A Look into the Future of Warfare:

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5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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A Look into the Future of Warfare:

The Joint Battlespace Infosphere




Harold W. Carter

University of Cincinnati

http://www.ececs.uc.edu/~hcarter

2

"The
Internet

is like a weapon sitting on a
table ready to be picked up by either you or
your competitors.”
(Michael Dell)

“Similar web
-
based systems will be cheaply
available to U.S. adversaries from global vendors.



if the U.S. goal is information superiority, there is
no option

but to plunge into the issues of web
-
oriented C2.”


(1999 AF SAB, “Building the Joint Battlespace Infosphere”)

3

Commander’s Perspective

Leverage Information for the Warfighter

1999 SAB Study:

“Building the Joint Battlespace Infosphere”

Global Grid

Facilitate
post crisis
reshaping

Collaborative
planning and
execution

Right forces at
the right time

Total
situational
awareness

The World Has Changed…To Meet
Our Responsibilities we must:

Assemble disparate forces and
resources into one joint
tailored force rapidly and
effectively to employ anywhere
in the world

4

Information Management Problem


Current C2ISR tools only get us

part way there


Large, monolithic, rigid enterprises


Unique information infrastructures


Interoperability issues


System admin & configuration overhead


Decision
-
maker must filter & aggregate


Kosovo Lessons:



“Info fatigue”


“Cyber
-
rubbernecking”


Brand new enterprise systems

cost
-
prohibitive (time & $$)

DCGS

GCCS

TBMCS


GDSS

?

Decision

Maker

!!

AOC

http://www.sab.hq.af.mil/Archives/index.htm

6

JBI Basics


Information exchange


Publish/Subscribe/Query



Transforming data

to knowledge


Fuselets


The JBI is a system of systems that integrates, aggregates,
& distributes information to users at all echelons, from
the command center to the battlefield.

The JBI is built on four key technologies:


Distributed collaboration


Shared, updateable
knowledge objects



Force/Unit interfaces


Templates

»
Operational capability

»
Information inputs

»
Information requirements

7

Publish & Subscribe

JBI

Client

Publish

Publish

Object

Subscribe

Publication

Service



Publish:

Installation of Objects in “Catalog of
Published Objects” maintained by specialized
Publication Services. Services also maintain lists of
pending Subscriptions



Subscribe:

Subscriptions specify metadata
values that must match corresponding values in
newly Published Objects
-

forward looking in time



Query:

Like Subscription, but without automatic
triggering
-

backward looking in time



Publication Service Processing:

-

Test

each new Published Object against all
pending Subscriptions

-

Test

each new Query against all previously
Published Objects


Search:
Trade
-
off Timeliness against Accuracy in Information Delivery

8

JBI Fuselets



JBI Clients
that create new knowledge derived from JBI
information objects




Small programs
that publish JBI objects by refining or fusing
information in a
relatively simple way




Capture simple decision logic
which can be expressed in a natural
way (e.g. rules)




Created
using scripting languages (e.g. JavaScript) or simple
programming tools to adapt JBI information flows to dynamic
mission needs




Obtained
from a library
, configured, and placed in service

to
accomplish particular job in a JBI




Not
currently viewed as

either

mobile
or

intelligent

9

Example: fuselets that
aggregate


Each air base publishes a “base status” object to the JBI. A
fuselet that has subscribed to this type of object is triggered and
publishes an aggregate “mission base status” object.














Complex aggregation is achieved by
cascading

fuselets, forming
higher
-
level knowledge.


Represents challenges in
control
.

