# Knowledge Engineering for

Τεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

99 εμφανίσεις

1

Knowledge Engineering for
Bayesian Networks

2

Probability theory for
representing uncertainty

Assigns a numerical degree of belief between
0 and 1 to facts

»
e.g. “it will rain today” is T/F.

»
P(“it will rain today”) = 0.2 prior probability
(unconditional)

Conditional probability (Posterior)

»
P(“it wil rain today” | “rain is forecast”) = 0.8

Bayes’ Rule:
P(H|E) =
P(E|H) x P(H)

P(E)

3

Bayesian networks

Directed acyclic graphs

Nodes: random variables,

»
R: “it is raining”, discrete values T/F

»
T: temperature, continuous
or

discrete variable

»
C: color, discrete values {red, blue, green}

Arcs indicate dependencies (can have causal
interpretation)

4

Bayesian networks

Conditional Probability Distribution (CPD)

Associated with each variable

probability of each state given parent states

“Jane has the flu”

“Jane has a

high temp”

“Thermometer

X

Flu

Y

Te

Q

Th

Models causal relationship

Models possible sensor error

P(Flu=T) = 0.05

P(Te=High|Flu=T) = 0.4

P(Te=High|Flu=F) = 0.01

P(Th=High|Te=H) = 0.95

P(Th=High|Te=L) = 0.1

5

Inference in Belief Networks

Main task of a belief network: Compute the
conditional probability of a set of
query
variables

given exact values for some
evidence variables: P(query | evidence).

Belief networks are flexible enough so that
any node can serve as either a query or an
evidence variable.

6

BN inference

Evidence: observation of specific state

Task: compute the posterior probabilities for
query

node(s) given
evidence
.

Th

Y

Flu

Te

Diagnostic

inference

Th

Flu

Y

Te

Causal

inference

Intercausal

inference

Te

Flu

TB

Flu

Mixed

inference

Th

Flu

Te

7

Building a BN

Choose a set of random variables X
i

that
describe the domain.

»
Missing variables may cause the BN unreliable.

8

Building a BN

Choose a set of random variables X
i

that describe
the domain.

Order the variables into a list L

For each variable X in L do

»
Add X into the BN

»
Choose a minimal set of nodes already in the
BN
which
satisfy the conditional dependence property with X

»
Make these nodes the parents of X.

»
Fill in the CPT for X.

9

The Alarm Example

Mr. Holmes’ security
alarm at home may be
triggered by either
burglar or earthquake.
When the alarm
sounds, his two nice
neighbors, Mary and
John, may call him.

causal DAG

10

The Alarm Example

Variable order:

»
Burglary

»
Earthquake

»
Alarm

»
JohnCalls

»
MaryCalls

BN

11

The Alarm Example

Variable order:

»
MaryCalls

»
JohnCalls

»
Alarm

»
Burglary

»
Earthquake

BN

12

The Alarm Example

Variable order:

»
MaryCalls

»
JohnCalls

»
Earthquake

»
Burglary

»
Alarm

BN

13

Weakness of BN

Hard to obtain JPD (joint probability distribution)

»
Relative Frequency Approach: counting outcomes of
repeated experiments

»
Subjective Approach:
an individual's personal
judgment about whether a specific outcome is likely to
occur.

Worst time complexity is NP
-
hard.

14

BN software

Commerical packages: Netica, Hugin,
Analytica (all with demo versions)

Free software: Smile, Genie, JavaBayes, …

http://HTTP.CS.Berkeley.EDU/~murphyk/Bayes/bnsoft.
html

Example running Netica software

15

What’s Netica?

Netica is a powerful, easy
-
to
-
use, complete
program for working with

belief networks

and
influence diagrams. It has an intuitive and
smooth user interface for drawing the
networks, and the relationships between
variables may be entered as individual
probabilities, in the form of equations, or
learned from data files.

16

Netica Screen Shot

Priori probabilities are needed for each variables.

Netica will compute CPT (conditional probability table).

17

Netica Screen Shot

P(Jewelry = yes | Age < 30, Sex = Male)

P(Fraud = yes | Jewelry = yes, Age < 30, Sex = male)

18

Netica Screen Shot

P(Fraud = yes | Gas = yes, Jewelry = yes, Age < 30, Sex = male)

P(Fraud = yes | Gas = yes, Jewelry = yes, Age > 50, Sex = female)

19

Extensions of BN

Weaker requirement in a DAG:

I(X, ND
X

| PA
X
), ask I(X, ND
X

| MB
X
), where

MB
X

is called Markov Blanket of X, which is the set of
neighboring nodes: its parents (PA
X
), its children, and
any other parents of X’s children.

PA
B

= { H }

MB
B

= { H, L, F }

ND
B

= { L, X }

20

Open Research Questions

Methodology for combining expert elicitation and
automated methods

»
expert knowledge used to guide search

»
automated methods provide alternatives to be presented to
experts

Evaluation measures and methods

»
may be domain depended

Improved tools to support elicitation

»
e.g. visualisation of d
-
separation

Industry adoption of BN technology