Based Data Recording for

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2 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Life Cycle Costing & Sensor
-
Based Data Recording for
Recycling

Life Cycle Costing


Incorporation of “green features” seen as desirable


Often perceived as too expensive


Need to account properly for the long term costs and
benefits of their products


Environmental progress is sub optimised by imperfect
analysis leading to unclaimed opportunities for enhanced
profitability


Changing nature of production aswell as regulatory
parameters have challenged the old conservative bean
counter system to get the maths right


If companies could improve at tracking costs they can
design better for the long run and find it more profitable


What gets Measured gets Managed

Life Cycle Costing


Electronic products often have very short life cycles


Leaves little time for exploring cost
-
capturing tools
such as life cycle costing


Rather than disappear from the balance sheets at the
point of sale many products will now be returned


Current accounting and financial models disregard the
serious cost ramifications of policy and preference
shifts

Life Cycle Costing


DfE can fail to incorporate common business
considerations


Limits its acceptance and influence


To sell a concept internally it is best to use
terms and ideas that managers understand


All understand accounting and cost
-
reduction

Life Cycle Costing


Life Cycle Costing is an accounting model
which must be considered as early as possible
in the design stage


Important in understanding and maximising
product value not just through one product
incarnation but through many

Life Cycle Costing


Establishing costs of a product over its entire
existence


In addition to research & development things
like product design, storage, inspection &
maintenance, administrative, program
management, disposal, insurance, potential
clean
-
up, potential liability costs related to an
environmental impact should be included in a
projects total cost assessment

Life Cycle Costing

Firm realises product benefits of its product only once

A

B

C

A

B

C


100


100


100

Cost


200


200


200

Price

Today

Totals


300


600

Total Profits

300

Life Cycle Costing


Contrast this with scenario B


Designed in longevity


Tracking the costs over more than one use


New Manufacturing cost increased by 10%


Better materials


Design improvements


Provides the product with worth on its return


After take back and reconditioning it will have a 2
nd

or 3
rd

revenue potential when it is resold or leased

Life Cycle Costing

A

B

C

A

B

C


110


110


110

Cost


200


200


200

Price

Today

Totals


330


600

Total Profits

270

Life Cycle Costing

A

B

C

A

B

C


40


40


40

Refurb
Cost


130


130


130

Price

Two Years from Today

Totals


120


390

Total Profits

270

Life Cycle Costing


First incarnation sales show a slightly
decreased profit


Not necessarily the case that environmental
upgrades or LCC will give a higher price
product and often the opposite is true


Good to envision the conservative scenario


Profits from a single life cycle

300


Combined first and second sales profits

540

Life Cycle Costing


Assumed refurbishing costs including storage and
retrieval

40


Must account for the time value of money


Important to look at a range of possibilities, sensitivity
analysis


Wont be able to predict all future costs with exact
certainty


Will gain more insight than if no costs were tracked
throughout the life cycle of a given product

Life Cycle Costing


Example


Camera company responding to European Legislation on
packaging reduction fortified the actual camera


Accommodated less protective packaging but also


Less warranty repairs


Compliance


Reduced packaging cost


Only for life cycle costing may have erroneously believed that
the extra material required was not worth the cost

Life Cycle Costing


Vision of value in end of life


Reclaimed EoL products = ingredients


Margins on the used products are often higher


Larger inventory of parts means better able to
service contract maintenance customers


Previous accounting practices led to believe
this would not be profitable


Xerox example

Reverse Logistics


Definition of Logistics


Logistics is defined as a business planning
framework for the management of material, service,
information and capital flows. It includes the
increasingly complex information, communication
and control systems required in today's business
environment


Reverse Logistics


Definition of Reverse Logistics


The supply chain that flows opposite to the traditional process
of order acceptance and fulfilment. For example, reverse
logistics includes the handling of customer returns, the
disposal of excess inventory and the return journey of empty
trucks and freight cars.


A specialized segment of logistics focusing on the movement
and management of products and resources after the sale and
after delivery to the customer


Reverse Logistics


Most expensive part of take back


Take back needs economies of scale


More difficult to design an economically viable
EoL solution than simply to be ecologically
viable


Refurbishment, re
-
use & recycling will live or
die by reverse logistics

Reverse Logistics


Need to examine


Collection area, population density


Spectrum of products being delivered


Product life cycle times


Recycling potential


Recycling infrastructure


Costs


Collection, transport, handling, storing, sorting, disassembly +
REVENUES


Suitable Equipment for recovery

Sensor
-
Based Data Recording for
Recycling


Most Common practice to recycle products for their
materials


Materials often constitute a very small fraction of the
product value


Often only a fraction of the materials can be recovered
and may be inferior to virgin material


Revenues from recycled material often don’t cover the
collection cost


Reuse of parts or components is desirable from both
economic and environmental perspective

Sensor
-
Based Data Recording for
Recycling


Example


The materials value of a typical power tool is

3


The manufacturing cost is

50


Motor may be rated for 1,000 hours


Yuppie uses drill for 50 hours


Why not reuse the motor ??

Sensor
-
Based Data Recording for
Recycling


Arguments against re
-
use


No information about the remaining lifetime


No information about quality of the product available


Inferior quality of used product ??


