Project Management Lifecycle

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2 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Project Management

Lifecycle



Minder Chen, Ph.D.

CSU Channel Islands

Minder.chen@csuci.edu

PM: SDLC
-

2


©

Minder Chen, 2012

Project Life Cycle


Project managers or the organization can
divide projects into phases

to provide
better
management control

with appropriate
links to

the ongoing operations of the
performing
organization.


Collectively, these phases are known as the
project life cycle
.


PM: SDLC
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Minder Chen, 2012

Characteristics of the Project Life Cycle


The
project life cycle

defines the
phases

that
connect the beginning of a project to its end
.


Deliverables

from one phase are usually reviewed
for
completeness

and
accuracy

and
approved

before work starts on the next phase.


However, it is not uncommon for a phase to begin
prior to the approval of the previous phase’s
deliverables, when the
risks

involved are
deemed
acceptable
.


There is
no single best way

to define an ideal
project life cycle.



Industry common practices

will often lead to the
use of a preferred life cycle within that industry.


PM: SDLC
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Minder Chen, 2012

Project Lifecycle Methodology


Project life cycles generally define:


When

the
deliverables

are to
be generated

in each phase?


What are the inputs
required to produce the
deliverables?


What

technical work

to do in each phase?


What are
the tools and techniques
to be
used in each phase?


How each deliverable

is
reviewed, verified,
and validated?


Who is involved

in each phase?


How to control and approve

each phase?

PM: SDLC
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Minder Chen, 2012

Typical Cost & Staffing Levels Across the Project Life Cycle


Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, peak during
the intermediate phases, and drop rapidly as the project
draws to a conclusion.

Source: PMBOK 4, p. 16

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Minder Chen, 2012

Project Life Cycle


FIGURE 1.
1

PM: SDLC
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Minder Chen, 2012

Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase


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Minder Chen, 2012

Interaction Between Phases


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Minder Chen, 2012

Impact of Variable Based on Project Time


The ability of the stakeholders to influence the final characteristics of
the project’s product and the final cost of the project is highest at the
start, and gets progressively lower as the project continues.


Source: PMBOK 4, p. 17

PM: SDLC
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Minder Chen, 2012

Characteristics of Project Phases


The
completion

and
approval

of one or more
deliverables

characterizes a
project phase
.


A
deliverable

is a
measurable
,
verifiable

work product such
as a specification, feasibility study report, detailed design
document, or working prototype.


In any specific project, for reasons of size, complexity,
level of risk, and cash flow constraints, phases can be
further subdivided into
subphases
.


Each subphase is aligned with one or more specific
deliverables

for
monitoring and control.


Formal phase completion does not include authorizing the
subsequent phase
.


For
effective control
, each phase is formally initiated to
produce a
phase
-
dependent output

of the Initiating
Process Group.




PM: SDLC
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Minder Chen, 2012

Characteristics of Project Phases




Phase
-
end reviews are also called
phase exits,

phase gates
, or
kill points
.

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Minder Chen, 2012

Project Life Cycle and Product Life Cycle




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Minder Chen, 2012

Design

Thinking

http://hbr.org/2008/06/design
-
thinking/ar/1


Download PDF


PM: SDLC
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©

Minder Chen, 2012

Stages: Planning
Analysis Design

Implementation

What

Problems/Opportunities

Requirements

Soft/People Skills

How

Solutions

Specifications

Technical Skills

Deliverables/Documentation

Methodology



Life Cycle Process



Modeling Techniques

Data

Process

UI

Feasibility Study

User Interface (UI)


Navigation diagram


Storyboarding


GUI Prototype

System Development Life Cycle

Process model


Workflow


Data flow diagram

Data model



Normalization



Entity
-
Relationship
Diagram

Prototyping

Coding

Implementation

Testing

PM: SDLC
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Minder Chen, 2012

Structured Project SDLC

Preliminar
y

Study

Analysis

Design

Implemen
-

tation

Testing ,
Integration,

& Installation

Operation &

Maintenance


Users Participation


Documentation


Structured Techniques


CASE Tools


Quality Assurance

Approved

Project

Proposal

Requirements
Specifications

Cost/Benefit Analysis

Approved

Re
-
development

Project Proposal

Functional
Specifications

Design

Specifications

Implemented

System

Integrated &

Tested System

PM: SDLC
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Minder Chen, 2012

SDLC: System Development Life Cycle



Programming/Coding


Testing


Training


Installation


Organizational
implementation/changes

Requirements

AS
-
IS vs. TO
-
BE

Logical and
physical Design
specification

Identify &
prioritize
IS
developme
nt projects

Bug fix and Upgrades

IT Service Management (ITIL standard)

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Minder Chen, 2012


Deliverables/Documentations of SDLC Phases

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Minder Chen, 2012

Spiral Model



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiral_model

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Spiral_model_%28Boehm%2C_1988%29.svg


PM: SDLC
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©

Minder Chen, 2012

Unified Process Structure

Management

Environment

Business Modeling

Implementation

Test

Analysis & Design

Preliminary

Iteration(s)


Iter.

