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RE
-
THINKING ENERGY


HIØ/
Værste


February 4 2013
, Oslo


Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and renewable energy


Hanne Lerche Raadal, researcher and PhD
-
candidate
Østfoldforskning

(
Ostfold

Research)


Short introduction
Ostfold

Research (
Østfoldforskning
)



Norwegian research company, localised in
Fredrikstad



Number of staff: 20, annual turnover: approx 22 million NOK


Performs applied research and development within
Environmental
Protection
, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology:


Optimal packaging and food products


Energy and waste resources


Constructions and the service sector


Innovation processes








Compression
and
pipeline
transport
of CO
2
Injection
and
storage
of CO
2
Electricity
Gas production
offshore
at Heidrun
Gas transport:
Haltenpipe
Gas
terminal
Electricity
production at CCGT
Tjeldbergodden
Electricity
to grid
Biofuel
production
Transport
Post
-
combustion
CO
2
capture plant
Emissions of
NO
2
, MEA,
NH
3
and
CO
2
CO
2
Exhaust.
MEA
Hazardous waste
Steam (CCS
-
3
)
Steam production
(boiler)
Steam
Exhaust
Gas (CCS
-
1
)
Biof uel (CCS
-
2
)

Project examples, energy related:


Energy Trading and Environment 2020


LCA of gas power, including carbon
capture and storage (CCS). Statoil


Energy indicators for electricity
production. CEDREN


LCA of power and heat based on
biomass resources. NVE


Introduction to LCA Methodology


A system analysis according to ISO 14044


a systematic survey and assessment of health, environmental
and resource effects throughout the whole life cycle of a
product, or product system.


Carrying out a Life Cycle Assessment includes:


Identifying the entire life cycle of the product, from raw material
extraction, through materials processing, use and disposal at
the end of the product's life (from "cradle to grave").


Identifying and describing the energy and material uses and
releases into the environment from all


Processes


Transportation steps


Defining the
functional unit (FU) of the analysis
, reflecting
the p
roduct’s

function, efficiency and life span.

The
life

cycle

of

a
product

Extraction and processing of
raw materials

Production of
the product

Raw

material A

Raw

material B

Raw

material B

Use and
maintenance of
the product

Waste
management

Example FU:

Production, use and waste
management (15 years lifespan)

Impact Assessment of the LCA


Impact assessment is a process where the potential
impacts of the resource requirements and environmental
loads are
characterised

and assessed.


Classification = what environmental impacts do the emissions
contribute to?


emissions of N
2
O and CH
4

contribute to global warming (just like CO
2
)


Characterisation = how much is the potential contribution?


N
2
O and CH4 have a global warming potential that is 298 and 25 times
the global warming potential of CO
2
, respectively.



Inventory
Results

Characterisation
Results

SO
2

NO
x

HCl

etc.

NH
3

NO
x

P

etc.

CO
2

CH
4

CFCs

etc.

Acidification potential

Eutrophication

potential

Global warming potential

(kg CO
2
-
equivalents)

More characterisation categories.

(ref. Hitch
Hicker’s

Guide to LCA, Baumann H., Tillman A.M.)

Classification

Classification and characterisation


1. Resource consumption


Non
-
renewable energy


Materials


Water


Land use


2. Health impacts



Toxic effects



Occupational Health



Psychosomatic effects

3. Environmental Impacts


Global warming


Ozone depletion


Acidification


Eutrophication

(nutrient
enrichment)


Photochemical oxidation (smog)


Ecotoxicological

effects


Biological diversity


4. Other impacts



Other inputs/outputs



The
life

cycle

of

the
generation

and
use

of

fuel

Extraction

and
producton

of

fuel

Use

stage

Life cycle of fuel generation, distribution and use

LCA CO
2
-
emissions from 1 km driving

Petrol

engines

Gas
engines

Combustion

(
engine
)

Production

(
fuel
)

Diesel
engines

g CO
2
-
equiv. / km

Fossil

Fossil

Fossil

2% and 0.5%

CH
4
-
loss in the

upgrading

process

The life cycle of the generation and use of electricity

Extraction of fuels,
production of materials
(steel, concrete, etc)

Operation of electricity plant

Distribution of electricity

Use/consumption
of electricity

Life cycle of electricity generation, distribution and use

LCA
CO
2

emissions from electricity technologies

* Data collected by
Ostfold

Research.