Fuselet

Subscribe

Mission base
status

Ramstein status

Aviano status

Taszar status

Publish

10

Objects and Metadata



OBJECT


Set of attribute/value pairs


Standardized metadata


Mission
-
standard object
type definitions

METADATA

OBJ
-
ID: TBMCS
-
59

JBI
-
CLIENT FLEX
-
1765A

OBJ
-
TYPE:




ATO
-
MSG



Time
-
stamp: 06222001

SECURITY: UNCLAS

GEO: 167/34/27W
-
45/22/57N

ATTRIBUTES

AND VALUES

<CAMPAIGN
-
ID DECISIVE
-
HALT
-
2001>

<MSGID ATO/TACC>

<AIRTASK RECONNAISSANCE>

<TASKUNIT 63
-
TRS/KXXQ/DET
-
1
-
FOL>

<MSNDAT AF0025/
-
/PHICO
-
10/1RF4C/REC>

<RECDATA 8AA001/PRY:2/301500Z/
-
/SLAR>

<TRCPLOT 420035N0153545E/RAD:50NM>

<INGRESS
-
ROUTE >

<COMMAND
-
GUIDANCE >

11

Force Template

Information handshake between the JBI and the
combat unit (defines subscribe and publish data to
JBI).


Information interface requirements:



Information required to accomplish mission



Example: Required accuracy of targeting information


C2 and ISR capabilities:



ISR inputs to JBI



Example: weapons pod camera


Force capabilities:



Sortie rates (steady state and surge)



Employment restrictions



Munitions (TLAMs)



Current readiness state



Logistics requirements

Force
Template

12

Force / Unit Templates


Information requirements


Information products/outputs


Communications requirements


Computing systems


Force employment capability


Ammunition inventory


Fuel requirements


Personnel requirements


Information
requirements


Information
products/outputs


Communications
requirements


Computing systems

Combat Unit

Support Unit

JBI



Mandatory unit subscriptions


Mandatory unit publications


Network routing information


units and their native IM
systems


Comprehensive
Information “handshake”


Software descriptions of military units that
are to be integrated into the JBI


Describes pub/sub exchange; based on IERs


Drives JBI reconfiguration to incorporate new

13

C4ISR and the JBI

Command

Battlespace

InfoSphere

Execution

Combat

Support

Info Support

Planning

Planning/

Execution

Products

Command
Guidance


User

Information


Products & DBs

Fusion

Products

Combat

Support

Products

Publish

Subscribe

Transform

Query

Control

Representation

Task Centric

Presentations


Collaborative

Problem

Solving

Automatic

Formatting &

Filtering

Automatic

Data Capture

Common

Architectural Concept

SENSORS

Coalition partners

ABCS

TBMCS

GCCS
-
M

AFATDS

GCSS

SYSTEMS



Subscribe

Publish

Global Grid, Web,
Internet,….

JBI Repository

JBI Platform

JBI Subscription

Broker

Meta

data

Meta

data

Meta

data

JBI Query

Broker

?

?

?

JBI

Management

Services

ACCESS

Personnel

BDA

Orders of

Battle

Weather

Targets

Etc....

B

A

T

T

L

E

S

P

A

C

E


I
N
F
O


Intentions

C

o

n

n

e

c

t

o

r

s

Query

15

JBI Operational Architecture



Focuses

on the tasks, information flows, and
operational elements that meet the warfighter
needs




Defined

through such products as:



operational concept documents



command relationship charts



activity models



information exchange requirements



required capabilities matrices




Develops

enterprise view and representation of
operational processes

16

JBI Systems Architecture



Identifies

the information systems components and interconnections


that make up the JBI development and execution environment.




JBI platform
, the run
-
time component that implements information


exchange among C2ISR systems and fuselets





Systems

needed to implement the entire JBI lifecycle




Unit Infospheres




Mission
-
specific JBIs.




Includes
tools and reuse repositories

to support



Conceptual modeling



Object modeling



Allocation of object model component publication,


subscription & query responsibilities



Performance modeling

17

JBI Technical Architecture




Identifies

applicable portions of existing standards




Joint Technical Architecture




Establishes

new standards where there are voids





Standard template for stating JBI
object models




Baseline common object models



Mission
-
specific JBI object models



Unit infosphere object models



Individual C2ISR system object models





Standard template for stating publication, subscription, query,
and query response
responsibilities

at the same levels as for the
object model




Interface protocols

that define the service calls between the JBI
platform and all systems that interface with the platform, including
C2ISR systems and fuselets

18

JBI

Repository

JBI
Query

Broker

JBI Subscription

Broker

JBI

Management

Services

JBI

Clients

JBI Platform

Meta

data

Connector

ACCESS

Access

Policy

Global Grid, Web, Internet,….

