The Integration of Traditional Ecological


8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 2 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

42 εμφανίσεις

The Integration of Traditional Ecological
Knowledge with Western Science for
Sustainable Forest Management

Frank K. Lake

Corvallis Forestry Sciences
Lab/Intertribal Program Office, OSU

Environmental Science, Graduate Ph.D

Raised in NW California

Fisheries and Fire Ecology

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

A cumulative body of knowledge, practice, and
belief, evolving by adaptive processes and handed
down through generations by cultural transmission,
about the relationship of living beings (including
humans) with one another and with the
environment…is both cumulative and dynamic,
building on experience and adapting to changes

(Berkes 1999:8 in
Sacred Ecology

TEK and Cultural Environmental
Management Practices

Work with the “Natural” conditions of the local
environment across many different habitats

Often mimics natural processes observed in nature
to increase biodiversity locally and/or regionally

Refinement of TEK and CEMP through time lead to
the maintenance and/or enhancement of ecosystem

Effects vary in intensity, spatially and temporally
across the landscape

Cultural Environmental
Management Practices

Mimics natural physical and biological
disturbance processes

Fire (seasonality and location may differ)

Animals (extent and duration may differ)

Buffer against extreme ranges of natural

Fosters biodiversity and productivity

Learning to read and understand Nature

The Development of Native
Peoples’ Ecological Literacy

Traditional Ecological

Management Practices

Fostering of

Ethics of Sustainability

Ecological Literacy

Expanding and developing further than environmental

Leaning to “Read” and understand ecological processes
and explain phenomena of Nature

Integrate TEK and Western Scientific Knowledge

Accumulates inter
generationally by individuals and

Defined: The ability of an individual or community to
observed, understand, and predict ecological
processes and phenomena of Nature.

Evolution of TEK and CEMP


Lertzman, Spies, and Swanson 1997

Sustainable forest management
What is it any way?

… “is the process of managing forest to achieve
one or more clearly specified objectives of
management with regard to the production of a
continuous flow of desired forest products and
services without undue reduction of its inherent
values and future productivity and without undue
undesirable effects on the physical and social


Criteria and Indicators: Cultural
vs. Western
Should they differ?

Tribal governments and communities have the
unique ability to set the stage and lead by
example what sustainable forest management
can be and is.

Criteria and indicators can reflect multiple
knowledge systems and include a broader
definition of forest productivity or “goods and
services” provided by the land base.

Integrated Resource Management
Plans and Forest Management Plans

These documents provide an opportunity for tribal
governments and communities to a have functional role
in the world timber market and retain their unique eco
cultural values and a modest quality of life.

These documents also often reflect a strong place based
commitment that accounts for social
processes and interactions that are not often reflected in
other non
Native management plans.

Forest Productivity

A tribal definition ?

Sustainable supply of timber and other forest products

Preservation of water quality and quantity

Preservation of fish and wildlife habitat

Good quantity and quality of food, medicinal, and
material resources

Preservation of spiritual
cultural resources

Maintenance of a sense of place: self and community

Timber harvesting practices that
account for multiple values

Harvesting practices that account for
productive basket material patches

Over story
basal area and

Light and

Low intensity

Harvesting practices that account for
productive berry and herb patches

Over story
canopy conditions: basal area and
species preferences

Light and nutrient requirements

Harvesting and fire sensitivity of tree and
understory species to management

Forest Restoration: Fuel Reduction and
Prescribed Burning

Understand how Native
peoples used fire in the

Landscape level effects

Lighting vs.

Fire Adapted

Overstory vs.

Photo: Curtis, Klamath Indian

Oak woodland and savanna restoration:
Reinstating Indigenous land use practices.

Harvesting of conifers and hardwoods

Prescribed burning

Establishment Study: Culturally significant plants

Camas, Lilies, Brodiaea, Wyethia, Lomatium, etc.

Headwater Springs

Sacred places/prayer spots

Pacific giant salamander

Water and food processing


Clear vegetation

Water yield

Water Quantity and

Closing Ideas and Questions?

How realistic is the integration of TEK with
western science for sustainable forest

Can tribal IRMPs and FMPs serve as templates for
other governments or companies if such
divergent eco
cultural values of forest resources
exist between western and tribal communities?

What current tribal forest management examples
are available as case studies or of successful
adaptive management?