IInd year 850 Marks - Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied Sciences ...

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1



RAJGURU COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES FOR WOMEN


B.A.Sc.(Hons) Insruemntation

Ist year









750 Marks


1.1

Human Communication

100

1.2

Physics

100

1.3

Chemistry

100

1.4

Mathematics
-
I

100

1.5

General Biology

100

1.6

Introduction to Instrumentation

100

1.7

Physics Practical

50

1.8

Chemistry Practical

50

1.9

Biology Practical

50


IInd year









850 Marks


2.1

Digital Electronics and Operational Amplifier

100

2.2

Biostatistics

100

2.3

Semiconductor Solidstate Physics and Devices

100

2.4

Biophysics, Biochemistry & Physiology

100

2.5

Microbiology and Genetics

100

2.6

Computer Programming & Numerical Analysis

100

2.7

Electronics Practical

50

2.8

Biochemistry Practical

50

2.9

Microbiology and Genetics Practical

50

2.0

Summer Training

100


IIIrd year









850 Marks


3.1

Electrical and Electronics Instruments

100

3.2

Analytical Instruments

100

3.3

Nuclear and Biomedical Instruments

100

3.4

Microprocessor & Microcomputer

100

3.5

Lab Technology and Lab Maintenance

50

3.6

Reliability and Quality Control

50

3.7

Women Science and Society

50

3.8

Instrumentation Practical

100

3.9

Project

100











2




1.1

Human Communication





100 Marks




(75 Marks Theory + 25 Marks for internal Assessment)



Communication

-

What it is ? Its process, methods & materials,
Communication models, Mass communication, Communication realities in
India.



Communication And Society


Communication



Social need, Groups &

Group Dynamics, Inter personal
communication, role of leaders & legitimize, two step theory of
communication, advertising and public relations, public speaking, role of
communication in Development.



Means of Communication


Signs & Symbols, Reading & wr
iting, Language, Oral & Visual
communication, Radio, TV & the Press, folk and Traditional Media,
Computer, Satellite & Telecommunication.


Communication Skill


Writing skills, concepts of News, reporting for Newspaper, Radio, T.V.
Editing, Editing for Pres
s, Radio and T.V.




PRACTICALS:



(a)

Practice in Public Speaking

(through CCTV micro
-
teaching sessions)


(b)

Practice in design and preparation of communication materials like
poster, chart, puppet etc.


(c)

Photography, Slide and sound presentations


(d)

Reporting


(e)

Editing








3




1.2

Physics








100 Marks



Thermodynamic system, Zeroth Law and Temperature, First law of
thermodynamics, Reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine,
Second law of thermodynamic and Entropy. Clausius inequality changes in
Irreversible and Reversible process, entropy of Universe, 2
nd

law in terms of
entropy. Thermodynamic potential, Carnots Theorem, Clausis and claperyon
Equation, Gibb’s phase rule and application. Maxwell’s thermodynamic
relations, identities based on Ma
xwell’s relation, T
-
ds equation, Derivation
ideal gas equation, Adiabatic lapse rate.




Material Sciences


Stress, Strain, Hooke’s law, elastic Constants, Relation between various elastic
constants. Engergy in a strained body. Bending Moment and shear
forces
Beams, Cantilevers, simply supported beams (uniformly loaded and centrally
loaded) and theory of simple bending, bending stresses, Torsion of cylinder
(Hollow and solid).




Electricity


Electrostatic field and potential, superposition Principle, Ga
uss theorem for
electric flux. Energy in electrostatic field. Conservative nature. Gauss law in
conducting medium Electric Field and Potential due to a dipole and quadruple.
Interaction energy of two dipoles, Gauss’s law in a dielectric medium, effect
of a dielectric on a capacitor, Vectors D, P.E.. Analysis of simple A.C.
Circuits (using complex approach): Series L.C.R., circuits, Bandwidth,
wheatstone’s Bridge, Principle of Owen’s Bridge, De
-
Sauty’s Bridge etc.



Magnetism and Modern Physics


Biot’
s Swart law, Application of Biot’s swart law. Amperes circulate law,
Vector potential,


. B = 0 (proof). Semiconductor physics : p.n. junction and
transistor simple applications as device).



Optics


Wave motion, Huygens theory, superposition principle
, Young’s Double slit
experiment, Lloyd’s Mirror, Fresnel’s Biprism, interference, Conditions for
sustained interference, Fraunhofer diffraction : Fraunhofer diffraction due to
single slit and double slit. Grating, Rayleigh’s Resolution criteria, resolvin
g
power and dispersive power of a grating.



4








1.3

Chemistry








100 Marks




Inorganic



Chemical bonds and molecules


Characteristics of covalent bond, Ionic bond, co
-
ordinate bond, Vander waal,
Hydrogen bond, metallic bond, factors affecting the
formation of
ionic/covalent compounds, Born Haber cycle, Fajan’s rule, shapes of
molecules, bond length, bond order, bond angle, concept of resonance, valence
bond theory (hybridization), VSPER concept, structure of water.