JBI Platform Architecture

?

Meta

data

Meta

data

19

Advanced JBI Platform:

Required JBI Infrastructure


JBI Infrastructure Services / Capabilities Layer


Publish / Subscribe / Query

Mechanisms & Support Services


Information Object Representation / Types / Schemas / Metadata /
Ontologies


Distributed Object Spaces / Virtual Repositories


White & Yellow Pages for Information & Service Location


Transform


Fuselet Construction, Modification, Composition, and Control Services


Control


JBI Stand Up/Down Services


JBI Client Protocols, Certification & Registration Services


Unit / Force Join & Depart Services


JBI Access, Performance, Control, and Maintenance Services


Information Flow Level QoS Management


Information Assurance / Pedigree Capture / Security & DIW


World Wide Web Layer


Internet Layer


Global Grid Communications Layer

20

DESIGN:




Concentrate design effort on ops functionality



Integrate at information level
--

focus on content vs.
format; de
-
couple data & applications

ACQUIRE:



Competitive market economy for info services & products
within the JBI; no single
-
vendor solutions



Rapid plug
-
n
-
play, standards
-
based insertion of
innovative functionality and technology

DEPLOY:



Build & evolve agile JTF info framework driven by
campaign CONOPS & dynamics of ops environment
--

just
like force structure

EMPLOY:



Timely decision
-
making from decision quality information



Unity of effort through shared understanding


Best

of breed

JBI Payoffs

The JBI will revolutionize the way we…

Faster,

cheaper

Customized,

Adaptive

Services

Information

Dominance

Enabled by Web Infrastructure

21

JBI Impact


Design


JBI abstraction barrier isolates information layer from
delivery concerns


Designers focus on information needed for decision making


Enables designers to emphasize information availability, not
location & ownership


Emphasize information content, not data format


Acquire


“Plug & Play” integration at the information level


Open competition on basis of functionality & performance
-

“best of breed” clients


C2ISR Product lines, not company store


Low cost of entry for innovators


High payoff through information
-
level synergy


Evolution of functionality through rapid new technology
insertion (e.g., MP3)

22

JBI Impact
(Concluded)


Deploy


“Plug & Play” C2ISR component selection & assembly driven
by current mission requirements


Information system architecture (the “Information Plan”) co
-
designed with the CINC’s campaign plan, force structure plan,
deployment plan


“Designed” from the start to be responsive to CINC policy &
goals


Agility in the face of changing missions, roles, coalitions


Economy of functionality


Employ


See Gen McCarthy’s 1999 JBI summer study outbriefing !


The existence of a CINC
-
orchestrated “Information Plan”
implies:


Plan execution


Real
-
time execution assessment


Replanning


Better decisions, faster

23

Current Status


AC2ISRC “Wright
-
Flyer” JBI



“Integrated” Cat III for JEFX 00



ISR Battle Management scenario


JBI Task Force



Mapping technical/operational way
ahead; securing acquisition funding



Assembling joint partners



Concept Validation Prototypes

(Y
-
JBIs)



Explore design space



Identify most viable components for

operational spirals



Goal is relatively inexpensive
evaluation & idea generation

wf
-
JBI

Design


space

YJBI
-
1’s

wfJBI

MOE/MOP

24

JBI Evolution


Provides an integrating substrate
of information management
services to link all C2 functionality


New solutions “plug
-
in” without
rebuilding all service layers


Supplants old infrastructures while
providing migration path for existing
C2 systems


