Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44)

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Level 3 Di
gital Technologies 91636 (3.44)

Specific Assessment Guides


Complexity and Tractability:

1

4

Formal Languages:

5

8

Graphics and Visual Computing:


9

12

Intelligent Systems
: 13

16

Network Communication Protocols:

17

20

Software Engineering:

21

24









Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Complexity and Tractability
)


page
1

of 24




Level 3

Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide

(Complexity and
Tractability
)



Title

Demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science


Credits

4



Teacher

introduction

Technology assessment guides have been pr
oduced to help teachers develop their own specific
assessment guides. Examples of specific assessment guides, developed from the common assessment
guide for each standard, have been produced as part of the external a
ssessment resources for
l
evel 3
Technolo
gy.

The specific assessment guides
also show a variety of ways (ie

case study, research
,

practice
)
to
produce external assessment material. The material in the candidate exemplars for each standard
reflects the content and context of the specific assessmen
t guides.

Teachers can adapt a common assessment guide and

/
or a specifi
c assessment guide to suit the
s
pecific context of their course of teaching.

Candidate introduction

You will produce a report that demonstrates understanding of
areas of computer sci
ence
.
To complete
the report you will need to report
on

at least two of the
Areas of Computer Science

from e
xp
lanatory n
ote
3 in the standard.

This specific assessment guide is one of six
. Each
one of the
specific assessment guide
s relate

to one
of
the
six

Areas of Computer Science
.

Candidate guidance for producing the report

There
are some
prompts and activities
below that
will assist
you to write the part of

your report

on
complexity and t
ractability.

They will help you to produce a report that demonstra
tes the understanding
expected in this assessment.
The prompts also define
the levels of description, explanation
,

a
nd
discussion that are expected at each grade.

To demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science
at the A
chieved level
you will nee
d to
:




describe
key problems that are addressed in selected areas of computer science



describe

examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or techniques from these areas.

To demonstrate in
-
depth underst
anding of areas of computer science
at the M
erit level
you will need to
:




explain how
key algorithms or techniques
are applied in selected areas



explain

examples
of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key algorithms
and/or te
chniques from these areas.



Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Complexity and Tractability
)


page
2

of 24



To demonstrate comprehensive understanding of areas of computer science
at the E
xcellence level
you

will need to
:



discuss
examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or tech
niques from these areas



evaluate the effectiveness of algorithms, techniques, or applications from selected areas.

Possible Activities

The activities below are activities which generate specific content that you can use to develop your
report.

For example
,

if you were to

investigate TSP

(see activity 6 below)
you could
generate information
related to several parts of the report
.

1.

Evaluate how much time is needed to solve the TSP, and evaluate approximate solutions (such as
nearest neighbour first)
.

2.

Investiga
te the graph colouring problem; a sample plan for this is at
Computing Inside's Graph
Colouring Activity
, as well as the
CS Unplugge
d's map colouring activity
. It can be done online at
http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/jo/games/puzzles/map.htm
.

3.

Investigate the (intractable)
Travelling Rock Band problem
.

4.

Investigate the knapsack problem, and evaluate approximate solutions (such as decreasing order)
.

5.

Investigate the bin
-
packing problem, and evaluate approximate solutions (such as the first
-
fit
al
gorithm)
.

6.

Investigate the progress researchers have made over the years finding improvements to algorithms
for solving a particular problem (
eg

TSP, primality testing)
.

7.

Compare different algorithms with a variety of complexities for the same problem, parti
cularly for
large values of $n$, considering issues like how well they scale and how much memory they use.

8.

Compare the speed of ‘bogosort’

(an exponential time algorithm) with a conventio
nal sorting
algorithm (such as ‘quicksort’
)
.

9.

Estimate the work involv
ed for a computer to evaluate all possible timetabling options for your
school
.

Essential documents

The achievement standard governing

this

specific a
ssessment

guide can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/specifications/2013/level3/91636
-
spc
-
2013.pdf

The assessment specifications for the Digital Technologies achievement standard can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/achievements/2013/as91636.pdf








Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Complexity and Tractability
)


page
3

of 24



Definitions

The following

are concepts, algorithms, techniques, applications
,

and problems that students at l
ev
el 3
are likely t
o be able to work with; it is not

a list of all the key ideas in the area.

Key concepts

likely to be encountered are: complexity, exponential time complexity, polynomial time
complexity, tractability, asymptotic complexity
, big
O

notation
,

P and NP,
and
NP
-
complete problems
.

Algorithms
: there are many hundreds of algorithms that illustrate these issues; suitable intractable
problems include the travelling salesperson problem (TSP), Hamiltonian path, graph colouring, vertex
cover, Sudoku, an
d longest path; contrasting tractable problems include the Eulerian path, minimal
spanning tree
,

and shortest path. Standard sorting or searching algorithms are excellent for exploring the
concept of complexity; bogosort and bozosort can be expl
ored as (ar
tificial) examples of

intractable
algorithms.

Techniques
: empirical evaluation, analysis, brute force algorithm, heuristic algorithms
.

Applications
: these include route planning, timetabling, optimisation, games, and encryption
.

Complexity and tractability

is about the relationship between
problems and their algorithms,
and the
idea that some common proble
ms do not

have tractable solutions. This falls in the area of
computational
complexity theory
. The focus is on the inherent complexity of a
problem
, that
is, the time needed to solve
a problem, and the best known algorithms for the problem. This area includes what is widely regarded as
the largest unsolved problem in computer science: the question of whether P = NP (the details of this
issue are beyond high

school level, but the explorations that can be performed at high school level will
give an understanding of why this is such a significant problem). The demonstration of understanding in
this area can be done by describing problems with known inherent com
plexities (both tractable and
intractable) and those for which the complexity is an open question; by illustrating the issues surrounding
intractable (exponential time) algorithms; by exploring the limits on what ca
n be done with ‘intractable’

problems (su
ch as the various records that have been set for solving the TSP); by comparing heuristic
solutions that give sub
-
optimal solutions; and by exploring the quest to find reasonable time algorithms
for those that currently only have exponential time solutions
, including recent discoveries about open
questions in this area.

