intended Audience
:
9
th

Grade Living Environment Class

(2 classes each with about 25 students)

Five to six class periods: One class period for introduction of topic, two to three periods for
research and preparation, and one day for presentation.

National Science Content

Standards
:

1)
The student demonstrated scientific inquiry and problem
-
solving by using thoughtful
questioning and reasoning strategies, common sense and conceptual understanding from
Science
Standards, and appropriate methods to investigate the natural world; that is th
e student:

a) Asks questions about natural phenomena; objects and organisms; and events and discoveries.

b) Uses

concepts
to explain a variety of observations and phenomena

c) Uses evidence from reliable sources to construct explanations.

d) Evaluates diff
erent points of view using relevant experiences, observations, and knowledge;
and distinguishes between fact and opinion

e) Identifies problems; proposes and implements solutions; and evaluates accuracy, design, and
outcomes of investigations.

f) Works ind
ividually and in teams to collect and share information and ideas.

2) The student demonstrates conceptual understanding by using a concept accurately to explain
observations and make predictions and by representing the concept in multiple ways (through
wor
ds, diagrams, graphs, or charts, as appropriate). Both aspects of understanding
-
explaining
and representing
-
are required
meeting

this standard.

The student produces evidence that
demonstrates the understanding of:


a)
Big ideas and unifying concepts, such a
s order and organization; models, form and function;

c
hange and constancy; and cause and effect.


b)
The designed world, such as development of agricultural techniques; and the viability of

technological designs.


c)
Personal

health, such as nutrition, substance abuse, and exercise; germs and toxic substances;

personal and environmental safety.


d)
Science as a human endeavor, such as communication, cooperation, and diverse input in

scientific research; and the importance of
reason, intellectual honesty, and skepticism.


4) The student demonstrates competence with tools and technologies of science by using them to
collect data, make observations, analyze results, and accomplish tasks effectively; that is the
student:


a)
Uses t
echnology and tools (such as rulers, computers, balances, thermometers, watches,
magnifiers
, computers
, and microscopes) to gather data and extend the senses.


b
)Acquires information from multiple sources, such as experimentation and print and non
-
print
so
urces.


Topic
: The use and ap
plication of Genetic Engineering


Curriculum Links
:



As part of the Living Environment curriculum, students should learn prior to the
genetic engineering lesson a general understanding of heredity, genes, and the
DNA structure.
From there I’ll explain the DNA
-
protein connection touching
briefly on the processes of DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
Afterwards the concept of DNA individuality, gene expression and mutation.
Then I will introduce the idea of how techno
logy and genetics students have
revolutionized today’s world which will bring us to our unit.




After covering this unit, I cover a topic that is usually more challenging and
which in encompasses genetic engineering and that is the types of cell division
(mitosis and meiosis) and the types of reproduction (asexual or cloning vs.
sexual). When I cover

these topics after my main unit, students will have a better
grasp as to how genetically engineered bacteria and plants are able to reproduce
quickly by binary fission or vegetative propagation.


Curriculum Objectives
:



To gain a basic understanding
of key

terms and concepts related to the science of
genetic engineering and GMF.



To learn the application of genetic engineering in the real world.



To discuss the ethical issues surrounding the practice of genetic engineering and
the use of GMF.



To analyze case studies using the rules and principles of ethics.



Students will explore many issues related to the impacts of biotechnology through
Science, Social Science, Math, and English



To provide a mechanism for students to apply their knowledge of
genetics and
ethical decision making models to analyze and debate a variety of different
genetics topics currently at issue in today’s society.



To apply the principles of ethical decision
-
making to actual cases, to appreciate
that there is usually no one “
right” decision, and to compare their conclusions to
those of individuals who are in the field.



Materials




Computer with Internet access



Overhead projector



Paper, pens, and pencils



Copies of Take
-
home Activity Sheet

(At the bottom of the Project)



Time



The time allowed for this unit will be approximately 5
-
6 days depending on how
quick the students comprehend the unit.