Radioactivity


Natural and arti
ficial radioactivity, group displacement law, rate of
disintegration and half life period, mass defect and binding energy, application
of radioactivity, nuclear force and nuclear stability.


Periodic Table


Modern periodic table, periodicity in properties
of elements, atomic radii,
ionic and covalent radii, ionization energy, electronegativity , electron affinity,
Lanthanide contraction, Inert pair effect.


Acid and Bases


Elementary idea of Bronsted
-
Lowry and Lewis concepts of acids and bases
(proton
-
donor

acceptor and electron donor acceptor systems), relative strength
of lewis acids and bases and the effect of substituents and the solvent on them,
Concept of levelling and differentiating solvents, hard soft acid base theory.


General properties of 3
-
d el
ements and co
-
ordination compounds
:


Positioning in period table, general properties of 3
-
d elements, molecular
compounds, IUPAC nomenclature, Werner’s co
-
ordination theory, EAN rule,
isomerism in co
-
ordination compounds, discussion of VBT & CFT, role of
tracer elements (na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cr, Mo, Co)








5


Organic


Introduction


Concept of functional group, nomenclature and isomerism, homolytic and
heterolytic fission, types of reactions (addition, elimination, substitution &
rearrangement) resonance

vs tautomerism, aldol condensation, Hoffman
bromamide rearrangement, Cannizzaro reaction, Friedel Craft reaction,
Pinacol
-
pinacolone rearrangement, Beckmann rearrangement orientation in
benzene (disubstitution) reactive inter mediates (carobonium ion, car
boanion,
free radcial, carbenes).


Stereochemistry


Structural isomerism (Introduction), optical activity and optical isomerism,
asymmetric carbon atom, geometrical, isomerism, chirality, chiral molecules,
relative and absolute configuration (R/S designati
on, E/Z nomenclature as
applied to simpler structures) isomers of lactic acid, tataric acid structure and
configuration of glucose, cyclic hemi
-
acetal form of glucose (Fischer and
Haworth projections).


Industrial chemical


Structure of benezene (kekule’s
structure) concept of aromacity (Huckle’s
rule), industrial production and uses of terylene based on DMT, nylone 6,
nylone 66, polyster, preparation methyl orange and phenolphthelene, concept
of colour, theory of indicator.


Pharmaceuticals


Chemotherapy
and its development, synthesis of aspirin, paracetamol,
sulphanilamide, their uses and drug action, elementary introduction to
antibiotics.




Insecticides


Introduction, synthesis, use & toxic effects of gammexane, DDT, MIC
(Methyl iso cynate), carbamate

(Baygon).












6


Physical


Gases: Kinetic theory of gases, derivation of the kinetics gas equation, mean
free path, collision number and frequency (no derivation), ideal gas, causes of
derivation, Vaander Waal’s equation, significance of Vaander Waal
’s
constants, critical state, critical constants (their relations), continuity of state,
law of corresponding state, Vaander Waal’s equation and critical phenomena,
reduced equation of state, liquifaction of gases, methods of liquifaction,
intermolecular f
orces.



Chemical
-
kinetics



Velocity of a reaction, law of mass action, determination of rate constants for
first and second order reactions, order and molecularly, general methods to
determine the order of reaction, effect of temperature, pressure,
catalyst,
activated complex (collision theory of bimolecular reactions).


Chemical equilibrium


Reversible reaction, equilibrium law, equilibrium constant, ionic, equilibrium
factors, influencing equilibrium states, relation between Kp & Kc, buffer
solution, hydrolysis of salt, pH, Ksp, common ion effect.


Surface tension, viscosity, their experimental determination & applications,
principles of solvent extraction, Nernst distribution law.


Electrochemistry


Emf of a cell, galvanic cell, standard ele
ctrode potential, types of electrodes,
pH & its measurements, acid base titration curve, electrochemical series,
buffer solutions.


Photochemistry


Lambert Beer’s law, law of photo chemical equivalence, quantum efficiency,
high and low quantum yields, reas
on for high and low quantum yields,
phosphorescence and fluorescence.













7




1.4

Mathematics
-
I






100 Marks




Differential calculus


Successive differentiation, Mean value theorems, Taylor’s theorem, Taylor’s
series, Maclaurin’s series,
Indeterminate forms, Partial differentiation,
Asymptotes, singular points, Maxima and Minima.




Vectors



Vector differentiation, vector integration, Gradient, Divergence and curl.





Matrices


Hermitian and skew
-
hermitian matrices, Rank of a matrix and
its invariance
by elementary operations, Normal form of a matrix, Cayley
-
Hamilton
Theorem and its applications, Eigen
-
values and Eigen vectors of a matrix.
Solution of system of equations is not more than four unknowns.




Statistics


Introduction and sco
pe of statistics, Measures of central tendency, Measures of
dispersion, Moments, Measures of skewness and kurtosis.



Integral calculus


Reduction formulae




Differential Equations


Solution of differential equations that are reducible to linear and
homogeneous
forms, First order linear differential equations of any order, simultaneous
differential equations, partial differential equations.









8



1.5

General Biology






100 Marks



1.

Life:

Definition and characteristics of life, chemical origin of
life, history and
recent trends in cell biology.