0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Coal
Diesel and
heavy oil
Natural gas
Photovoltaic
Nuclear
Wind*
Hydro,
reservoir
(inundation
included)*
Hydro,
reservoir
(inundation
excluded)*
Hydro (run
-
of
-
river)*
g CO
2
-
eqv./kWh
0,0
20,0
40,0
60,0
80,0
100,0
120,0
140,0
160,0
Reservoir hydro including gross
emissions from flooded land
Reservoir hydro excluding
emissions from flooded land
Run
-
of
-
river
g CO2
-
equiv./kWh
s
tandard deviation
mean
min
-
max
[x] sample size
(8)
(21)
(11)
Raadal et al., 2010

Average GHG emissions from Norwegian
hydropower

Data based on:


LCAs of electricity
generation from 11
Norwegian hydropower
stations.


Represents 4.3% of the
annual Norwegian
hydropower generation
(NVE)

Modahl and Raadal, 2012

0,0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
Global warming potential (GWP)
g CO2
-
eqv./kWh
Norwegian hydropower modelling December 2012 (AR 07.12)
Global Warming Potential
Infrastructure, maintenance and daily use
Inundation of land
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Coal
Diesel and
heavy oil
Natural gas
Photovoltaic
Nuclear
Wind*
Hydro,
reservoir
(inundation
included)*
Hydro,
reservoir
(inundation
excluded)*
Hydro (run
-
of
-
river)*
g CO
2
-
eqv./kWh
* Data collected by
Ostfold

Research.


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
< 100 kW
100kW
-
500kW
500kW
-
1MW
1MW
-
5MW
All cases
g CO2
-
equiv./kWh
[5]
[17]
[17]
[22]
[63]
s
tandard deviation
mean
min
-
max
[x] sample size
Raadal et al., 2010

LCA CO
2

emissions from electricity technologies


IPCC, 2011: IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation

Wind power
-

development

LCA
of

two

Norwegian

wind

power

farms

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Basis scenario (solid rock foundation)
Basis scenario (gravitation foundation)
Kjøllefjord wind farm
Fjeldskår wind farm
Wind power
g CO
2
-
eqv./kWh
Cables, internal
Cables, external
Transformer station
Service building
Roads and construction work
Reinvestment, common infrastructure
Transport of mobile crane
Foundation
Tower
Rotor
Nacelle
Reinvestment, nacelle
Operation, transport
Operation, use of electricity
Operation, use of materials
Infrastructure
11.0 g CO2
-
equiv/kWh
15.1 g CO2
-
equiv/kWh
Kjøllefjord (Statkraft)


Fjeldskår

(Agder Energi)


17
turbines
,
each

2.3 MW

5
turbines
,
each

0.75 MW

Poduction

of

materials

(
mainly

steel
)

Wind Power
Kjøllefjord


Output from LCA software tool
(
SimaPro
)

Nacelle

(2.6 g)

Rotor

(3.1 g)

Tower

(1.9 g)

Reinvestments
,
nacelle

(1.2 g)

Roads and
constructions

(1.0 g)

Glass
-
epoxy

Steel


Diesel


1 kWh

(11.0 g CO2
-
eqv.)

Foundation

(0.4 g)

Waste
treatment

Steel


Steel


How to demand and claim specific electricity from a
common grid?


Traditionally, the choice
of electricity supplier has
been based on
electricity prices alone


Environmental profile of
the consumed electricity
based on geographical
locations.

Guarantee of Origin (GO):

a choice based on the electricity’s origin

Tracking system
for the electricity’s
origin, based on
economic
transactions.

Electricity Disclosure


The Electricity Market Directive 2009/72/EC, Article 3(9)


All suppliers of electricity are required to disclose their electricity
portfolio with regards to:


energy source


environmental impacts, specifying


the emissions of CO
2



the production of radioactive waste



Attributes

= The disclosed
indicators, representing
the environmental
information associated
with the electricity
generation processes.


