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2 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Meta
-
Design, Participative Software Systems, and
Web 2.0


-

Contribution
-


Daniela Fogli

Dip
artimento

di
Elettronica per l’Automazione

Università d
egli Studi di Brescia
-

Italy





L3D Symposium Summer 2006

Daniela Fogli
-

L3D Symposium Summer 2006

2
/9

Three (related) questions

What do we mean by

meta
-
design”

of participative
systems ?



What does motivate people
to participate in
software design

?


Is it inevitable that
desktop software

will be replaced
by
web applications
?





Daniela Fogli
-

L3D Symposium Summer 2006

3
/9

Meta
-
Design

“Meta
-
design is an emerging conceptual framework aimed at
defining and creating social and technical infrastructures in which
new forms of collaborative design can take place” [Fischer 2006]


… users as
designers



But, what do we mean by “design”?

Design (new) interaction experiences (e.g. EDC)?

Design sw tools supporting some daily tasks (e.g. MAPS)?


I am interested in the second perspective


First, it is a software engineering challenge (but software
engineers may be annoyed about that!)

Daniela Fogli
-

L3D Symposium Summer 2006

4
/9

Collaboration about goals and
collaboration about design

“when double
-
loop systems
collaborate to create

new systems,
they engage in
design
” [Pangaro 2005]

“when double
-
loop systems interact
with other double
-
loop systems for the
same goals, they collaborate with each
other

[Pangaro 2005]


possibly a new PS


http://pangaro.com/PS

Daniela Fogli
-

L3D Symposium Summer 2006

5
/9

Not only a technical problem

The technical problem is hard but…


… there is also the “social” problem


What does motivate people to participate in software
design/development?


I consider “people”
as non software experts
, but
domain experts… so in some way I do not consider
Open Source and similar domains

Daniela Fogli
-

L3D Symposium Summer 2006

6
/9

What does motivate people to participate
in software design/development?

New work organizations

require users to be engaged in design:
we experienced this in the medical domain and in the mechanical
engineering domain
-

developing the Software Shaping Workshop
(SSW) methodology

M. F. Costabile, D. Fogli, R. Lanzilotti, P. Mussio, A. Piccinno, Supporting Work Practice
through End User Development Environments,
Journal of Organizational and End User
Computing
, 18(4), 2006, 43
-
65.

D. Fogli, A. Piccinno, Environments to support context and emotion aware visual
interaction,

International Journal of Visual Languages and Computing,

16 (2005), 386
-
405.

M. F. Costabile, D. Fogli, G. Fresta, P. Mussio, A. Piccinno, Software Environments for End
-
User Development and Tailoring,
Psychnology
, 2(1), 2004, 99
-
122.


Some particular domains

ask for users participation: e.g. MAPS

Other motivations:

Success, money
: small companies creating their own web site or e
-
commerce application (avoiding outsourcing…)

Satisfaction

from design experience: e.g. in digital arts, game
design…


Daniela Fogli
-

L3D Symposium Summer 2006

7
/9

How to substain participation

On one hand the “environment” requires users to participate, on
the other hand users are not expert in software design and
development and may be scared by that or not interested in…

It is something like
“going beyond usability”
: some years ago,
non expert users had to learn to use some kind of software, now
they must learn to design their own software

So
the design task

should be…
easy to learn and to do???

And what does it mean?

Creating specialized support tools? E.g. MAPS, SSWs

Design by scripting, direct manipulation, … ?

… ???


Do we need to find a
general approach

driving the creation
of
specialized tools
?

Daniela Fogli
-

L3D Symposium Summer 2006

8
/9

Which kind of tools/applications?

Is it inevitable that
desktop software

will be replaced by
web
applications
?

… maybe yes …


Web applications better support

Collaboration

Distributed Knowledge

Distributed Intelligence


Let’s think about daily work: who is able to perform his tasks in
isolation and without knowledge and information coming from
outside?

New technologies, such as AJAX, may help overcoming current
web limitations: web applications may become as rich as local PC
-
based ones, but distributed and more “plastic”

Daniela Fogli
-

L3D Symposium Summer 2006

9
/9

An interesting paper:

Letondal, C., Mackay, W. E. Participatory Programming and the Scope of Mutual
Responsibility: Balancing scientific, design and software commitment,
PDC 2004

“MetaDesign

approach

attempts

to

empower

users

by

enabling

them

to

act

as

designers

at

use
-
time,

using

domain
-
oriented

rather

than

full

programming

languages”

Participatory design at Institut Pasteur, Paris, involving three
groups of experts:

biologists,

primarily
users
of software tools, not programmers, but
who must either adapt or create software that allows them to address
individual biological research questions

bioinformaticians

who have formal training in both biology and
computer science

computer scientists
, not trained in biology, who design and distribute
general
-
purpose tools to support biologists

Leads to

Participatory programming

as a logical extension of
participatory design, in which users participate in the creation of
software tools they can ultimately tailor and program themselves