#1

Phases

Process Workflows

Iterations

Supporting Workflows


Iter.

#2


Iter.

#n


Iter.

#n+1


Iter.

#n+2


Iter.

#m


Iter.

#m+1

Deployment

Configuration Mgmt

Requirements

Elaboration

Transition

Inception

Construction

PM: SDLC
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©

Minder Chen, 2012

The Ten Essentials of RUP

The Ten Essentials of RUP

1.
Develop a Vision

2.
Manage to the Plan

3.
Identify and Mitigate Risks

4.
Assign and Track Issues

5.
Examine the Business Case

6.
Design a Component Architecture

7.
Incrementally Build and Test the Product

8.
Verify and Evaluate Results

9.
Manage and Control Changes

10.
Provide User Support


Source:
http://www.therationaledge.com/c
ontent/dec_00/f_rup.html

PM: SDLC
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©

Minder Chen, 2012


21

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/VA_IT_Project_Management_Framework.jpg

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©

Minder Chen, 2012

Successful Principles


Primary principles for successful agile
software development include:


Slash the budget


If it doesn’t work, kill it


Keep requirements to a minimum


Test and deliver frequently


Assign non
-
IT executives to software
projects

PM: SDLC
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©

Minder Chen, 2012

Reasons for Project Failures


Primary reasons for project failure include


Unclear or missing business requirements


Skipping SDLC phases


Failure to manage project scope


»
Scope creep/Feature creep:
Scope Creep (also
called requirement creep) in project management
refers to uncontrolled changes or continuous
growth in a project's scope. This phenomenon can
occur when the scope of a project is not properly
defined, documented, or controlled. It is generally
considered a negative occurrence, and therefore
should be avoided.


Failure to manage project plan


Changing technology


PM: SDLC
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©

Minder Chen, 2012

Agile software development

(Agile)

Pros

Minimizes
feature creep

by developing in short intervals resulting in miniature
software

projects and releasing the product in
mini
-
increments.

Cons

Short iteration may add too little functionality, leading to significant delays in final iterations. Since Agile emphasizes r
eal
-
time
communication (preferably face
-
to
-
face), using it is problematic for large multi
-
team distributed system development. Agile
methods produce very little written
documentation

and require a significant amount of post
-
project documentation.

Extreme Programming

(XP)

Pros

Lowers the cost of changes through quick
spirals

of new requirements. Most design activity occurs incrementally and on the
fly.

Cons

Programmers must work in
pairs
, which is difficult for some people. No up
-
front “
detailed design
” occurs, which can result in
more redesign effort in the long term. The
business champion

attached to the project full time can potentially become a
single
point of failure

for the project and a major source of stress for a team.

Joint application design

(JAD)

Pros

Captures the
voice of the customer

by involving them in the design and development of the application through a series of
collaborative workshops called
JAD

sessions.

Cons

The client may create an unrealistic product vision and request extensive
gold
-
plating
, leading a team to over
-

or under
-
develop functionality.

Lean software development

(LD)

Pros

Creates minimalist solutions (i.e., needs determine technology) and delivers less functionality earlier; per the policy that
80%

today is better than 100% tomorrow.

Cons

Product may lose its
competitive edge

because of insufficient core functionality and may exhibit poor overall quality.

Rapid application development (RAD)

Pros

Promotes strong
collaborative

atmosphere and dynamic gathering of
requirements
. Business owner actively participates in
prototyping
, writing
test cases

and performing
unit testing
.

Cons

Dependence on strong
cohesive

teams and individual commitment to the project. Decision making relies on the
feature
functionality

team and a communal decision
-
making process with lesser degree of centralized
PM

and
engineering

authority.

Scrum

Pros

Improved productivity in teams previously paralyzed by heavy “process”, ability to prioritize work, use of backlog for
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Cons

Reliance on
facilitation

by a
master

who may lack the political skills to remove impediments and deliver the
sprint goal
. Due to
relying on self
-
organizing teams and rejecting traditional centralized "process control", internal power struggles can paralyze
a
team.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_application_development