Further information

Useful links:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_complexity_theory




http://www.tsp.gatech.edu/games/index.html



http://csunplugged.org/graph
-
colouring



http://e
n.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travelling_salesman_problem



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knapsack_problem



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bin_pac
king_problem



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamiltonian_path



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brute
-
force_search

Further information can
be found at
http://www.techlink.org.nz
.

Exemplars

Please r
ead the exemplars
.
You can model your work on these exemplars but you may not copy the
material from the exemplars. Your report must be
the product of yo
ur own
efforts.

Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Complexity and Tractability
)


page
4

of 24



Schedule


Assessment Schedule

AS
Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44)

Demonstrate understanding of

areas of

computer science

Final grades will be decided using professional judgement based on a holistic examination of the evidence
provided
against the criteria.

Issues from the Specifications

Authentic candidate submissions will be recognisable because of specific contexts associated with the work.
This does not imply that submissions will arise only from the candidate’s practice. However, w
here the
candidate’s practice does not provide the immediate source of a specific context, one would expect to see that
several sources of information relating to materials had been
applied

within a specific context. In both cases, the
marker will be able
to detect the candidate’s voice. In situations where information does not have some aspect of
student voice, it is difficult to establish whether the candidate has actually demonstrated understanding or simply
identified information.

Candidates who have si
mply identified information by reproducing information from sources without making use
of that information have not demonstrated understanding.

Where a candidate has provided a brief answer, the answer should not be penalised because of length.

Candidate
work in excess of 14 pages should not be marked.

Where work is illegible, it cannot be marked.

Digital submissions that cannot be read cannot be marked.

Achievement

Achievement with Merit

Achievement with Excellence

Demonstrating

understanding of

areas o
f

computer science

involves:

Demonstrating
in
-
depth
understanding of

areas

of computer
science
involves:

Demonstrating

comprehensive
understanding of

areas of

computer
science

involves:



describing key problems that
are addressed in selected
areas of compu
ter science



describing

examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from the
.
se
areas.



explaining how key algorithms
or techniques are applied in
selected areas



explaining examples of
prac
tical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas.




discussing examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas



e
valuating the effectiveness of
algorithms, techniques, or
applications from selected
areas.







Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Formal Languages
)


page
5

of 24



Level 3

Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide

(Formal Languages)


Title

Demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science


Cred
its

4


Teacher

introduction

Technology assessment guides have been produced to help teachers develop their own specific
assessment guides. Examples of specific assessment guides, developed from the common assessment
guide for each standard, have been prod
uced as part of the external assessment resources for level 3
Technology.

The specific assessment guides also show a variety of ways (ie case study, research, practice
)
to
produce external assessment material. The material in the candidate exemplars for ea
ch standard
reflects the content and context of the specific assessment guides.

Teachers can adapt a common assessment guide and

/
or a specific assessment guide to suit the
specific context of their course of teaching.

Candidate introduction

You will pro
duce a report that demonstrates understanding of
areas of computer science
. To complete
the report you will need to report on at least two of the
Areas of Computer Science

from explanatory note
3 in the standard.

This specific assessment guide is one of si
x. Each one of the specific assessment guides relate to one
of the six
Areas of Computer Science
.

Candidate guidance for producing the report

There
are some
prompts and activities below that will assist you to write the part of

your report

on formal
l
angu
ages
.

They will help you to produce a report that demonstrates the understanding expected in this
assessment.
The prompts also define the levels of description, explanation, and discussion that are
discussion that are expected at each grade.

To demonstrat
e understanding of areas of computer science at the Achieved level you will need to
:




describe
key problems that are addressed in selected areas of computer science



describe
examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key

algorithms and/or techniques from these areas.

To demonstrate in
-
depth understanding of areas of computer science at the Merit level you will need to
:




explain how
key algorithms or techniques
are applied in selected areas



explain
examples
of practical ap
plications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these areas.



Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Formal Languages
)


page
6

of 24



To demonstrate comprehensive understanding of areas of computer science at the Excellence level you

will need to:



discuss
examples of practical appl
ications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or techniques from these areas



evaluate the effectiveness of algorithms, techniques, or applications from selected areas.

Possible Activities

The activities below are activities which
generate specific content that you can use to develop your
report. For example, if you were to show how a sample program could be parsed using a grammar you
could
generate information related to several parts of the report
.

1.

Demonstrate how compilers, inter
preters, parsers, or validators find errors in formal languages, eg
introduce an error to a compiled program, XML document file, or web page, and show the effect of
the error.

2.

Explore regular expressions for pattern matching using a system such as the ‘Reg
ex dictionary’ at
http://www.visca.com/regexdict/
, the Microsoft Word Find command with wildcards, regular
expressions available in a language such as Java (java.util.regex), JavaScript (RegExp), or Python
(‘r
e’ module), or the ‘grep’ program, to find words in an English dictionary that match a pattern.

3.

Find a grammar for a simple arithmetic expression in a programming language, and show the parse
tree for sample expressions (such as (a+b)*(c
-
d)).

4.

Make up a few

simple Regular expressions (such as ab*a), create a (non
-
deterministic) finite state
automaton for each one using a tool like JFLAP, and show the operation of the automaton for sample
strings (aa, aba, abba, etc in the case of the example).

5.

Write regular
expressions to find patterns in documents, such as a URL, email address, date, or
time.

6.