Scope and Sequence


Day 1

and 2
-

This lesson is given under the assumption that DNA structure and how it
gives the cell instructions in making specific proteins have already been discussed with
them before.
The lesson could begin by grouping students into pairs and allowing them to
write down what they know about genetic engineering and why they think it is important.
Students are then told to make a small trip to the computer lab
and in groups of fives
,
stud
ents are told to give the questions to each other and search
online
for answers to each
other’s questions. Then in groups of 5’s, one student from the group will write down
what the group l
earned from their investigation that makes genetic engineering

an
i
nteresting yet controversial issue
. The next day as a class, we discuss and share
students’ questions and answers.
I will explain how technology and biology
(biotechnology) have given us the tools needed to improve
,

and alter the basic
composition of a li
ving cell.
Introduction on GE and identify the key components
involved in it (enzymes, target gene, host organism).
The insertion of a foreign DNA into
a host organism is used to make a specific protein into a cell's DNA. The manufactured
protein will alte
r a particular characteristic and pass the new instructions on to its
offspring.


Day
3
and 4
-
(This might need an extra day)

Using
the overhead projector I will show
simplified
diagrams from online

on how genetic engineering is done. As part of the
Living
Environment curriculum, students are required to know the basic steps to
accomplish it and allowing them to visualize this before reco
rding the steps is an
advantage
.

I will explain at least 5 specific examples of GE products that will show a
broad range o
f organisms used.
(For example, the use of bacteria to produce
human
insulin and the use of bacteria in
corn

to produce Bt corn
).
The technique in how it

s done
is explained in detail with diagrams from the internet
. Fo
r a
class activity
,

students

are

to
write a proposal for creating their own genetically engineered organism that would
b
enefit society.
Using on
-
line resources each student is to find a problem (economic
social, political) and inquire whether the GE product he designed would help allevia
te the
issue at hand. The class will have the opportunity to analyze his argument and have an
open discussion on the strength of his argument.


Day 5

-

Have students brainstorm the
pros and cons of GE product
s.
After a class
discussion, we will explain tha
t although GE is a powerful

tool in science, scientists have

to tackle the ethical issues surrounding it, and hence the study of bioethics. Bioethics is
the study of the ethical implications of biological research and applications, especially in
medicine;
it involves the examination of the benefits and the risks of biotechnology.
Ask
the students what they think about the ethical issues associated with biotechnology. For
an in
-
class activity, hand out an activity sheet called "Different Perspectives on Gene
tic
Engineering". The handout examines a scenario concerning cystic fibrosis and genetic
engineering. Every student will be assigned to examine the issue from the perspective of
an individual (Ex. bioethicist, lawyer, molecular biologist, father, eugenicis
t, and
religious person). Each student will read the scenario and write a position statement from
the individual's perspective.


Day 6

and 7
-

Students will make their
5
-
10

minute presentation, followed up by
answering questions from students.
Their
presentation would include what proposal they
thought of in creating their own GE organism that would benefit society and to share
their position statement from the hand
-
out activity.


Supplementary Materials

A handout sheet found at the end of the
project will contain a vocabulary list of words
needed to understand this unit.







Assessment and Criteria



I will assess

my students by using a three
-
point rubric:




Three points: Demonstrates a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the
topic.
This is done by writing a clear well
-
researched position paper; cooperative
work in a group to develop a consensus of opinion; active participation in the
class discussion




Two points: Demonstrates an adequate understanding of the topic. This is done by
wr
iting a concise positioned paper; cooperative work in a group to develop a
consensus of opinion, but with some disengagement from the group; some
involvement in the class discussion




One point: Demonstrates a weak understanding of the topic. This is done b
y not
writing a clear, we
ll
-
researched positioned paper; little success with work in a
group to develop a consensus of opinion; little involvement in the final class
discussion


Evaluation Plan



Making sure that the materials used was appropriate and motiva
ting for their
grade level is important. I am also aware that even though I was able to manage
the teaching strategies, it is equally important to get the students interested in
participation.
To reflect on whether or not I have reached those objectives an
d
evaluate my own lesson plan, I would give out a questionnaire asking them to
grade my lesson.



I should gauge the level of participation and motivation during
our discussion. It
is imperative that my role remains as a facilitator allowing the students to do their
own independent investigations and conclusions.