2.

Chemical organisation of cell:

Molecular basis of life, inorganic and
organic constituents, micro and macromolecules in the cell.



3.

Techniques of Study:


a.

Microscopy (Simple, Compound,
Electron
-
TM)

b.

Principles,histochemistry & cytochemistry for the study of nucleic
acid,

c.

Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

d.


Cell fractionation

e.


Tissue Culture methods



4.

Cell Structure and Function
: General structure of prokaryotic and eukaryo
tic
cell, cell wall, plasma membrane, protoplasm and its colloidal nature.
Endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, Golgi apparatus, centriole, basal granule,
cillia, flagellum and microtubules, microfilaments, storage bodies and
ribosomes. Elementary concepts o
f cell permeability and endocytosis, cellular
motility, cellular secretion, cellular excitability, cellular aging and cell death.



5.

Chloroplast:

structure, biogenesis, function and mechanism of
photosynthesis.



6.

Mitochondria:

structure, biogenesis, funct
ion and mechanism of aerobic and
anaerobic respiration, fermentation.



7.

Nucleus:

structure, nucleosome organisation of chromatin, chromosome
structure, specialized chromosomes (polytene, lampbrush), Nuclear Division
-
cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, cytokinesis.



8.

Genetics (Brief description):

Mendel’s laws of inheritance, Gene structur
e
and function, structure of nucleic acids, DNA replication, protein synthesis
and gene regulation.


9.

Micro
-
organisms:

General characteristics, Morphology and Reproduction
(conjugation, Transformation and Transduction)


9




10.

Plant Diversity:

A brief general
survey of the following groups


a.

Algae:

Brief account of the following classes


Cyanophyceae,
Chlorophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Rhodophyceae, Phaeophycea,
Bacillariophycae, Euglenophycae.


b.


Fungi:

Brief account of the following classes
-

Myxomycetes,
Oomyce
tes, Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidomycetes,
Deuteromycetes


c.

Lichens


d.

Bryphytes: Brief account of the following classes


Hepaticopsida,
Anthocerotopsida and Musci.


e.

Pteridophyta:

Brief account of the following classes
-

Psilopsida,
Lycopsida, Equiseto
psida, Pteropsida.


f.

Gymnosperms:

Brief account of the following classes


Cycadopsida,
Coniferopsida, Gnetopsida


g.

Angiosperm



11.

Animal Diversity


a.

General survey of the following Non
-
chordates


i)

Protozoa: Distinguishing characteristics of the phylum

ii)

Metazoa

and Metamerism

iii)

Distinguishing characteristics of the following Phylum


Porifera, coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes,
Mollusca, Arthropoda and Echinodermata


b.

Distinguishing characteristics of the phylum chordata


12.

Ecology


a.

Ecosystem (Brief acco
unt): concepts, structure, productivity, trophic
level, food chains and ecological pyramids

b.

Pollution: Air and Water








10



1.6

Introduction to Instrumentation



100 Marks



Instrumentation


(An Introduction)


Introduction of the subject, Instrument,
Instrumentation and scope of
Instrumentation, Activities in which an instrumentation person could be
involved. Designing of instruments, Modifying an instrument. Fabricating an
instrument, Testing and operating an instrument, Fault diagnosis and trouble

shooting (repairing) of instruments and proper maintenance of modular
instruments and block diagrams in fault diagnosis and repair maintenance of
instruments.


Principle and working of Mechanical and Electromechanical components
commonly used in Instrumen
ts:



Motors



AC, DC, Servo and stepper motors



Gears



Spur gear, helical gear, Bevel Gear, worm and worm wheel,rack and Pinion



Pump

and compressor:


Pressure Gauges, Various kinds of temperature measuring systems using
Thermocouple, Bimetallic strip
and Resistance thermometer, recorders: Strip
chart and circular chart type, Transducers



Static and Dynamic characteristics of measurements



Static (accuracy, reproducibility, sensitivity), Dynamic (Response and
Fidelity)



Electrical/Electronic
components and simple electronic circuits


Transformer, Inductor, Resistor, Capacitor, Diode, Transistor (Brief idea of
FET, UJT, SCR) & ICs, Regulated power supplies of various types. (Shunt
regulator, series regulator, opamp as series and shunt regulato
r)



Voltage stabilizers of various types



Manual type, automatic stabilizers using relays, Servo stabilizers and CVT



Network Theorems



Thevenin, Norton, Reciprocity, Superposition, zyh (idea definition only).



11




1.7

Physics Practical





50 Marks





1.

To determine the value of elastic constants

,

,


and


for the material of a
wire by searle’s method


2.

To calculate the value of modulus of rigidity for the material of rod by vertical
Torsion apparatus (statical method)


3.

To compare the capacitances for

two condensers by De
-
sauty’s method.


4.

Measurement of self
-
inductance (L) by Owens’s bridge


5.

Study of Diode characteristics


6.

Study of Transistor characteristics


7.

To draw the mutual characteristics of a triode and evaluate (I) amplification
factor (ii) plat
e resistance (iii) mutual conductance


8.

Phase measurement using a CRO


9.