Find a grammar for a programming language, and show how a sample program would be parsed
using the grammar.

7.

Explore the grammar for balanced parentheses S


SS, S


(S)
, S


( ).

8.

Explore using a tool such as Lex, Yacc, Flex, or Bison to parse a simple language.

9.

Generate art using the ‘context free art’ system (
http://www.contextfreeart.org/
).

Essential documents

The achievem
ent standard governing

this

specific a
ssessment

guide can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/specifications/2013/level3/91636
-
spc
-
2013.pdf

The assessment specifications for the Digital Technologies achievement standard can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/achieve
ments/2013/as91636.pdf





Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Formal Languages
)


page
7

of 24



Definitions

The following are concepts, algorithms, techniques, applications, and problems that students at level 3
are likely to be able to work with; it is not a list of all the key ideas in the area.

Key concepts that are li
kely to be encountered are: string, grammar, parsing, parse tree, syntax,
syntactically correct, regular expression, finite state automaton, lexical analysis, and Chomsky hierarchy.

Algorithms: algorithms associated with formal languages are beyond the sco
pe of this level, although
using ad
-
hoc solutions such as drawing a parse tree will be appropriate.

Techniques: syntax diagrams, grammars, parse trees, finite state automata (both representing and
executing), regular expressions, pattern matching.

Applicat
ions: compilers, interpreters, text processing, language specification, HTML viewer.

Formal languages is about how to specify programming, markup, and other languages for computing,
and systems that can parse and process programs or documents written in su
ch languages. They are
specified by formal representations such as syntax diagrams (‘railroad diagrams’), grammars, regular
expressions, and finite state machines. The language could be a conventional programming language
(such as Java, Python, C, or Basic
), another formal language with a strict syntax (such as XML, HTML,
or SQL), or the focus could be on regular expressions and lexical analysis (such as detecting a well
-
formed identifier or number in a programming language, or a string matching a given pat
tern). Most
programming languages have very large formal definitions, and it would be sufficient to demonstrate
understanding using a part of a language, such as expressions in a programming language, or a small
selection of different kinds of tags in HTML
. The demonstration would typically be done by using
examples to show the parse tree (or syntax tree) for a correct and incorrect program fragment, or to
show a sequence of grammar productions to construct a correct program fragment, or to show strings
gen
erated by a simple regular expression and accepted by a finite state machine that corresponds to it.

Further information

Useful links:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_language



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Context
-
free_grammar#Examples



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_syntax_tree




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regular_expression



http://www.netcraftsmen.net/presos/Regex_Practice/player.html




http://csunplugged.org/finite
-
state
-
automata



http://word.mvps.org/FAQs/General/UsingWildcards.htm



http://www.i
-
programmer.info/babbages
-
bag/223
-
finite
-
state
-
machines.html




http://www.jflap.org/

Further information can be found at
http://w
ww.techlink.org.nz
.

Exemplars

Please read the exemplars. You can model your work on these exemplars but you may not copy the
material from the exemplars. Your report must be the product of your own efforts.


Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Formal Languages
)


page
8

of 24



Schedule


Assessment Schedule

AS
Digital Tec
hnologies 91636 (3.44)

Demonstrate understanding of

areas of

computer science

Final grades will be decided using professional judgement based on a holistic examination of the evidence
provided against the criteria.

Issues from the Specifications

Authenti
c candidate submissions will be recognisable because of specific contexts associated with the work.
This does not imply that submissions will arise only from the candidate’s practice. However, where the
candidate’s practice does not provide the immediate s
ource of a specific context, one would expect to see that
several sources of information relating to materials had been
applied

within a specific context. In both cases, the
marker will be able to detect the candidate’s voice. In situations where informati
on does not have some aspect of
student voice, it is difficult to establish whether the candidate has actually demonstrated understanding or simply
identified information.

Candidates who have simply identified information by reproducing information from so
urces without making use
of that information have not demonstrated understanding.

Where a candidate has provided a brief answer, the answer should not be penalised because of length.

Candidate work in excess of 14 pages should not be marked.

Where work is

illegible, it cannot be marked.

Digital submissions that cannot be read cannot be marked.

Achievement

Achievement with Merit

Achievement with Excellence

Demonstrating

understanding of

areas of

computer science

involves:

Demonstrating
in
-
depth
understand
ing of

areas

of computer
science
involves:

Demonstrating

comprehensive
understanding of

areas of

computer
science

involves:



describing key problems that
are addressed in selected
areas of computer science



describing

examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from the
.
se
areas.



explaining how key algorithms
or techniques are applied in
selected areas



explaining examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of

key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas.




discussing examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas



evaluating the effectiveness of
algorithms, techniques, or
appl
ications from selected
areas.







Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Graphics and Visual Computing)



page
9

of 24



Level 3

Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide

(Graphics and Visual Computing)



Title

Demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science


Credits

4



Teacher

introduction

Technology assessme
nt guides have been produced to help teachers develop their own specific
assessment guides. Examples of specific assessment guides, developed from the common assessment
guide for each standard, have been produced as part of the external a
ssessment resource
s for level 3
Technology.

The specific assessment guides
also show a variety of ways (ie

case study, research
,

practice
)
to
produce external assessment material. The material in the candidate exemplars for each standard
reflects the content and context of
the specific assessment guides.

Teachers can adapt a common assessment guide and

/
or a specifi
c assessment guide to suit the
specific context of their course of teaching.

Candidate introduction

You will produce a report that demonstrates understanding of

areas of computer science
. To complete
the report you will need to report
on

at least two of the
Areas of Computer Science

from explanatory n
ote
3 in the standard.

This specific assessment guide is one of six
. Each one of the specific assessment guides re
late to one
of the six
Areas of Computer Science
.