Significant acquisition, deployment,
and employment gains

Dissolves Stovepipes & Delivers

Seamless Access to Information

Infrastructure

TBMCS

TBMCS

GCCS

GCCS

GDSS

GDSS

Emerging

C2 tools

Y
-
JBI

Infrastructure

Battlespace
InfoSphere
WEB ENABLED

JBI
-
1

Joint
Campaign
Planning

Mobility
Planning

Battlespace
Awareness

Effects

Based

Ops

25

SAB Recommended

Technology Investments

LEVERAGE E
-
BUSINESS SOLUTIONS WITH ROBUST DOD S&T INVESTMENTS

Commercial Tech:

YJBI
-
1

Today

2001


Web Technology:

XML, XSL, XQL


E
-
commerce
Solutions

JBI
-
1

Near
-
Term

2005


Enterprise
Application
Integration (EAI)
Middleware


Digital Libraries

DoD S&T:

JBI
-
2


Data Warehousing


Immersive Virtual
Environments

Long
-
Term

2010


Information
Assurance &
Survivability


Advanced Data/Sensor
Fusion


Intelligent Agents


Distributed Storage,
Indexing, & Retrieval


Auto Data Capture &
Info Extraction


Warfighter
Connectivity

26

SAB Specific Recommendations


Immediate

low
-
cost

prototypes
:

AFRL
/AC
2
ISRC


JBI Platform technical architecture: ESC


Evaluation of relevant COTS: ESC


Military requirements for C2 Info Integration: AC2ISRC


Common Representation/Templates: DISA/ESC


Long term research:


Advanced JBI Platform:
DARPA with AFRL


Advanced fusion concepts:
AFRL with DARPA


Information assurance:
DARPA with AFRL


Agent
-
based technology:
DARPA with AFRL


Advanced data survivable systems:
DARPA/AFRL


Active networks:
AFRL


Dynamic User Modeling:
DARPA/AFRL



27

JBI High
-
Level Approach

COTS T&E

DoD R&D + GOTS T&E

Integration & Experimentation

Integrated Feasibility
Demonstrations /
Experiments (IFD/E)

JBI =
f
(COTS + GOTS + DoD
-
specific R&D)

Adopt / Adapt / Develop to maintain
low cost of entry
;

“Buy, don’t Build”

28

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

JBI Roadmap

YJBI
-
1a

YJBI
-
1b

YJBI
-
1c

YJBI
-
1d

CONOPS

CONOPS

CONOPS


Technical Architecture


Technical Architecture


Technical Architecture

DARPA

Target ($M)
14.0
14.5
20.5
23.0
24.0
23.0
21.0
COTS Insertion + Foundational DoD Science & Technology

wfJBI

JBI
-
1 Block 10

JBI
-
1 Block 20

JBI
-
1 Block 30

JBI
-
2

JBI

Experimental Testbed

JEFX 00

JEFX 02

JEFX 04

JEFX 06

29

Long
-
Term Research
Areas Summary


Advanced JBI Platform


Fundamental “core services” for Publish, Subscribe, Query,
Transform and Control


Common Representation for information standardization


Advanced Fusion Concepts


Integrate traditionally separate research communities for
fusion, planning, and IW for a new form of COP


Information Assurance & Survivability


Novel approaches (e.g., NLP and semantic modeling) needed
to control exchange of information between classification
and coalition domains: MLS/MSL remain critical
requirements despite failures of traditional approaches


Vulnerabilities/challenges introduced by JBI
-
related
technologies; e.g., Shared
-
spaces (JavaSpaces/Jini); XML;
Distributed components (CORBA, EJB, Agents, etc.)

30

Long
-
Term Research

Areas Summary
(Continued)


Agent
-
Based Technology


Agents with network awareness for bandwidth adaptation


Enhanced mobility, control & coordination, and inter
-
agent communication


Scalability & agent security issues


Information Acquisition and Storage


Automatic data capture & info extraction services


Advanced data storage & retrieval (e.g., geospatial
-
temporal indexing)


Effective Interfaces


Context Understanding


Multiple, simultaneous
-
user, interactive environments


Cross
-
language transformation for seamless coalition
collaboration, preferably in real
-
time


Near real
-
time, dynamically
-
composable simulations to
support visualization and decision
-
making

31

JBI “SWAT Team”


Goal:

Seize the JBI opportunity to provide the research,
development and technical leadership necessary to formulate and
execute a comprehensive program of research and development
of the technical architecture for C2ISR by:


Engaging

in early experimental prototyping of JBI Platform
services as a basis for idea generation, concept refinement,
and evaluation.