Frequency measurement using a CRO


10.

To determine the specific Rotation by Polarimeter


11.

To determine e/m of an electron


12.

To determine the value of grating constant using He
-
Ne laser



















12

1.8

Chemistry Practical






50 Marks




Inorganic


Volumetric analysis: Oxidation
-
reduction titration using KMnO
4

and K
2
Cr
2
,
O
7

Iodometry titration: Estimation of sodium thiosulphate potassium dichromate
and copper sulphate


Physical


III

Determination of surface tension and viscosity of liquids

IV

Solubility curve of KmnO
4

or benzoic acid


Organic


V

Melting point, maximum melting point and boiling point determination

VI

Detection of extra elements and functional groups in organic
compounds


Analytical


Optional experiments


VII

Spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid

VIII

glucose estimation (standard solutions) and benedicts solutions.

























13



1.9

Biology Practical






50 Marks



1.

Study of simple and
compound light Microscope


2.

Study of various plant cell
-
types


3.

To carry out gram staining for identifying bacteria


4.

To prepare squash mounts from onion root
-
tips to study mitosis


5.

To prepare squash mounts of salivary glands of Chironomous to study
polytene
chromosomes


6.

Demonstration of plasmolysis using R.B.C.


7.

To carry out an experiment to show evolution of O2 during photosynthesis


8.

To carry out an experiment for anaerobic respiration


9.

To carry out an experiment for aerobic respiration using different plant

organs


10.

Karyotype of Human chromosomes


11.

To study various cell organelles through electron micrographs


12.

To demonstrate the activity of enzyme amylase, urease and catalase and to
study the effect of temperature and pH.


13.

To study plant diversity through slid
es and specimens of following groups:
Algae, fungi, Lichens, Bryophytes, pteriodophytes, gymnosperms and
angiosperms


14.

Family Description (one from monocot and Dicot)


15.

To study animal diversity through slides and specimens of following groups:
Protozoa, P
orifera, Chdaria, Plathelminthes, Nematoda, Mollusca, Arthropoda,
Annelida, Echinodermata and Chordata


16.

Microchemical tests for the identification of Protein, Starch, Sugar, Fats


17.

To study meiosis through permanent slides.








14





2.1

Digital Electronics

& Operational Amplifier



100 Marks




Digital Electronics



Binary number, Binary to Decimal, Decimal to Binary conversion, Binary
Addition, Substraction, Multiplication & Division, 1’s & 2’s complement,
Octal numbers, Hexadecimal Numbers, BCD Code, Gray

Code, Excess 3
Code. Logic Gates: OR, AND, NOT, NAND, XOR & XNOR gates,
Universal building blocks, Boolean Algebra, SOP & POS simplification,
equivalence between AND OR & NAND


NAND networsk, Karnaugh map.
Tabular mini misation. Half & Full adder &
subtractor, Encoder, decoder,
Multiplexer & Demultiplexer, Code converters. Flip Flops: RS, D, T, JK,
Master
-
Slave. Register & Counters: Data register, Shift registers,
synchronous & asynchronous counters, ring counter, Johnson, ripple, up
-
downm decade

coutners, D/A converters, A/D converters.


Memories: Volatile
-
non volatile, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, RAM,
Dynamic & static, bubble memories.


Operational Amplifier


Differential Amplifier, D.C. and AC analysis of a) Dual input balanced
output, b) dual

input unbalanced output, c) single output unbalanced output,
d) single input balanced output, Differential Amplifier, CMRR, level
translator ckt., output offset voltage, offset Null, Slew Rate, Input Offset
Current, Block diagram of operational Amplifie
r, frequency response of
operational amplifier, Inverting & Non
-
inverting amplifiers
-
Gain, Output &
Input resistance. Operational amplifier as adder, subtractor, differentiator,
integrator, comparator, log amplifier, Schmitt Trigger.


Active Filter: I & I
I order low and high pass Butter worth filter.
















15







2.2

Biostatistics






100 Marks



Probability


(Introductory concepts)


Definition of Probability


frequency approach, Laws of addition and
multiplication of probabilities, Baye’s
Theorem.


Discrete and continuous Random Variables


Mathematical Expectation and
Variance


Mean, Variance, standard deviation, Standard error of mean and co
-
efficient
of variation, General theorem on the variance of a function of random
variables. Freque
ncy Distribution of data and the calculation of sample
statistics therefrom.



Theoretical Frequency Distributions I


Normal, Binomial and Poisson Distribution and their fitting to experimental
data. Test of departure of experimental data from Normal and i
ts measure of
skewness and kurtosis.



Theoretical Frequency Distribution II



Students ‘t’ Distribution




Testing of Significance of difference between means using t
-
Distribution


When 1)

n
1

= n
2


1
2

=

2
2

2)

n
1

= n
2


1
2

#

2
2

3)

n
1

# n
2


1
2

=

2
2

4)

n
1

# n
2


1
2

#

2
2


Where n is the sample size and


, the population standard deviation and 5)
when the observations are paired:


Confidence limits


1) for a single mean


2) difference between 2 means


Theoretical Frequency Distribution: II


X
2
and F Distribution



16




One
-
way Classification and analysis of Variance

Heterogeneity of a set of means when 1) no.of observations in the set are equal
2) no.of observations in the set are unequal.


