Intelligent Sensor Network for Vehicle Security and ...


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International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS)

Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2011
Intelligent Sensor Network for Vehicle Security
and Maintenance System
Using RISC Machines

S. S. Tawani
, Prof. U. A. Rane

1, 2
Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering.
SSGMCE, Shegaon, Dist. Buldhana.

Abstract- Modern automobiles are no longer mere mechanical
devices; they are pervasively monitored through various sensor
networks & using integrated circuits and microprocessor based
design and control techniques while this transformation has
driven major advancements in efficiency and safety. Today
vehicle theft rate is very high, greater challenges are coming
from thieves thus tracking/ alarming systems are being deployed
with an increasingly popularity .As per as security is concerned
today most of the vehicles are running on the LPG so it is
necessary to monitor any leakage or level of LPG in order to
provide safety to passenger.Also in this fast running world
everybody is in hurry so it is required to provide fully
automated maintenance system to make the journey of the
passenger safe, comfortable and economical. To make the
system more intelligent and advanced it is required to introduce
some important developments that can help to promote not only
the luxurious but also safety drive to the owner. The proposed
system “Intelligent Sensor Network for Vehicle Security and
Maintenance System using RISC Machines”, introduces a new
trend in automobile industry.
Key Terms: Advanced RISC Machine (ARM), VLSI, DSP,
Fuzzy logic, Neural network, GSM module, Thumb instruction,
Pipeline structure,

1. Introduction
Today, vehicles have been an essential part of our daily
life. Hence the security and maintenance of the vehicle is
much necessary. Because of the high theft rate and
various challenges coming from thief it is necessary to
provide security from stealing vehicle or part of the
vehicle. As per as the security is concerned , most of the
vehicles are now a day’s running on the LPG so it is
always needed to monitoring gas level as well as any kind
of leakage into the vehicle.
As per as maintenance is concern it is necessary to
maintain the engine temperature of the vehicle , speed of
the vehicle & the most important parameter is servicing
alert system which is necessary for the free running
condition of the vehicle.
To make the system intelligent in terms of
security and maintenance most of the systems are only
concentrate on the external security but with this it is also
necessary to make a system which is responsible for the
internal security also, like the proposed system can carry
out. Also the proposed system can give you a advanced
feature like servicing alert which is important in today’s
fast running world because nobody having alertness
towards servicing his vehicle for free running condition
of it.
So, the proposed system is designed to
overcome such difficulties in order to provide fully
automated maintenance system to make the journey of
the passenger safe, comfortable and economical.[6]
There are many techniques which are available
like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network, Automation and
Control and Video Recognition. Out of these platforms
Fuzzy logic has many valued logic derived from fuzzy set
theory to deal with reasoning that is fluid or approximate
rather than fixed and exact. So in Fuzzy logic we have to
deal with fuzzy set as well as with many logic rules
which are very complex to design as well as implement.
A Neural network is an interconnected group of
natural or artificial neuron that uses mathematical or
computational model for information processing based on
connectionist approach for computation. In Neural
Network we have to train the neuron to do particular task
so it again increases the complexity. In Advance
computing technique that we are using, is consist of Very
large scale integration (VLSI), embedded system design,
linear circuit etc out of which we are using Embedded
system design.[5][9]
Embedded system design works on real time
application. Embedded Systems are controlled by one or
more main processing cores that are typically either
microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP) &
ASIC etc. The proposed system can be best design using
advanced processor like ARM -7 system block diagram
using ARM 7 is described below section.[3][4].

The proposed system can be best planned around high
performance ARM-7. Figure1 shows the proposed system
build around the ARM7. As shown in figure ARM 7 is
located in middle which is a heart of the system because
of which the corresponding action is taken. The first
parameter is Engine temperature which sense the
temperature of engine, according to which if the
corresponding temperature is above the threshold
temperature, then the action will be taken by ARM7 is to
ON the cooling system for maintaining temperature of
engine. The next parameter of the system is the servicing
alert which gives you the alertness for the servicing of
vehicle when the vehicle crosses the threshold kilometers
whatever we have set. Next parameter is GSM Module in
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS)

Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2011
this if the vehicle is steal or any accident case is occurred,
then by using this system it sends message to the family
member or friend, Police & insurance company, so that
they are aware about the incidence. This will provide
safety to the passenger as well as vehicle.
Next is Speed control which is a important
parameter because it is very important to maintain the
speed in order to avoid accidents as well as for new car it
is necessary to maintain the speed for first thousand km in
order to maintain the free running condition of vehicle.
The last parameter is to monitor the LPG level or any
leakage of the gas in the vehicle because most of the
vehicles are running on the gas kit now days that’s why it
is important to monitor the gas level in the vehicle this all
actions are takes place by using ARM 7.
Up till now various works are carried out in this
area but the cost are relatively high, the systems are
complex & they take execution time more as compared to
ARM microcontroller in which instructions are reduced
hence it is called as Advanced RISC Machines. This has
relatively less instruction so it increases the speed of
execution as well as complexity.

2.1 Advanced RISC Machine (ARM7)
The ARM7TDMI is a member of the Advanced
RISC Machines (ARM) family of general purpose 32-bit
microprocessors, which offer high performance for very
low power consumption and price.[1]
The ARM architecture is based on Reduced
Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principles, and the
instruction set and related decode mechanism are much
simpler than those of micro programmed Complex
Instruction Set Computers. This simplicity results in a
high instruction throughput and impressive real-time
interrupt response from a small & cost effective chip.
Pipelining is employed so that all parts of the processing
and memory systems can operate continuously.
Typically, while one instruction is being executed, its
successor is being decoded, and a third instruction is
being fetched from memory.[8][15]
The ARM memory interface has been designed
to allow the performance potential to be realised without
incurring high costs in the memory system. Speed-critical
control signals are pipelined to allow system control
functions to be implemented in standard low-power logic,
and these control signals facilitate the exploitation of the
fast local access modes offered by industry standard
dynamic RAMs.
The CPU has two instruction sets, the ARM and
the Thumb instruction set. The ARM7TDMI is a 3-stage
pipeline, 32-bit RISC processor. The processor
architecture is Von Neumann load/store architecture,
which is characterized by a single data and address bus
for instructions and data. The CPU has two instruction
sets, the ARM and the Thumb instruction set. [10]

Figure1. Proposed Block Diagram

The ARM instruction set has 32-bit wide
instructions and provides maximum performance. Thumb
instructions are 16-bits wide and give maximum code-
density. Instructions operate on 8-, 16-, and 32-bit data
types. The CPU has seven operating modes. Each
operating mode has dedicated banked registers for fast
exception handling. The processor has a total of 37 32-bit
registers, including 6 status registers. [4][10].

2.1.1 3- stage Pipeline structure

Figure2. 3-Stage Pipeline structure

The pipeline has three stages; FETCH,
DECODE and EXECUTE. The hardware of each stage is
designed to be independent so up to three instructions can
be processed simultaneously. The pipeline is most
effective in speeding up sequential code. [10].
2.1.2 Concept of THUMB
The ARM7TDMI processor employs a unique
Architectural strategy known as THUMB, which makes
it ideally suited to high-volume applications with memory
restrictions, or applications where code density is an issue
The key idea behind THUMB is that of a super
reduced instruction set. Essentially, the ARM7TDMI
processor has two instruction sets:
• The standard 32-bit ARM set
• a 16-bit THUMB set [15]
SMS to

Alarm for
for engine

(ARM – 7)
ng unit
Gas level
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS)

Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2011
The THUMB set’s 16-bit instruction length
allows it to approach twice the density of standard ARM
code while retaining most of the ARM’s performance
advantage over a traditional 16-bit processor using 16-bit
registers. This is possible because THUMB code operates
on the same 32- bit register set as ARM code.
THUMB code is able to provide up to 65% of
the code size of ARM, and 160% of the performance of
an equivalent ARM processor connected to a 16-bit
memory system. [4][10].

Figure3. THUMB instruction concept

This allows instruction to be stored in 16 bit
format, expanded into ARM instruction & then executed.
Although the THUMB instruction, they will achieve a
much higher code density. So in order to build a
reasonably sized application that will fit on a small single
chip microcontroller, it is vital to compile code as a
mixture of ARM & THUMB function. This process is
called interworking & is easily supported on all ARM
compilers. By compiling code in THUMB instruction set
we can get a space saving of 30%, while same code
compiled as ARM code will run 40% faster. [4][10].