Candidate guidance for producing the report

There are some prompts and activities below that will assist you to write the part of your report on
graphics and visual c
omputing.

They
will help you to produce

a report that demonstrates the
understanding expected in this assessment. The prompts also define the levels of description,
explanation, and discussion that are expected at each grade.

To demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science at the Ach
ieved level you will need to
:




describe
key problems that are addressed in selected areas of computer science



describe
examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or techniques from these areas.

To demo
nstrate in
-
depth understanding of areas of computer science at the Merit level you will need to
:




explain how
key algorithms or techniques
are applied in selected areas



explain
examples
of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of
key algorithms
and/or techniques from these areas.



Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Graphics and Visual Computing)



page
10

of 24



To demonstrate comprehensive understanding of areas of computer science at the Excellence level you

will need to:



discuss
examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of ke
y
algorithms and/or techniques from these areas



evaluate the effectiveness of algorithms, techniques, or applications from selected areas.

Possible Activities

The activities below are activities which generate specific content that you can use to develop y
our
report.

For example
,

if you were to
S
how how

lines and circles are drawn using Bresenham’s algorithm

(see activity 1 below)
you could

generate information related to several parts of the report
.

10.

Show how lines and circles are drawn using Bresenham’s al
gorithm (see the ‘Drawing lines with
pixels’ activity at
http://csunplugged.org
).

11.

Define and render a scene using provided ray
-
tracing software, eg POV
-
Ray
(
http://libr
ary.thinkquest.org/3285/
).

12.

Evaluate the robustness of bar code or QR code reading software with different levels of distortion in
the image.

13.

Evaluate the effectiveness of facial recognition in free software such as Google’s Picasa.

14.

Evaluate the Canny edge

detection algorithm on your own images using the online processor at
http://matlabserver.cs.rug.nl/
.

15.

Give examples of simple template matching on characters in a scanned document.

16.

Evaluate the effectiveness of

software for image stitching.

17.

Perform s
cene modelling using images (image
-
based re
ndering, used in arcade games).

18.

Explore
modelling surfaces using splines, surfaces of revolution
,

and simple metho
ds to generate
terrain models.

19.

Explore c
omputational geomet
r
y methods (such as convex hulls and closest pair of points).

20.

Explore 3D volume visualisation (generating a 3D view from slices), such as in MRI and HRCT.

Essential documents

The achievement standard governing

this

specific a
ssessment

guide can be found a
t

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/specifications/2013/level3/91636
-
spc
-
2013.pdf

The assessment specifications for the Digital Technol
ogies achievement standard can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/achievements/2013/as91636.pdf









Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Graphics and Visual Computing)



page
11

of 24



Definitions

The following are conce
pts, algorithms, techniques, applications
, and problems that students at l
evel 3
are likely to be able to work with; it is

no
t a list o
f all the key ideas in the area.

Algorithms
: Bresenham’s algorithm (line and circle drawing), colour space conversion, li
ne anti
-
aliasing,
Bézier and B
-
spline curves, painter’s algorithm, Z
-
buffer, sharpening filter, edge detection (Canny,
Sobel), template matching, morphological functions.

Techniques
: ray tracing, texture mapping, shading, anti
-
aliasing, volume rendering, p
olygonisation,
constructive solid geometry, 3D modelling, hidden object removal, face recognition, object recognition.

Applications
: drawing software, animation, image enhancement, barcode readers, face recognition,
image stitching, collision avoidance,

b
iometric authentication
,

surveillance
,

optical character recognition
,

medical imaging
.

Graphics and visual computing

is about using computers to create images and animations based on a
description of a scene or collected data (computer graphics and visuali
sation), and the reverse process
of processing images and recognising elements in an image (co
mputer vision). Often the term ‘visual
computing’

encompasses
computer graphics, so the term ‘graphics’

isn’t strictly required in the name of
this area; a
lso not
e that in this context it

does
not

refer to the use of ‘visual programming languages’ or
‘visual programming environments’

eg

Visual Studio. The creation of images could be as simple as a 2D
drawing program, or as advanced as 3D systems for entertainment o
r to help visualise a data set.
Computer vision is used to capture information from the real world or to recognise situations such as a
potential vehicle collision. These topics can be explored by evaluating the effectiveness of existing
software for these

purposes, and exploring algorithms and techniques for rendering images and
recognising the contents of an image. This topic is distinct from the standards that explore the use of
multimedia software as it explores the details of how that software works.

F
urther information

Useful links:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_graphics




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_vision



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bresenham’s_line_algorithm



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ray_trace



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mri



http://www.cosc.canterbury.ac.nz/mukundan/cogr/applcogr.html



http:/
/www.cosc.canterbury.ac.nz/mukundan/covn/applcovn.html



http://www.povray.org/resources/links/3D_Tutorials/POV
-
Ray_Tutorials/

Further information can be found at
http://www.techlink.org.nz
.

Exemplars

Please read the exemplars.
You can model your work on these exemplars but you may not copy the
material from the exemplars. Your report must be the product of your own efforts.



Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Graphics and Visual Computing)



page
12

of 24



Sch
edule


Assessment Schedule

AS
Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44)

Demonstrate understanding of

areas of

computer science

Final grades will be decided using professional judgement based on a holistic examination of the evidence
provided against the criteri
a.

Issues from the Specifications

Authentic candidate submissions will be recognisable because of specific contexts associated with the work.
This does not imply that submissions will arise only from the candidate’s practice. However, where the
candidate’
s practice does not provide the immediate source of a specific context, one would expect to see that
several sources of information relating to materials had been
applied

within a specific context. In both cases, the
marker will be able to detect the candi
date’s voice. In situations where information does not have some aspect of
student voice, it is difficult to establish whether the candidate has actually demonstrated understanding or simply
identified information.