Correlation and Linear Regression


Calculation of
coefficient of correlation and linear regression from paired
observations and testing of their significance. Significance of difference
between 2 correlation coefficients and also between 2 regression coefficients.


Least square Techniques for the estima
tion of constants in fitted curves


Fitting of growth curves by iterative methods

Testing the significance of the estimated constants


Application of X
2


Distribution to data from attributed


1)

testing the goodness of fit of an observed ratios against a giv
en
hypothesis of two classes.

2)

Testing the goodness of fit of observed ratios against a hypothesis
when there are more than 2 classes

3)

Contingency table
-
testing the independence of two characters in a R x
C table, R x 2 table, 2X2 table

4)

Testing the significa
nce of difference between two ratios.


Quality Control charts




and R charts, p and np charts and c charts





















17





2.3

Semiconductor Physics, Devices & Circuits



100 Marks



1)

Free Electron Theory:


a.

Summer field theory (1
-
D) energy states,
fermi
-
dirac distribution and
variation with temperature, electrical conductivity, Hall effects (in
semiconductors).


b.

Zone theory, simple concept of kroing
-
penny model and results,
formation of bands in solids. Brillouin zones, metals, insulators and
semiconductors.


2)

Semiconductor Physics:


a.

Band model of intrinsic semiconductors, density of states, fermi
energy, carrier conc., conduction by electrons and holes, conductivity,
mobility.


b.

Extrinsic semiconductors, donors and acceptor states, fermi ener
gy and
its variation with temperature, carrier concentration, minority carrier
life time, recombination process, rectifying contacts and ohmic
contacts.


3)

Semi
-
conducting Materials (just idea only)


Elemental semiconductors, chemical doping, compound semico
nductors,
Organic semiconductors, material preparation, crystal growth.



4)

Devices


P n junction diode, energy band diagram, characteristics, rectification (Haf
wave, Full wave, Bridge wave). Transistors, npn / UJT/ FET, transistor
Parameters, circuits ana
lysis, characteristics, Diode (circuit & characteristics):
Gunn diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode photo & light emitting diode, solar
cells, photo transistor, photodetectors (characteristics & principle of operation)



5)

Circuit


Biasing of BJT, stability,
equivalent circuit (for CE only), power amplifier,
push pull amplifier, transistor, RC coupled amplifier, phase shift oscillator,
Wein’s Bridge oscillator, LC oscillators, Hartley, Colpitt’s & Crystal
oscillators, modulation and demodulation analog and dig
ital modulation and
detection. (concept only).


18






2.4

Biophysics, Biochemistry & Physiology



100 Marks



1.

Aqueous sSolution

Properties of Water, Acids, Bases and Buffers, Biological Buffer


2.

Biomolecules

Amino acids, optical activity, “Nonstandards” peptides,

Physiology active
peptide


3.

Techniques of protein purification


a.

Protein Isolation

b.

Solubility of proteins

c.

Chromatographic Separations

d.

Electrophoresis
-
SDS PAGE

e.

Ultra centrifugation

f.

Iso electric focussing


4.

Covalent Structures of Proteins


a.

Primary structures
determination

b.

Polypeptide Synthesis


5.

Three Dimensional structures of proteins


a.

Secondary structure

b.

Fibrous proteins

c.

Globular proteins

d.

Proteins stability

e.

Quaternary structure

f.

Denaturation of proteins, Hoffmeister series

g.

Bohr’s Effect of hemoglobin


6.

Sugars a
nd Polysaccharides


Monosaccharides, desaccharide’s , Glycoproteins, Mucopolysaccharides,
Important chemical reaction of
monosaccharides.


7.

Lipids


Lipid classification, simple lipid, compound lipit, glycolipid, Lipid linked
protein & lipoprotein, aminolipi
ds, Phospholipids, Sphingolipid, Steroids,
Gangliosides, Cerebrosides, Important test, Derived lipid, Prostaglandin’s
Properties of lipid aggregates.


19








8.

Membrane and Membrane Transport


Biological membrane, Membrane proteins, Passive transport a downhill
process, Glucose permease of Erythrocytes, Chloride and Bicarbonate are
cotransported across Erythrocyte membrane. Active transport result in
solution movement against a Concentration gr
adient, Active transport of Na
+
,
K
+

ion gradient provide the energy for secondary active transport ion
selective channels act in signal transcution.


9.

Mechanism of Enzyme action


Introduction to Enzymes, substrates specification, coenzymes, Regulation of

Enzymatic activity, enzyme nomenclature.



10.

Rates of Enzymatic Reaction


Chemical Kinetics, Enzyme Kinetics, inhibition effects of pH, Derivation of
Michael’s Menten Equation, allosteric enzymes.



11.

Metabolism: Introduction to metabolic compartment of cell


a.

Metabolism Pathways, overview of Intermediary metabolism

b.

Experimental Approaches to the study of metabolism

c.

Thermodynamics of phosphate compound

d.