3. Engine Temperature Sensor

To measure temperature of the engine in running
condition different sensors module can be applied like e.g.
thermocouple. Basically thermocouple is comprised of
two joints; first one is connected to the surface of which
surface temperature is to be measured. This junction is
called as the measuring junction or the hot end. The
second joint, which must be connected to the surface of
known temperature. This end can be considered as the
reference temperature end.
Here temperature of unknown surface is
measured with respect to the reference surface or cold
surface. Fig.4 drawn below depicts the fundamental
details about the thermocouple.
Basic working principle of working of
thermocouple is based on:
I. Seebeck effect.
II. Peltier effect, and
III. Thomson effect.
As shown in figure at point P the first junction is
placed, of which temperature is to be measured, this place
is called as the hot place. The second joint is connected to
the reference end at which the reference temperature is to
be measured. Hence unknown temperature of the surface
is measured with reference to the cold temperature[11].
Though the working principle of thermocouple
is quite simple still, it possesses certain drawbacks that
make it most unsuitable for the proposed work. Important
drawbacks are:
Temperature measurement with a
thermocouple requires two temperatures be measured, the
junction at the work end (the hot junction) and the
junction where wires meet the instrumentation copper
wires (cold junction).

Figure4. Thermocouple

To avoid error the cold junction temperature is in
general compensated in the electronic instruments by
measuring the temperature at the terminal block using
with a semiconductor, thermistor or RTD.
Thermocouples operations are relatively
complex with potential sources of error. The materials of
which thermocouple wires are made are not inert and the
thermoelectric voltage developed along the length of the
thermocouple wire may be influenced by corrosion etc.
Because of all such important drawbacks it is
always preferred to use new temperature sensor having
outstanding features i.e. PT 100[12].
It offers excellent accuracy over a wide
temperature range (from-200 to +850 °C). Standard
Sensors are available from many manufacturers with
various accuracy specifications and numerous packaging
options to suit most applications. Unlike thermocouples, it
is not necessary to use special cables to connect to the

Figure5. PT 100 Temperature Sensor
As the temperature is measured by the sensor then it
will display the temperature and it indicates to start the
cooling system for the cooling purpose of the engine.


16 bit

International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS)

Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2011
4. GSM Module security

According to statistics large numbers of vehicles are
stolen around the world. Everybody is afraid of the
stealing of the car. As safety or security is one the prime
concern it is necessary to provide security through
advanced technology like GSM.

Figure6. Block Diagram for GSM Module

By using GSM module we can locate the exact position
of the vehicle as well as if there is any unauthorized
movement & tamper in the vehicle the owner is
immediately get alert through the SMS. [6] [7] [8].
In case of accident, the message will gone to the
number what we have entered into the system e.g. any
family member, friend or insurance company etc. so that
they will alert & corresponding action will be taken.
So the proposed system will acts as a “anti theft security

Figure7.SIM 300 GSM Module
In the proposed system we are using GSM module
like SIM 300 which is designed for global market,
SIM300 is a Tri-band GSM/GPRS engine that works on
frequencies EGSM 900 MHz, DCS 1800 MHz and
PCS1900 MHz SIM300 provides GPRS multi-slot class
10 capabilities and support the GPRS coding schemes CS-
1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4. SIM300 can fit almost all the
space requirement in your application, such as Smart
phone, PDA phone and other mobile device. This GSM
modem is highly flexible plug and play quad band GSM
modem integration to RS232. It Supports features like
Voice, Data/Fax, SMS, GPRS and integrated TCP/IP
stack. It Control via AT commands (GSM 07.07, 07.05
and enhanced AT commands) it Use AC – DC Power
Adaptor with following ratings  DC Voltage: 12V /1’s
Current Consumption in normal operation 250mA, can
rise up to 1Amp while transmission.[12]

5. Speed control sensor

Now a day’s speed controlling is a serious issue, because
number of accidents is due to speed of the car. So it is
necessary to have a control on speed also due to advent of
high speed cars & overcrowded roads safety has become
the prime concern for the car manufacturers. So in the
proposed system we control the speed of car.
Further improvement in this is to lock the speed
of the vehicle so that it does not exceed the speed
whatever we set. Hence this system sense the speed of
vehicle & control it by locking to particular value.
Here we are using speed sensor like
is a slotted Opto isolator module, with an IR transmitter
& a photodiode mounted on it. Performs Non-Contact
Object Sensing. This is normally used as positional
sensor switch (limit switch) or as Position Encoder
sensors used to find position of the wheel. It consists of
IR LED and Photodiode mounted facing each other
enclosed in plastic body.[12]

When light emitted by the IR LED is blocked
because of alternating slots of the encoder disc logic level
of the photo diode changes. This change in the logic level
can be sensed by the microcontroller or by discrete
hardware. This sensor is used to give position feedback to
the robot or as Limit switches.