Candidates who have simply identified inf
ormation by reproducing information from sources without making use
of that information have not demonstrated understanding.

Where a candidate has provided a brief answer, the answer should not be penalised because of length.

Candidate work in excess of 1
4 pages should not be marked.

Where work is illegible, it cannot be marked.

Digital submissions that cannot be read cannot be marked.

Achievement

Achievement with Merit

Achievement with Excellence

Demonstrating

understanding of

areas of

computer science

involves:

Demonstrating
in
-
depth
understanding of

areas

of computer
science
involves:

Demonstrating

comprehensive
understanding of

areas of

computer
science

involves:



describing key problems that
are addressed in selected
areas of computer science



descri
bing

examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from the
.
se
areas.



explaining how key algorithms
or techniques are applied in
selected areas



explaining examples of
practical applications
of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas.




discussing examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas



evaluating the effec
tiveness of
algorithms, techniques, or
applications from selected
areas.









Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Intelligent Systems)



page
13

of 24



Level 3

Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide

(Intelligent Systems)


Title

Demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science


Credits

4


Teacher

introduction

Technology assessment guides have been produced to help teachers develop their own specific
assessment guides. Examples of specific assessment guides, developed from the common assessment
guide for each standard, have been produced as part o
f the external a
ssessment resources for level 3
Technology.

The specific assessment guides
also show a variety of ways (ie

case study, research
,

practice
)
to
produce external assessment material. The material in the candidate exemplars for each standard
re
flects the content and context of the specific assessment guides.

Teachers can adapt a common assessment guide and

/
or a specifi
c assessment guide to suit the
specific context of their course of teaching.

Candidate introduction

You will produce a report
that demonstrates understanding of
areas of computer science
. To complete
the report you will need to report
on

at least two of the
Areas of Computer Science

from explanatory n
ote
3 in the standard.

This specific assessment guide is one of six. Each one of

the specific assessment guide
s relate

to one

of the six
Areas of Computer Science
.

Candidate guidance for producing the report

There are some prompts and activities below that will assist you to write the part of your report on
intelligent s
ystems
. The
y

will help you to produce a report that demonstrates the understanding expected
in this assessment. The prompts also define the levels of description, explanation, and discussion that
are expected at each grade.

To demonstrate understanding of areas of com
puter science at the Achieved level you will need to
:




describe
key problems that are addressed in selected areas of computer science



describe
examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or techniques f
rom these areas.

To demonstrate in
-
depth understanding of areas of computer science at the Merit level you will need to
:




explain how
key algorithms or techniques
are applied in selected areas



explain
examples
of practical applications of selected areas to

demonstrate the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these areas.



Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Intelligent Systems)



page
14

of 24



To demonstrate comprehensive understanding of areas of computer science at the Excellence level you

will need to:



discuss
examples of practical applications of selected areas to d
emonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or techniques from these areas



evaluate the effectiveness of algorithms, techniques, or applications from selected areas.

Possible Activities

The activities below are activities which generate specific content that
you can use to develop your
report. For example, if you were to

Investigate the problem of developing a self
-
driving car

(see activity 7
below)
you could
generate information related to several parts of the report
.

1.

Explore algorithms for playing simple boa
rd games such as noughts and crosses or checkers.

2.

Develop a decision tree for a diagnosis or advice system.

3.

Evaluate an online chatbot.

4.

Explore an online automatic translation system, such as Google’s statistical translator.

5.

Do the CS Inside predictive tex
t learning exercise (
http://csi.dcs.gla.ac.uk/workshop
-
view.php?workshopID=7
).

6.

Collect statistical data and use a simple machine learning system to find patterns in it.

7.

Investigate the
problem of developing a self
-
driving car
(
http://www.nsf.gov/cise/csbytes/newsletter/vol1i3.html
).

8.

Investigate how an AI system could win the Jeopardy game
(
http://www.nsf.gov/cise/csbytes/newsletter/vol1i10.html
).

9.

Experiment with an artificial life simulator.

10.

Experiment with training a simple artificial neural net.

Essential documents

The achievement standard govern
ing

this

specific a
ssessment

guide can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/specifications/2013/level3/91636
-
spc
-
2013.pdf

The
assessment specifications for the Digital Technologies achievement standard can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/achievements/2013/as91636.
pdf


Definitions

The following are concepts, algorithms, techniques, applications
, and problems that students at l
evel 3
are likely to be able to work with; it is

no
t a list of all the key ideas in the area.

Key concepts

that are likely to be encountered

are: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Turing test, strong AI and
weak AI, machine learning, natural language processing, chatbot, singularity, commonsense knowledge,
machine perceptio
n (vision, speech recognition), and
biologically inspired algorithms
.

Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Intelligent Systems)



page
15

of 24



Algor
ithms
: search (eg best first search), game
-
tree (min
-
max) search, probability based mechanisms,
decision trees, pattern matching,
agglomerative clustering
.

Techniques
:
logic, knowledge representation, search, heuristics, machine learning, artificial neural

networks, genetic algorithms, prob
ability, Bayesian probability,
fuzzy logic
,

intelligent agents, artificial
life.

Applications
:
games, classification, expert systems, natural language processing, machine translation,
data mining, information retrieval, i
mage processing, computer vision
, robotics, software agents (eg

chatbots)
.

Intelligent systems

are systems that exhibit aspects of human intelligence in their interaction with their
users or environment. Engineering such systems and the study of theoretica
l and practical issues
surrounding them is the subject of the field of artificial intelligence (AI). AI is primarily a branch of
computer science but it has borrowed a lot of concepts and ideas from other fields, especially
mathematics (particularly logic,

combinatorics, statistics, probability
,

and optimisation theory), biology,
psychology, neuroscience
,

and philosophy. This area can be explored by experimenting with
existing AI
systems, such as on
line chatbots, decision systems, machine learning systems,
search engines,
machine translation, spam detectors, video game bo
ts, and object recognition (eg
face detection)
systems. There is a lot of opportunity for exploring predictions and ethical debates regarding intelligent
systems such as the concept of the s
ingularity, Moravec’s Paradox, Searle’s Chinese Room, and the
value of the Turing test;

these have some bearing on the

concepts in this standard, but could be
explored as part of a separate generic standard relating to ethics or the effect of technology on

society.