Aim of Electricity Disclosure:


To provide consumers with relevant information about power
generation and to allow for
informed

consumer choice
-

not to be
based on electricity prices alone.

http://www.reliable
-
disclosure.org/electricity
-
disclosure/

Guarantee of Origin (GO)


Defined in the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC)


Shall provide proof to a final customer that a given share or quantity of
energy was produced from renewable sources as required by Article
3(6) of Directive 2003/54/EC (repealed by Directive 2009/72/EC, The
Electricity Market Directive).


Standard size of 1
MWh


Specific information requirements


Energy source and start and end dates of production


Whether and to what extent the installation has benefited from investment
support


Etc.


Applicable for electricity disclosure

Principle of the system

GO market

Cancellation

The traditional electricity product divided into two separate products:

1.
The environmental attributes related to the generation of the electricity

2.
The physical electricity being delivered.

GO = Guarantee of Origin

Regulated system


national authorities responsible for monitoring and account
keeping, as well as balancing the electricity generation and relating GOs.

0
50
100
150
200
250
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
TWh
Cancelled EECS certificates
A growing market

EECS = The European Energy Certification System


A harmonised system for international trade of
Guarantees of Origin (GOs)

Source: AIB

About 100
TWh

from
Norway, of which 16 was
used in Norway

Statistics


EECS certificates

240
TWh


11 % of the power consumption
in corresponding countries


29 % of European RES
generation

Connection GOs and Electricity Disclosure

Production Electricity Mix

(Country or Region)

“Green” customers
purchasing GOs

“Ordinary” customers,
purchasing electricity
without any specific
requirements

Electricity Disclosure

Attributes related to
the purchased GOs.

Attributes related to the
Production Electricity Mix,
corrected
by attributes
which have been
allocated by other
tracking systems (e.g.
GOs)

=
Residual Mix

Customers

Norges vassdrags
-

og energidirektorat (NVE)

The
Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate

Electricity Disclosure for Norwegian electricity
consumers

Production Electricity Mix

(Country or Region)

“Green” customers
purchasing GOs

“Ordinary” customers,
purchasing electricity
without any specific
requirements

Information about
power generation

Customers

Nuclear

32%

Fossil

45%

Renewable

23%

307 g CO
2
-
equiv./kWh


GOs being allowed for LCA

GOs not being allowed for LCA

Customers purchasing GOs

Customers not purchasing GOs

Customers purchasing or not
purchasing GOs

Contractual purchased electricity

Residual Mix for the country/region


Grid mix for the country/region



Renewable
100 %
GO Hydropower
2 g CO
2
-
equiv./kWh
Fossil
50 %
Nuclear
27 %
Renewable
23 %
Residual Mix
518 g CO
2
-
equiv./kWh
Fossil
3 %
Nuclear
4 %
Renewable
93 %
Norwegian Grid Mix
36 g CO
2
-
equiv./kWh
Short summary


LCA gives environmental information about a product’s total
value chain, thus not only focusing on separate stages.


The environmental profile of different energy carriers, such
as electricity and fuels, depends largely on the primary
energy source (bio, wind, hydro, coal, oil, natural gas, etc.).


It is possible to demand specific electricity (by purchasing
Guarantees of Origin) even though you are connected to a
common electricity grid.


Consumers should always strive to demand environmental
preferable products, asking for environmental information
from their suppliers.

Thank you for listening!


Good luck with today’s work


Avoiding double counting

Double counting:

Attributes from the same instance of generated electricity are claimed
more than once.

The attributes relating to the purchased GOs must
be excluded from the Residual Mix.

EU financed projects, E
-
TRACK and
RE
-
DISS:

Developed a methodology for a pan
-
European calculation of Residual Mixes.

http://www.reliable
-
disclosure.org/


Source:

NVE , before the 11
th

of June 2012

???

Attribute
deficit related
to 87
TWh

Nuclear
41 %
Fossil
51 %
Renewable
8 %
European Attribute Mix 2011
Norwegian

Residual

Mix

2011

Electricity consumption
covered by GOs:

16
TWh

(13% of total
consumption)

Electricity consumption
covered by Residual Mix:

109
TWh

(87% of total
consumption)

128 TWh

90 TWh

Source
: RE
-
DISS ,
http://www.reliable
-
disclosure.org

Source: NVE , the 11
th

of June 2012

http://www.nve.no/no/Kraftmarked/Sluttb
rukermarkedet/Varedeklarasjon1/Varede
klarasjon
-
for
-
2011/