Oxidation Reduction reaction

e.

Thermodynamics of life


12.

Glycolysis


a.

Glycolytic pathways, utilization of Glucose

b.

Reaction of Glycolysis

c.

Fermentation: The anaerobic fate of Pyruvate

d.

Control of metabolic flux

e.

Metabolism of Hexoses other than Glucose, Feeder’s pathway

f.

Gluconeogenesis



13.

Glycogen Metabolism


Glycogen breakdown, Glycogen Synthesis, control of glycogen met
abolism,
Glycogen storage diseases (Vongerk’s syndrome)


20







14.

Citric Acid Cycle


Cycle overview, Metabolic sources of Acetyl CoA, enzymes of TCA,
Regulation of TCA, Amphibolic nature of TCA


Other pathways of Carbohydrate Metabolism


Glucogenesis


a.

Glyoxylate Pathway

b.

Pentose Phosphate Pathway

c.

Regulation of blood glucose concentration, Diabetic mellitus,
conversion of carbohydrates into fats



15.

Lipid Metabolism


Lipid Digestion, Absorption and Transport, Oxidation of Triglycerides,
Ketone bodies, Fatty

acid oxidation, fatty acid Biosynthesis


Regulation of
fatty acid metabolism, , arthreoscleoris, Nieman’s pick disease, Tay sach’s
disease.


16.

Amino Acid Metabolism


Dynamic state of protein, metabolism, Amino acid deamination, urea cycle,
transmination,
Aminoacid as biosynthetic precursor, Urea cycle

Metabolic disorder in urea cycle, Metabolism of Amino Acid,


17.

Biochemical Communication


Hormones, Molecular mechanism of signal Transduction


C
-
AMP, C
-
AMP as a second messenger for number of regulator
molecule, C
-
GMP also act as secondary messenger, Insulin receptor, Ca
2+

as second
messenger, Ion channels gated by ligand and membrane potential, Steroid and
thyroid hormones, Neurotransmission.


18.

Immunology


Adaptive and Innate Immunity, Phagocytes and na
tural killer cells, acute
phase proteins, compliments, interferon’s antibody, clonal selection theory, T
-
cells, B
-
cells, mononuclear phagocytic system, Reticulo endotheliaal system,
antigen presenting cells, polymorphomonoclear Granulocytes (Eosinophil,

21

Ba
sophillic and Neutrophill) Mast cells, Plateletes, Primary and Secondary
lymphoid tissues.








19.

Antigen Recognition and Antibody structure


Antigen antibody binding, antibody affinity, avidity , Haptens, Carriers,
T
-
independent and T
-
depen
dent Antigen. The Immunologlobulins, antibody
function Immunologlobulins, classes and subclass, T
-
cells receptor,
Development of anti body response, Affinity maturation, Isotopic switching
MHC, Primary and Secondary Antibody response, monoclonal antibodie
s.



20.

Immunological Techniques


Precipitation reaction in gel, radio immunoassay, ELISA, Immunoblotting



21.

Recombinant DNA Technology


C
-
DNA, Outlines and Medical Importance



22.

Nucleic Acid Structure


DNA, types of DNA (A, B, Z) Watson & Crick (Normal),
Charagaff rule,
RNA Hyperchromic effect transcription, translation, r
-
RNA, t
-
RNA, m
-
RNA




















22





2.5

Microbiology and Genetics





100 Marks





Microbiology


1.

History and scope of Microbiology: The discovery of Microorganism,
Spontaneous
generation versus biogenesis, the germ theory of disease, pure
culture concept, structural organization of Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic
cells, the scope and relevance of Microbiology, Immunization, Pasteur and
Koch’s contribution.


2.

Cultivation of Micro
organism: Types of culture media, synthetic and complex
media, sterilization, aseptic transfer, isolation and incubation, Microbial
Nutrition (Requirements for C, H, O, N, P and S), types of Microorganisms,
Isolation of pure culture (spread, streak and po
ur plate method) and
enrichment Culture techniques.


3.

Microbial metabolism: Chemical principles of metabolism
-
autotrophic and
heterotrophic metabolism Transport mechanism, Nitrogen metabolism and
secondary metabolism. Ecological aspects of microbial meta
bolism
(Biogeochemical cycles carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur cycles, heavy
metals).


4.

Survey of Microorganisms: A brief account of the classification of
microorganisms. A general account of virus, viroid and prion, algae, fungi,
protozoa and bacte
ria.


5.

Microorganisms and Human Diseases: A general account on disease causing
microorganisms in humans


Respiratory tract disease, Genitourinary tract
disease, Sexually transmitted disease, Skin and wound infections, eye, Ear and
oral cavity infection.


6.

Microbial Growth: The growth curve, continuous culture of Microorganisms,
Factors influencing microbial growth (O
2
, water, pH, temperature, pressure,
salinity), physical and chemical control of Microorganisms, antibiotic control
of disease causing microor
ganisms.


7.

Applied Microbiology: Major products of Industrial Microbiology
-
antibiotics
(penicillin, Streptomycin, Amino acid, Organic acid, Bio conversion process),
Fermentation, medicine, agriculture, water quality and Bio
-
degradation of
Waste, Microbiolo
gy in Biotechnology and molecular biology (general).






