Companies and Employees


1 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Biotechnology is
“the application of science and technology to living organisms (as well as
parts of organisms, organism products, models, etc.) in order to develop, produce and/or
change living and non
living material for the purpos
e of producing knowledge, goods, or
This definition was recommended for biotechnological surveys by the OECD.

Companies and Employees

During 2002, 148 companies engaged in biotechnology in Israel. Those companies employed
3.9 thousand persons,
of whom 3.4 thousand worked in the field of biotechnology. The
income of those companies from biotechnological activity in 2002 amounted to NIS 1,260
million, of which NIS 951 million derived from exports. Total expenditures for research and
development am
ounted to NIS 953 million.

Of 148 companies that engaged in biotechnology, 117 were start
up companies or research
institutes whose main activity was research and development (R&D), and some of them had
not yet reached the stage of sales or marketing. The
rest of the companies were manufacturing
companies that dealt mainly with pharmaceuticals for human and veterinary use.
Approximately 36% of all companies engaged in biotechnology were opened in 1999

approximately 21% in 1990

1995 and approximately 1
7% were opened by 1990. Most start
up companies and research institutes were established mainly in recent years.

The survey findings revealed that 46% of the employed persons engaged in R&D, 33% in
production, and 21% in marketing, administration etc.
was found that 25% had doctoral
(Ph.D.) degrees, 43% had first and second degrees (including engineers), and 32% were
technicians or workers in marketing and administration.

Approximately half of all employed persons in biotechnology were women. Women
prised 44% of the workers with Ph.D. degrees, 58% of the workers with first and second
degrees (including engineers), and 56% of the workers in R&D.

Labour costs for 3.4 thousand employees in biotechnological companies amounted to NIS 612
million; i.e., a
yearly average of NIS 180 thousand per employee, similar to the average
labour cost per employee in industries that manufacture pharmaceuticals for human and
veterinary use.

Income, Exports, and R&D Expenditures

The income of companies from biotechnologica
l activity amounted to NIS 1,260 million in
2002. About half of this income was generated by companies engaging in the manufacture of
pharmaceuticals for human and veterinary use, about 22% by companies engaging in R&D,
and about 29% by companies engaging
in agriculture and the manufacture of food products.
The total exports of biotechnological products in 2002 amounted to NIS 951 million (0.5% of



the total exports of goods and services in the economy). Most of the exports (64%) were to
European countries,
24% were to North American countries, and 8% were to Asia.

Most of the companies (except for start
up companies) reported that their production takes
place in Israel. Start
up companies engaged mainly in R&D, and some of that activity took
place abroad.

otal R&D expenditures of all companies amounted to NIS 953 million (about 4% of the
national expenditure for R&D).

Funding from External Sources

The activities of start
up companies were funded mainly from private fundraising, issuing
stock market shares,
and parent companies (which totaled NIS 528 million). Funding received
from the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor and international
foundations constituted only 11% of the activities of start
up companies in the field of
ology. Total funding for biotechnological activity from the Chief Scientist of the
Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor and the international foundations amounted to
approximately NIS 95 million in 2002 (which is approximately 9% of all support that the
hief Scientist of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labour and the international
foundations provide to companies that engage in R&D).

Areas of Biotechnological Activity

Approximately half of the companies indicated that they engaged in the field of huma
medicine; in diagnostics, pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Approximately one
third of the
products in diagnostics and pharmaceuticals were in the stages of pre
marketing, marketing or
sales. Most of the products in therapeutics were in the stages of dev
elopment or pre

Approximately 20% of the companies engaged in agricultural biotechnology. Their main
activities were in veterinary biotechnology, fertilization and pest control, crops and plants.

Approximately 19% of all companies were act
ive in the fields of the environment,
afforestation, and other biotechnology, and some of their products were in the stage of
development. Another approximately 7% of the companies engaged in the field of cosmetics
its products.

Only a few companies engage
d in food production processes or in bioinformatics.

Sources of Knowledge

The survey also examined the sources of knowledge used by companies for biotechnological
activity. It was found the most important sources of knowledge were in
house R&D and
tific publications, whereas professional conferences and professional societies were
classified as less important sources of knowledge. Industries that manufacture
biotechnological products also classified in
house R&D as the most important source of
edge. Other, less important sources of knowledge that were noted were patent
purchases, professional contacts, and cooperation with other companies.