Further information

Useful links:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_artificial_intelligence



http://en.wik
ipedia.org/wiki/Turing_test




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_learning




http://www.cs4fn.org/ai/meetthechatterbots.php



http://www.alicebot.org/




http://spectrum.ieee.org/robotics/artificial
-
intelligence



http://www.ted.com/conversations/topics/artificial+intelligence




http://www.cs4fn.org/ai/illusionintelligence.php


Further information can be found at
http://www.techlink.org.nz
.

Exemplars

Please read the exemplars.
You can model your work on these exemplars but you may not copy the
material from the exemplars. Your report must be the product of your own efforts.






Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Intelligent Systems)



page
16

of 24



Schedule


Assessmen
t Schedule

AS
Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44)

Demonstrate understanding of

areas of

computer science

Final grades will be decided using professional judgement based on a holistic examination of the evidence
provided against the criteria.

Issues from th
e Specifications

Authentic candidate submissions will be recognisable because of specific contexts associated with the work.
This does not imply that submissions will arise only from the candidate’s practice. However, where the
candidate’s practice does no
t provide the immediate source of a specific context, one would expect to see that
several sources of information relating to materials had been
applied

within a specific context. In both cases, the
marker will be able to detect the candidate’s voice. In s
ituations where information does not have some aspect of
student voice, it is difficult to establish whether the candidate has actually demonstrated understanding or simply
identified information.

Candidates who have simply identified information by reprod
ucing information from sources without making use
of that information have not demonstrated understanding.

Where a candidate has provided a brief answer, the answer should not be penalised because of length.

Candidate work in excess of 14 pages should not

be marked.

Where work is illegible, it cannot be marked.

Digital submissions that cannot be read cannot be marked.

Achievement

Achievement with Merit

Achievement with Excellence

Demonstrating

understanding of

areas of

computer science

involves:

Demonstr
ating
in
-
depth
understanding of

areas

of computer
science
involves:

Demonstrating

comprehensive
understanding of

areas of

computer
science

involves:



describing key problems that
are addressed in selected
areas of computer science



describing

examples of
p
ractical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from the
.
se
areas.



explaining how key algorithms
or techniques are applied in
selected areas



explaining examples of
practical applications of
selected areas
to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas.




discussing examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas



evaluating the effectiveness of
algori
thms, techniques, or
applications from selected
areas.







Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Network Communication Protocols)



page
17

of 24



Level 3

Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide

(Network Communication Protocols)



Title

Demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science


Credits

4



Teacher

introd
uction

Technology assessment guides have been produced to help teachers develop their own specific
assessment guides. Examples of specific assessment guides, developed from the common assessment
guide for each standard, have been produced as part of the e
xternal a
ssessment resources for level 3
Technology.

The specific assessment guides
also show a variety of ways (ie

case study, research
,

practice
)
to
produce external assessment material. The material in the candidate exemplars for each standard
reflects
the content and context of the specific assessment guides.

Teachers can adapt a common assessment guide and

/
or a specifi
c assessment guide to suit the
specific context of their course of teaching.

Candidate introduction

You will produce a report that de
monstrates understanding of
areas of computer science
. To complete
the report you will need to report
on

at least two of the
Areas of Computer Science

from explanatory n
ote
3 in the standard.

This specific assessment guide is one of six
. Each one of the sp
ecific assessment guides relate to one
of the six
Areas of Computer Science
.

Candidate guidance for producing the report

There are some prompts and activities below that will assist you to write the part of your report o
n

network communication p
rotocols.

The prompts will help you to produce a report that demonstrates the
understanding expected in this assessment. The prompts also define the levels of description,
explanation, and discussion that are expected at each grade.

To demonstrate understanding of
areas of computer science at the Achieved level you will need to
:




describe
key problems that are addressed in selected areas of computer science



describe
examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or
techniques from these areas.

To demonstrate in
-
depth understanding of areas of computer science at the Merit level you will need to
:




explain how
key algorithms or techniques
are applied in selected areas



explain
examples
of practical applications of selec
ted areas to demonstrate the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these areas.



Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Network Communication Protocols)



page
18

of 24



To demonstrate comprehensive understanding of areas of computer science at the Excellence level you

will need to:



discuss
examples of practical applications of selecte
d areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or techniques from these areas



evaluate the effectiveness of algorithms, techniques, or applications from selected areas.

Possible Activities

The activities below are activities which generate specific c
ontent that you can use to develop your
report.

For example
,

if you were to

Use tools like traceroute to evaluate the time taken and number of
hops required for packets to be transmitted through the internet

(see activity 1 below)
you could

generate inform
ation related to several parts of the report
.

21.

Use tools like traceroute to evaluate the time taken and number of hops required for packets to be
transmitted through the internet.

22.

Using packet analyser software (eg wireshark), trace the sequence of exchange
s that occur for a
protocol such as DNS, UDP, or HTTP using an example on your own system.

23.

Participate in and document the ‘tablets of stone’ activity (
http://csi.dcs.gla.ac.uk/workshop
-
view.php?workshopID=4
).

24.

Explain how HTTP provides the foundation of the world wide web, how IP solves the problem of
individually addressing the thousands of computers that comprise the internet, and / or how DNS
makes the internet friendly for human use
rs.

25.