Performing in parallel systems studies and analysis

of long
term JBI Platform architecture focusing on downstream
functionality for spiral development


Providing the catalyst for the refocus of on
-
going AFRL/IF
R&D activities
, or the initiation of new AFRL/IF R&D activities,
in partnership with others, in the long
-
term JBI technology
areas recommended by the SAB

32

JBI “SWAT Team”


Small cadre of full time senior S&Es


Senior mentor


Large support group of part time S&Es from across directorate


Focus on experimental exploration of JBI Platform design space



JBI Core Services



JBI Technical Architecture


Build & maintain AFRL/IF node of JBI Testbed


Serve as hub of AFRL IF Directorate JBI activities


Bridges to each Division


Outreach to each Branch


Long Term JBI Research and other JBI enabling R&D


Requirements pull for the JBI


Early access to evolving JBI concepts in the Testbed


Collaborate and support outside JBI activities


DARPA


AC2ISRC


ESC/MITRE


AFRL/HE


Other Service Labs

33

Testbed Purpose


Host and facilitate full evolution of the JBI


Support multiple prototypes (incl. wfJBI) for
collaborative development and experimentation


Provide an integration environment for legacy
and emerging C2ISR systems


Support industry IR&D efforts with access to C2
architectures & systems


Provide JBI component developers regular
access to evolving JBI Services


mitigates risk
for downstream insertion


Support operational assessment and evaluation

34

Distributed Testbed Nodes

OSC
-

Langley

ESC
-

Hanscom

ARFL
-

Rome

C2B
-

Hurlburt

DBCC
-

Nellis


Management / Assessment
Center


Requirement communities


Operational communities


Management communities


Experimentation /
Demonstration Site


Science & Technology Developer



R&D for enabling technologies


DARPA agent & transition vehicle


Experimentation & Evaluation Node


COTS/GOTS ring
-
out and analysis


Platform assessment & prototype development


Integration Partner w/ ESC


Emerging / legacy systems into JBI


JBI component technologies


Joint functional components
onto JBI service layers


System Architects


System and Technical architecture specifications


Standards & Protocols


Experimentation/Evaluation Node


COTS/GOTS ring
-
out and analysis


Metrics collection with operational systems


Integration Partner with AFRL


Requirements Analysis & Transition


Translation of ops to technical reqts


Support transition of JBI services/


components to operational


fielding



Operational Process Hub


Develop / refine new CONOPS to drive
JBI capabilities



Warfighter Assessment Center


Access to warfighter users on continuous basis


Full array of fielded systems and architectures


Established feedback and evaluation processes



Operational Assessment Center


Access to warfighter users on continuous basis


Full array of fielded systems and architectures


Established feedback and evaluation processes



Large
-
Force Employment Node


Robust, realistic scenarios


Operational ring
-
out


35

Summary: JBI Vision

Decision
-
Quality Information

Globally Interoperable Information “Space” that …

Aggregates,
integrates,
fuses, and
disseminates
tailored
battlespace
information
to all
echelons of
a JTF

Links JTF
sensors,

systems &

users
together
for unity
of effort



Integrates

legacy C2

resources

Focuses on
Decision
-
Making

Enables Affordable
Technology Refresh

Leverages Emerging
Commercial Technologies

36

"Information superiority becomes
a precondition for fighting to
achieve air and space
superiority,"

Lt. Gen. Liu Shunyao,

Chief, China Peoples Liberation Army Air Force

28 Feb 2000, AW&ST

(“Chinese War Plans Emphasize Air Force's Offensive Role”)

Questions?