Gene Therapy Re DNA-Ti Plasmid Re DNA-Bacterial Cloning PCR ...

onwardhaggardΒιοτεχνολογία

12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

175 εμφανίσεις

Gene Therapy

Re DNA
-
Ti Plasmid

Re DNA
-
Bacterial Cloning

PCR

Gel Electrophoresis

What is Gene Therapy?

The transfer of one or more
modified genes into an individual’s
body cells to correct a genetic defect
or boost resistance to disease.

What is Re DNA
-
Ti

Plasmid?

Utilizing bacteria to insert
new or
modified genes into plants.

What is Re DNA
-
Bacterial Cloning?

Utilizing bacteria to produce
recombinant DNA that can then be
used for other genetic engineering
purposes.

What is PCR?

A way to amplify fragments of
chromosomal DNA or cDNA.

What is Gel Electrophoresis?

A laboratory technique that uses an
electric field to force molecules
through a viscous gel

typically DNA
fragments.

What is the P
rocedure?

Researchers use virus vectors t
o
transmit the desired genes into the
target cells. Viruses inject the
genome into the cells which can
then allow for the target cell to
produce the desired proteins to
correct the genetic defect.

What is the Procedure?

Researchers remove the tumor
-
induci
ng genes and replace them
with desired genes on the bacterial
plasmid. Plant cells are then placed
in a culture with the modified
bacteria. Some of the cells may take
up the gene and

these

whole plants
will be produced with the desired
genetic traits.

What is the Procedure?

Scientists use restriction enzymes to
integrate a
desired gene
and insert it
into the bacterial plasmid. The
plasmid is then replicated with the
host DNA and multiple copies are
produced as the generations of
bacteria continue to di
vide and
multiply.

What is the Procedure?

Primers are introduced into the
mixture that recognizes a specific
DNA sequence.
A DNA sample,
DNA
polymerases
, and free nucleotides

are also included in this mixture.
The cycle then proceeds through a
serious of heating and cooling cycles
in order to

rapidly produce the
desired segment of DNA that the
primers tag for replication.

What is the Procedure?

A gel is immersed in a buffered

solution. Wells are filled with DNA
and an electric field is applied
traveling from negative to positive.
DNA fragments will then travel
through the gel due to the positive
attraction of the negative phosphate
groups to the positive field.
Fragments th
en separate according
to size throughout the gel with the
smallest fragments traveling the
fastest.

Essential Features

Restriction enzymes

allow for
insertion of the genetic material into
the virus genome.

Vectors

to transmit genetic DNA to
target cell.


Essential Features

Restriction enzymes

allow for
insertion of the genetic material into
the bacterial plasmid.

Ti Plasmid

bacterial plasmid
used
to integrate desired genome into the
plant cells
.

Removal of Ti Gene

essential to
avoid harm to the plant.

Essential Features

Restriction enzymes

allow for
insertion of the genetic material into
the virus genome.

Plasmid

part of the genetic
genome of the bacterium that exists
outside of the circular chromosome.

Essential Features

Primers

specific base sequences

that DNA polymerases recognize as a
“start” for DNA synthesis.

DNA Polymerase

from a bacterium
(Thermus aquaticus).

Free Nucleotides


Essential Features

Force field

creates the
positive/negative attraction which
separates DNA fragments.

DNA Phosphate
groups

negatively
charged and attracted to positive
pole in gel.

Contribution to Genetics

Helps us understand how genetic
research can be used as a way to
improve the human condition by
providing treatment for disease that
would limit the quality of life for the
individual.

The problems with it also
help

us understand our limitation
s.
Althoug
h modifying genetic
information is promising, there are
other systems in the human body
that can create problems (
immune
system
).

Contribution to Genetics

Helps us understand how we can
manipulate genetics to produce
beneficial outcomes. By utilizing this

procedure, we are working to
produce plants that are resistant to
herbicides, produce better crop
yields, and use for pharmaceuticals.
All of these benefits will ultimately
contribute to benefiting humans.

Contribution to Genetics

Allows for researchers
to mass
produce a desired genetic sequence
that can then be used for other
applications in genetic engineering,

gene therapy,
and
the
sequencing
genomes.

Contribution to Genetics

Helps us take small amounts of DNA
and amplify them for use. This can
be rea
lly useful for solving problems,
identifying critical details, or
producing a lot of DNA of a
particular sequence for other
research purposes.

Contribution to Genetics

Helps us understand how genetic
DNA can be used to solve problems
or identify critical
details. Often this
procedure is used in forensics and
biological research significantly.