Use tools to show how encryption algorithms and security protocols can provide confidentiality,
integrity, and availability of information exchanged between parties.

Essential documents

The achievement standard governing

this

specific a
ssessment

guid
e can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/specifications/2013/level3/91636
-
spc
-
2013.pdf

The assessment specifications for the

Digital Technologies achievement standard can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/achievements/2013/as91636.pdf


Definitions

The following
are concepts, algorithms, techniques, applications
, and problems that students at l
evel 3
are likely to be able to work with; it is

no
t a list of all the key ideas in the area.

Key concepts

likely to be encountered are: addressing, reliability, security, f
ailure, packet loss, human
-
readable addresses, quality of service, network performance, cyber attacks,
and
routing
.

Algorithms
: (techniques are more relevant to this area than algorithms)

Techniques
: packet switching, handshaking, acknowledgement, authenti
cation, checksums, wireless
and wired security
.

Applications
: many real protocols (
eg
TCP/IP) could rapidly become overwhelming at this level.
Protocols that students could investigate that are less complex are DNS, UDP, HTTP (get and post), the
addressing

part of IP, SMTP and CDMA, and i
nternet security protocols such as SSL, IPSec
,

and PGP.

Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Network Communication Protocols)



page
19

of 24



Network communication protocols

focus on the techniques applied in computer networks to ensure
reliable communication of data between two parts of a network in the fac
e of different kinds of threats
and failures. The project would typically be done by giving examples of the sequence of events that
occur in these situations, discussing how the protocols and their coding schemes overcome the
problems, and evaluating how s
uccessful they are at addressing them. This topic is distinct from the
coverage of networking in the infrastructure standards because it focuses on the issues that the
protocols address (
ie
the design of the protocol), rather than how to configure a system

that uses a given
protocol.

Further information

Useful links:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_protocol




http://www.w3schools.com/tcpip/



http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics



http://csi.dcs.gla.ac.uk/workshop
-
view.php?workshopID=4



http://www.cbtnuggets.com/

(C
isco CCENT ICND1 640
-
822 series



free preview but fee for full
access
)



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptographic_protocol




http://www.povray.org/resources/links/3D_Tutorials/POV
-
Ray_Tutorials/

Further information can be found at
http://www.techlink.org.nz
.

Exemplars

Please read the exemplars
.
You can model your work on these exemplars but you may not copy the
material from the exemplars. Your report must be the product of your own efforts.












Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Network Communication Protocols)



page
20

of 24



Schedule


Assessment Schedule

AS
Digital Technologies
91636 (3.44)

Demonstrate understanding of

areas of

computer science

Final grades will be decided using professional judgement based on a holistic examination of the evidence
provided against the criteria.

Issues from the Specifications

Authentic candidat
e submissions will be recognisable because of specific contexts associated with the work.
This does not imply that submissions will arise only from the candidate’s practice. However, where the
candidate’s practice does not provide the immediate source of a

specific context, one would expect to see that
several sources of information relating to materials had been
applied

within a specific context. In both cases, the
marker will be able to detect the candidate’s voice. In situations where information does no
t have some aspect of
student voice, it is difficult to establish whether the candidate has actually demonstrated understanding or simply
identified information.

Candidates who have simply identified information by reproducing information from sources with
out making use
of that information have not demonstrated understanding.

Where a candidate has provided a brief answer, the answer should not be penalised because of length.

Candidate work in excess of 14 pages should not be marked.

Where work is illegible
, it cannot be marked.

Digital submissions that cannot be read cannot be marked.

Achievement

Achievement with Merit

Achievement with Excellence

Demonstrating

understanding of

areas of

computer science

involves:

Demonstrating
in
-
depth
understanding of

are
as

of computer
science
involves:

Demonstrating

comprehensive
understanding of

areas of

computer
science

involves:



describing key problems that
are addressed in selected
areas of computer science



describing

examples of
practical applications of
selected a
reas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from the
.
se
areas.



explaining how key algorithms
or techniques are applied in
selected areas



explaining examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algor
ithms
and/or techniques from these
areas.




discussing examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas



evaluating the effectiveness of
algorithms, techniques, or
applications f
rom selected
areas.









Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Software Engineering)



page
21

of 24



Level 3

Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide

(Software Engineering)


Title

Demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science


Credits

4


Teacher

introduction

Technology assessment guides have been

produced to help teachers develop their own specific
assessment guides. Examples of specific assessment guides, developed from the common assessment
guide for each standard, have been produced as part of the external a
ssessment resources for level 3
Techn
ology.

The specific assessment guides
also show a variety of ways (ie

case study, research
,

practice
)
to
produce external assessment material. The material in the candidate exemplars for each standard
reflects the content and context of the specific assess
ment guides.

Teachers can adapt a common assessment guide and

/
or a specifi
c assessment guide to suit the
specific context of their course of teaching.

Candidate introduction

You will produce a report that demonstrates understanding of
areas of computer
science
. To complete
the report you will need to report
on

at least two of the
Areas of Computer Science

from explanatory n
ote
3 in the standard.

This specific assessment guide is one of six
. Each one of the specific assessment guides relates to one
of the

six
Areas of Computer Science
.

Candidate guidance for producing the report

There are some prompts and activities below that will assist you to write the part of your report o
n

software e
ngineering.

The
y

will help you to produce a report that demonstrates

the understanding
expected in this assessment. The prompts also define the levels of description, explanation, and
discussion that are expected at each grade.

To demonstrate understanding of areas of computer science at the Achieved level you will need t
o
:




describe
key problems that are addressed in selected areas of computer science



describe
examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or techniques from these areas.

To demonstrate in
-
depth understand
ing of areas of computer science at the Merit level you will need to
:




explain how
key algorithms or techniques
are applied in selected areas



explain
examples
of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key algorithms
and/or techn
iques from these areas.



Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Software Engineering)



page
22

of 24



To demonstrate comprehensive understanding of areas of computer science at the Excellence level you

will need to:



discuss
examples of practical applications of selected areas to demonstrate the use of key
algorithms and/or techniq
ues from these areas



evaluate the effectiveness of algorithms, techniques, or applications from selected areas.

Possible Activities

The activities below are activities which generate specific content that you can use to develop your
report.

For example
,

if

you were to
R
eview what went wrong in a software disaster

(see activity 3 below)
you could
generate information related to several parts of the report
.

1.

Interview practicing software engineer(s) about the techniques they use and the problems they
encounter

in their job, contrasting a plan
-
driven methodology with an agile methodology.

2.

Play the SimSE game (
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~emilyo/SimSE/
) using the waterfall and Extreme
Programming approaches, and re
port on what happened during the experience, contrasting the two
approaches.

3.

Review what went wrong in a software disaster.

4.

Report on the viability of a career in software engineering (eg demand for software engineers).

5.

Report on an experience doing a tea
m activity that highlights the importance of communication and
planning in a team working to create a product within constraints (eg building a house of cards or
completing the 48
-
hour film competition), carefully following the role of each person, how the
y knew
what to do, how effective the allocation of work was, and whether the desired outcome was
achieved.

Essential documents

The achievement standard governing

this

specific a
ssessment

guide can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/specifications/2013/level3/91636
-
spc
-
2013.pdf

The assessment specifications for the Digital Technologies achievement standard can be found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea
-
resource/achievements/2013/as91636.pdf


Definitions

The following are concepts, algorithms, techniques, applications
, and problems

that students at l
evel 3
are likely
to be able to work with; it is no
t a list of all the key ideas in the area.

Key concepts

likely to be encountered are: plan
-
driven development, agile development, test
-
driven
development, waterfall model, scrum, custome
r requirements, open source, object
-
oriented design,
Brooks’s law, software crisis, software metrics, interpersonal communication, working environments,
and
outsourcing
.

Algorithms
: (techniques are more relevant to this area than algorithms)

Techniques
: pl
an
-
driven development, agile development, test
-
driven development, scrum
.

Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Software Engineering)



page
23

of 24



Applications
: any large software project is an application of this topic. There is much information
available publicly about large software projects (including some significant disas
ters), or students could
interview someone involved in a current large project.

Software engineering

is about systematic approaches applied to large software projects, typically with
many team members and large amounts of program code, so that the products

behave reliably and
efficiently, are affordable to develop and maintain, and satisfy customer requirements. This area can be
explored by learning about common software engineering method
ologies (including examples of ‘plan
-
driven’ and ‘agile’

approaches)
and the different roles and skills required in a software engineering
project, particularly analysis, development, testing
,

and maintenance. Understanding can be
demonstrated by doing case studies of software projects through interviews with software engin
eers,
researching reports about successful and unsuccessful proje
cts, running a simulation of a software
e
ngineering project, or reflecting on teamwork experiences that sim
ulate the issues that arise in software
e
ngineering. The report should discuss the m
ain issues and compare different approaches in the context
of commercial projects that involve multiple team members. This topic is distinct from the programming
standards because it explores large systems developed by teams of people; participating in suc
h a
project is way beyond the scope of Level 3 work, and the expectation is that students will review
commercial or simulated projects, rather than run one themselves.

Further information

Useful links:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_engineering



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development



http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/software/why
-
software
-
fails



http://www.cs4fn.org/fundamentals/softwareeng.php



http://www.teach
-
ict.com/as_a2_ict_new/ocr/A2_G063/331_systems_cycle/slc_stages/home_slc.html

Further information can be found at
http://www.techlink.org.nz
.

Exempla
rs

Please read the exemplars
.
You can model your work on these exemplars but you may not copy the
material from the exemplars. Your report must be the product of your own efforts.









Level 3 Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44) Specific Assessment Guide (
Software Engineering)



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24

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Schedule


Assessment Schedule

AS
Digital Technologies 91636 (3.44
)

Demonstrate understanding of

areas of

computer science

Final grades will be decided using professional judgement based on a holistic examination of the evidence
provided against the criteria.

Issues from the Specifications

Authentic candidate submissio
ns will be recognisable because of specific contexts associated with the work.
This does not imply that submissions will arise only from the candidate’s practice. However, where the
candidate’s practice does not provide the immediate source of a specific c
ontext, one would expect to see that
several sources of information relating to materials had been
applied

within a specific context. In both cases, the
marker will be able to detect the candidate’s voice. In situations where information does not have some

aspect of
student voice, it is difficult to establish whether the candidate has actually demonstrated understanding or simply
identified information.

Candidates who have simply identified information by reproducing information from sources without making
use
of that information have not demonstrated understanding.

Where a candidate has provided a brief answer, the answer should not be penalised because of length.

Candidate work in excess of 14 pages should not be marked.

Where work is illegible, it cannot

be marked.

Digital submissions that cannot be read cannot be marked.

Achievement

Achievement with Merit

Achievement with Excellence

Demonstrating

understanding of

areas of

computer science

involves:

Demonstrating
in
-
depth
understanding of

areas

of compu
ter
science
involves:

Demonstrating

comprehensive
understanding of

areas of

computer
science

involves:



describing key problems that
are addressed in selected
areas of computer science



describing

examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to dem
onstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from the
.
se
areas.



explaining how key algorithms
or techniques are applied in
selected areas



explaining examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/o
r techniques from these
areas.




discussing examples of
practical applications of
selected areas to demonstrate
the use of key algorithms
and/or techniques from these
areas



evaluating the effectiveness of
algorithms, techniques, or
applications from selecte
d
areas.