23




Genetics





I.

History of Genetics, Mendel’s laws of inheritance


II.

Deviations from Mendelian laws, dominance relationships, lethal genes,
epistasis, complementary, supplementary, duplicate and
inhibitory genes.


III.

Linkage and crossing over


discovery, incomplete linkage, coupling and
repulsion hypothesis, crossing over, mechanism of recombination. A three
point test cross, gene mapping.


IV.

Chromosome theory of Inheritance


V.

Sex
-
determination


Sex
linked inheritance
\


VI.

Extra chromosomal Inheritance


VII.

Chemical basis of heredity, DNA and RNA structure


VIII.

DNA replication


IX.

Mutuation : Numerical and structural changes in chromosomes, Gene
mutuation


spontaneous and induces mutuation, base analogue, alkylat
ing
agent, hydroxylating agent, acreding dye, de aminating agent, inhibition of
nucleic acid precursors.


X.

Genetic Code


XI.

Gene function and its regulation


Protein synthesis


XII.

Regulation of gene expression, negative (Lac operon) & positive control
(Arabinose)


XIII.

Recombinant DNA technology and its application


Cloning vectors (Plasmid,
Bacteriophage, Cosmid) a general account on Ti
-
Plasmid, (Agrobacterium
tumefactions) construction of chimeric DNA, Genomic library, Colony
hybridisation, Chromosome wal
king. Application


Monoclonal anitbody
production, Production of Insulin interferron.


XIV.

Elementary idea of human genetics and population genetics, genetic diseases
and genetic counselling.





24





2.6

Computer Programming and Network Analysis


100 marks


(
Theory 40, Practical 60)




Computer Language: Basic concepts of Fortran 77


Language
-
character set, constants & variables, expressions and their
hierarchy, simple input and output statements, flow charts, loop instructions,
formal statements
-
I, F, E, X,
H, T, field specification, transfer of control
statements
-

GO TO, Computed GO TO statements, arithmetic IF, logical IF,
DO statements, subscripted variables, data and type statements, the statements
function, function subprogram, subroutines subprograms,
logical operations.



Writing of programs to compute simple problems like evaluation of functions
and summation of series as well as calculations of statistical characteristics,
computer Arithmetic and Error control; Computer number systems, round off
errors control of round of errors.



Pit falls in computations


Linear and Non linear Equations: Gauss Elimination method iterative
improvement
-

Bisection, secant and Newton


Raphson method for
polynomial equations, Gauss Seidel iterative method for soln.

Of
simultatneously equations, Numerical Interpolation, Numerical Integration and
solution of Differential Equations.




















25





2.7

Electronics Practical







50 Marks



Digital Electronics Practical:



1.

Verification of logic gates and De
Morgan’s theorem

2.

Implementation of Boolean function

3.

Implementation of Half adder and full adder circuits using NAND gates

4.

Designing of inverting and non
-
inverting amplifier using op
-
amp

5.

Study of integrator and differentiator circuits using op
-
amp

6.

Designing

of D/A weighted and ladder networks using op
-
amp

7.

Designing of astable and monostable multivibrator using 555 IC

8.

Study of various clipping and clamping circuits

9.

Study of DC unregulated power supply and measurement of ripple factor
using C, LC, TV, L filt
ers

10.

Study of RS, JK, D and T flip
-
flops and their designing using NAND

11.

Designing of various counters using JK and D flip
-
flops


Semiconductor Practical:


1.

Study of VI characteristics of BJT (CE, CC, CB)

2.

Study of VI characteristics of UJT

3.

Study of VI
characteristics of FET

4.

Study of VI characteristics of Zener diode and measurement of its temperature
coefficient

5.

Study of frequency response of RC coupled amplifier

6.

Study of Hartley oscillator

7.

Study of Colpit oscillator

8.

Hall’s coefficient measurement using

Hall’s apparatus.






26




2.8

Biochemistry Practical






50 Marks


1.

Solutions:

(a)

Preparation of molar, % solution and buffers

(b)

Determination of Pka of acid

(c)

Determination of PI for Casein


2.

Chromatography:


(a)

Separation of amino acids by descending paper
chromatography

(b)

Separation of Leaf pigment by Thin Layer chromatography using
Silica G
-
25,


(c)

Separation of sugar by Thin Layer chromatography

(d)

Preparation of gel permeation column

(e)

Separation of COCl
2

(Cobalt Chloride) and Blue dextran using
sephantex G
-
25



3.

Electrophoresis:


(a)

SDS
-
gel electrophoresis, Determination of Mol wt. Of proteins

(b)

Agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA




4.

Spectrophotometer


(a)

The UV absorption of protein and nucleic acid

(b)

Estimation of protein by Bradfod’s method

(c)

Estimation of protein by
Lowry’s method

(d)

Estimation of sugars by Anthrone method

(e)

Determination of Beer’s Law

(f)

Determination of

max of Cobalt chloride and Methylorange.




5.

Carbohydrates:


Qualitative test for sugars and preparation of osazone


27



6.