Resources:





“National Science Education Standards”
Website
:<
http://www.nsta.org/publications/nses.aspx
>




Genetic Lesson Plan Ideas


Website:
http://www.kumc.edu/gec/lessons.html



“Different Perspectives on Genetic Engineering”
Website:<
http://www.nsta.org/publications/nses.aspx
>









Name: ________
______


Different Perspectives on Genetic Engineering


In this activity, you will consider ethical issues regarding a scenario about
genetic

testing.


1.

Read the following scenario regarding genetic testing and cystic fibrosis.


2.

Write a position statement regarding the issues in this scenario from the

perspective of
one of the six individuals listed on the next page. Your

teacher can prov
ide Web sites to
help guide your research. You may

wish to use the quotation included for each
individual. Address the

following questions:


• Who should be responsible for answering these ethical questions?

(Political leaders?
Individuals? Religious leade
rs? Lawyers?)


• Should an issue such as the one presented here be regulated by

federal laws, by state laws, or
by regulations enforced by a federal

agency such as the Fed
eral Drug Administration? Which
group

should be the one to take on the responsibility

of monitoring this

industry?


• What benefits does this technology offer us? What risks should we

be aware of?


PART 1

Scenario: Genetic Testing and Cystic Fibrosis


A couple has undergone genetic testing and discovered that both parents are

carriers for
cystic
fibrosis, a disease characterized by a deficiency of certain

enzymes needed for digestion and
respiratory health. Some specialists have

recommended against the couple's having children,
stating that cystic fibrosis is a

serious disease that usually
shortens an individual's life span. On
the other hand,

great advances have been made in research, and people with cystic fibrosis are

now living longer lives of a higher quality than ever before. In addition, it's

possible that a cure
for cystic fibrosis c
ould be found within the next 25 years.

The couple is trying to decide what to
do and is interested in the viewpoints of

the people listed below.


PART 2


Individual Perspectives


Religious person:
“I am opposed to the manipulation of human genes for any

purpose. It’s just
not right. Who are we to be playing God?”


Bioethicist:
“I am undecided about the use of genetic engineering in reproductive

medicine.
What we want is to enjoy the benefits of the technology while

minimizing the risk.”


Lawyer:
“I think
we should accept human gene engineering, make it legal,

regulate it, and make
sure it's done in a responsible way.”



Expectant father with an inherited heart condition that may be passed on to

children:
“Although the technology to diagnose my child’s susc
eptibility to my

heart condition is
available, it still is a scary piece of knowledge to have in

reproductive decision making, and I’
m
not sure I want to go through with the

screening.”


Molecular biologist:
“I am in favor of genetic engineering for reprod
uctive

purposes. It is just a
better way of doing what animal breeders and botanists

hav
e already done to improve their
livestock and agriculture.”


Eugenicist:
“Eventually it will be possible to pick genes for virtually any inherited

human
characteristic.

I support this technology because it will make it possible

for parents to correct
genetic defects and improve the genes of
our

children.”



































Vocabulary:


bioethics

Definition: The study of the ethical issues of biological
research and applications,

especially in
medicine.

Context: Scientists must consider
bioethics
to make appropriate decisions about some

medical
procedures.


biotechnology

Definition: The techniques of managing biological systems for human benefit.


Context
: Advances in
biotechnology
allow scientists to separate sperm by gender.



deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Definition: The chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions

for
making living organisms.

Context: Scientists examine
DNA
from a developing embryo to find out whether it will

have any
serious birth defects.


ethics

Definition: A system of moral principles

Context: Manipulating genes violates the
ethics
of some people.


eugenics

Definition: The science of improving the qua
lities of a breed or species by different

strategies,
such as the careful selection of parents or the use of genetic testing.

Context: Some people argue that designing traits for offspring is reminiscent of
eugenics.


gene

Definition: The functional and
physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring.

Context: Introducing healthy
genes
into diseased cells is becoming an established

medical
practice.


genetic code

Definition: The instructions in a gene that tell the cell how to make a specific
protein.

Context: By studying a person's
genetic code,
a scientist can detect certain

abnormalities.


genetic engineering

Definition: The techniques used to manipulate genes in an organism.

Context: A great number of innovations may arise in the next 20 ye
ars because scientists

are
making progress in
genetic engineering.