Figure8. MOC 7811 sensor



LCD Display

International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS)

Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2011
6. Servicing Alert System
In today’s high-tech and fast running world everybody is
approaching towards his work and more importantly to
earn the money and forgetting about the basic
requirement of the vehicle. Humans are using vehicle
very effectively but they are unable to do servicing of the
vehicle which is the basic requirement of the excellent
condition of the vehicle. So keeping all this aspects in
mind the proposed system is approaching to overcome
this difficulty by simply adding the advanced feature like
servicing alert system, which gives you a alarming alert
whenever the vehicle will crosses the threshold value of
So once the vehicle marks its threshold
kilometer mark then the alarm is on and indicating about
the servicing of vehicle.
Figure9: Block diagram for Servicing Alert System

7. Gas level Monitoring Unit

Mostly recent vehicles are equipped with petrol as a
primary fuel to run the system and LPG as a secondary
fuel source. In case of emergency secondary unit can be
activated to run the vehicle without any interruption.
LPG gas source is quite simple to use but
sometimes it becomes unsafe whenever, even, because of
small leakage. Advanced IVP Unit is equipped with
advanced gas level monitoring unit. MQ-5 is the best
option as far as GAS level is to be detected.
MQ-5 sensor is based on SnO2 material, in this
material or sensor the sensor conductivity is lower when
the sensor is placed in clean air but when the MQ-5 is
exposed to the combustible gas it’s conductivity increases
and becomes more higher along with the gas
concentration. Present system also detects the possible
level of methane, propane as well as butane.[12]

Figure10. MQ-5 LPG Sensor.

Fig.11 shown below depicts the interfacing
diagram for the MQ-5 sensor. The variable resistor R
must be carefully adjusted before being exposed any
premises. [13]

Figure11. MQ-5 Sensitivity adjustment circuit

MQ-5 sensor can be exposed to sense the LPG,
Methane, Propane and Butane as well, to select the
parameter or the gas to be sense it is required to adjust the
load resistor properly. For measuring the LPG it is
required to calibrate the MQ-5 for 1000ppm H
or simply
the load resistor of approximately 20Kohm

8. Annotations

{ data= adc_read();
// data=max;
data= adc_read();
wait ();
U1THR = 48 + d4 ;
U1THR = 48 + d3 ;
U1THR = 48 + d2 ;
U1THR = 48 + d1 ;
U1THR = 13 ;

International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS)

Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2011
U1THR = 13 ;
print ("Project By SAGAR");
IOSET0 = 0x00400000;
wait (); // call wait function //
IOCLR0 =0x00400000; // Turn off
wait ();}}
Figure12. Result of LPG Sensor Interfacing

9. Conclusion
In the existing system the stress was given on the safety
of the vehicle, modification in the physical structure of
the vehicle but the proposed system introduces essential
concept in the field of automobile industry. It is an
interfacing of the advanced technologies like Embedded
Systems and the Automobile world. As per the discussion
under the section 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 this application is best
suitable for vehicle security as well as for vehicle’s
The proposed system also introduces novel
concept of the servicing alert system. Under this concept
we will able to provide the awareness about the servicing
requirement of the vehicle so that vehicle free running
condition can be obtained & the life of vehicle is
Further it also supports advanced feature of
GSM module interfacing. Through this concept in case of
any emergency or accident the system will automatically
sense and records the different parameters like LPG gas
level, Engine Temperature, present speed and etc. so that
at the time of investigation this parameters may play
important role to find out the possible reasons of the
Further, in case of accident & in case of stealing
of vehicle GSM module will send SMS to the Police,
insurance company as well as to the family members.

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[2] Safety Automation of Cars Using Embedded
Microcontrollers World Academy of Science,
Engineering and Technology 6 2005
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[6] Lien-Wu Chen, Kun-Ze Syue, and Yu-Chee Tseng

A Vehicular Surveillance and Sensing System for
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[10] The insider’s’ guide to the Philips arm7 based