Enzymes:


(a)

Isolation and partial
purification of enzyme acid phosphatase from
moong dal using ammonium sulphate precipitation


(b)

To find out the activity of enzymes



7.

Immunology:


To raise antibodies in rabbit and check for the presence of Ab by Oucterlony’s
double diffusion method




8.

Microbiology


To culture E.coli and check for its antibiotic sensitivity




9.

Molecular Biology


To isolate plasmid DNA from E.coli and carry out its electrophoresis.





















28












2.7

Electronics Practical







50 Marks





Digital
Electronics Practical:



12.

Verification of logic gates and De Morgan’s theorem

13.

Implementation of Boolean function

14.

Implementation of Half adder and full adder circuits using NAND gates

15.

Designing of inverting and non
-
inverting amplifier using op
-
amp

16.

Study of
integrator and differentiator circuits using op
-
amp

17.

Designing of D/A weighted and ladder networks using op
-
amp

18.

Designing of astable and monostable multivibrator using 555 IC

19.

Study of various clipping and clamping circuits

20.

Study of DC unregulated power su
pply and measurement of ripple factor
using C, LC, TV, L filters

21.

Study of RS, JK, D and T flip
-
flops and their designing using NAND

22.

Designing of various counters using JK and D flip
-
flops


Semiconductor Practical:


9.

Study of VI characteristics of BJT (CE, C
C, CB)

10.

Study of VI characteristics of UJT

11.

Study of VI characteristics of FET

12.

Study of VI characteristics of Zener diode and measurement of its temperature
coefficient

13.

Study of frequency response of RC coupled amplifier

14.

Study of Hartley oscillator


29

15.

Study of
Colpit oscillator

16.

Hall’s coefficient measurement using Hall’s apparatus.

2.8

Biochemistry Practical






50 Marks

I.

Solutions:

(d)

Preparation of molar, % solution and buffers

(e)

Determination of Pka of acid

(f)

Determination of PI for Casein


II.

Chromatography:

(a)


Separation of amino acids by descending paper chromatography

(b)


Separation of Leaf pigment by Thin Layer chromatography using Silica


G
-
25,


(c)


Separation of sugar by Thin Layer chromatography

(d)


Preparation of gel permeati
on column

(e)


Separation of COCl
2

(Cobalt Chloride) and Blue dextran using sephantex


G
-
25


III.

Electrophoresis:


(a)

SDS
-
gel electrophoresis, Determination of Mol wt. Of proteins

(c)

Agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA


IV.

Spectrophotometer


(g)

The UV
absorption of protein and nucleic acid

(h)

Estimation of protein by Bradfod’s method

(i)

Estimation of protein by Lowry’s method

(j)

Estimation of sugars by Anthrone method

(k)

Determination of Beer’s Law

(l)

Determination of

max of Cobalt chloride and Methylorange.


V.

Carboh
ydrates:
Qualitative test for sugars and preparation of osazone


VI.

Enzymes:


(a)


Isolation and partial purification of enzyme acid phosphatase from


moong dal

(b) To find out the activity of enzymes


VII.

Immunology:


To raise antibodies in rabbit
and check for the presence of Ab by Oucterlony’s
double diffusion method


VIII.

Microbiology:
To culture E.coli and check for its antibiotic sensitivity




30

IX.

Molecular Biology:
To isolate plasmid DNA from E.coli and carry out its
electrophoresis.




2.9

Practicals

on Microbiology and Genetics




50 Marks



Microbiology

1.

Microscopic observation of economically important bacteria (Cocci, bacilli,
spirals), yeast (Saccharaomyces cerevisiae), fungi (Rhizopus, Aspergillus,
Pencillium, Neurospora, Puccinia, Agaricus, Lich
ens


crustose, foliose,
fructicose), algae (Volvox, Spirogyra, Nostoc, Ectocarpus,
Bactrachospermum) and protozoa (Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium), with the
help of permanent slides or materials, to study morphology and structure.


2.

Isolation of microbes from

soil, air and water

3.

Effect of temperature and pH on the growth of a bacterium

4.

Demonstration of aerobic and anaerobic respiration using Saccharomyces
cerevistae

5.

Alcoholic fermentation of carbohydrates by using S.cervisae

6.

Isolation of Rhizobium from root n
odules

7.

Isolation of dermatophytes (fungi soil using baits such as nails, hair etc)

Genetics

1.

Study of different stages of Mitosis


Allium cepa root tips

2.

Karyotype analysis


Allium cepa

3.

Study of different stages of Meiosis


allium cepa/Phloxathyrous flowe
r buds

4.

Chiasma frequency


Allium cepa

5.

To demonstrate the coiling of the chromosome


Allium cepa

6.

Meiotic preparation to show chromosomal Aberrations
-

Rhoeo

7.

Effect of colchicine and the induction of polyploidy

8.

Seed sample analysis to demonstrate various
interactions

9.

Statistical analysis of the genetic ratios from seed samples

10.

Determination of blood group (ABO series) in human beings

11.

Identification of the inactive X
-
chromosome in buccal smear



2.10

Summer Training







100 Marks


31