Obsolescence of components

Sensor
-
Based Data Recording for
Recycling


Some components such as Electric Motors,
Power Supplies and other basic subsystems
are less susceptible to obsolescence and
innovation as their technology is very stable


For other components why not this years top of
the range, next years mid range and following
year bottom range??


Problem to assess the remaining lifetime

Electronic Data Logging (EDL)


The recording of data indicating the
degradation of components during the use
phase of a product by an electronic device
integrated in the product


Sometimes referred to as “green data” which is
accessed through the “green port”


Will examine an example from Bosch

Electronic Data Logging


Integrated Electronic Data Logging System that stores data
obtained from sensors indicating the degradation of
electronic and electromechanical components


The result of these efforts is an EDL for electric motors, a
product integrated device used to measure, compute, and
store parameters correlated with the degradation of the
motor aiming at their reuse


Two objectives in this prototype


Minimisation of extra cost


Small Size

Electronic Data Logging


The EDL prototype consisted of the following components


Circuit board with micro controller and EEPROM memory


Sensors for measurement of temperature and current


Wireless interface to transmit data from the EDL to an
electronic reader (An LED)


A DC power supply (not available in power tools normally
but very common on other electronic products)

Electronic Data Logging

Electronic Data Logging


The power supply is connected to the terminals of the
motor.


A capacitance ensures the EDL can safely finish
writing data when the motor is switched off


EDL functionality includes


Counting the number of starts and stops of the motor


Storing the runtime in each cycle aswell as accumulated
runtime


Recording and compiling sensor information on motor
temperature and power consumption per cycle


Classifying and evaluating the recorded data


Computing and storing peak and average values of all
parameters of interest

Electronic Data Logging


To achieve large recording capacity with a smaller memory the measured
parameters are assigned classes as opposed to recording a chain of data
for each cycle



Reduced the data memory size needed to record 50 parameters for
10,000 use cycles from 488 KB to less than 1KB.



Lose the correlation of between the parameters measured but can be
approximated with data from lab experiments



First prototypes recorded data for accumulated runtime of 2,300 hours



Three bytes in EDL memory store a unique product identification like a
serial number which can be used to link the set of dynamic data in the
EDL to external static information on the product


Electronic Data Logging

Electronic Data Logging


EDL interface and Electronic Reader


Stored data transmitted using a low cost, low current LED


Every time the on/off switch is pressed, the data stored is sent
via the LED at a rate of 9,600 baud, indicated by a short
flashing of the LED


Reader consists of an array of photodiodes and electronic
circuitry to amplify and convert the data plus the necessary RS
232 interface circuitry


Other data transmission means include infrared and high
frequency


Classification algorithm allows discrimination between
reusable and non
-
reusable motors based on recorded data

Data Transmission


For LED line of sight required


EDL must be connected to a power supply


Better design would use radio freq for data
transmission


EDL would communicate to the reader via antenna and
the reader would provide energy to read EDL data


Necessary to validate data, plausibility, failure of
sensors and to make tamper proof

Standardisation


No standards exist for this concept


Need to make data accessible to recyclers


Designs customised for use by different
manufacturers, different products


Reused components must have “their EDL
data” follow them into their next incarnation

Information System for Product
Recovery (ISPR)


End of life costs reduced and reclamation of value from end of life
products improved if the dynamic data is combined with external
data relevant to the product (eg demand for used components and
re
-
manufactured products) and further data on the product (eg
materials composition, disassembly sequence)


Static data is created at the design and manufacturing stage while
external data elements reflect the current market environment


The ISPR integrates these static and dynamic data and automates
the classification of end of life products (eg ISPR checks whether
there is a demand for a remanufactured model of a returned end
of life product

Information System for Product
Recovery (ISPR)


Next stage ISPR would identify reusable parts,
components and subassemblies based on the
evaluation of the data stored in the EDL


If remanufacturing is not possible (no demand
or not technically possible) materials recycling
would be recommended and supported by a
generated disassembly sequence optimising
revenues from reclaimed materials

Economic Efficiency of the EDL in a
Reuse Scenario


Manufacturing Cost Savings


Cost target for the EDL ought to be determined by the
economic efficiency of reusing components from end of life
products


Only attractive if the additional costs are offset by cost savings
from reuse


Equipping increases initial manufacturing costs


Only a fraction will be returned


Only a portion of these (yuppie’s) can be reused


Is the additional cost of the EDL justified by the savings
resulting from reuse

Economic Efficiency of the EDL in a
Reuse Scenario


Accounting for misclassifications


Ideally, the classification software classifies all
motors correctly


Misclassifications are unavoidable and result in
additional costs

Economic Efficiency of the EDL in a
Reuse Scenario

Actual Motor Behaviour
Will Not Fail
Will Fail
Reuseable
True Positive
False positive
Motor
Cost
Classed as
Non-Reuseable
False Negative
True Negative
Cost
Future Application Scenario


Leasing based on use intensity


Quality management and market research


Service and maintenance or warranty claim
assessment


Use intensity
-
based warranty periods


Pricing of used products

Further Reading

Chapter 6 Goldberg

Chapter 7 Goldberg