The Integration of Traditional Ecological

obnoxiouspotpieΔιαχείριση

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

45 εμφανίσεις

The Integration of Traditional Ecological
Knowledge with Western Science for
Sustainable Forest Management

Frank K. Lake

USFS
-
Corvallis Forestry Sciences
Lab/Intertribal Program Office, OSU

Environmental Science, Graduate Ph.D
program

Raised in NW California

Fisheries and Fire Ecology

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Traditional Ecological Knowledge



A cumulative body of knowledge, practice, and
belief, evolving by adaptive processes and handed
down through generations by cultural transmission,
about the relationship of living beings (including
humans) with one another and with the
environment…is both cumulative and dynamic,
building on experience and adapting to changes


(Berkes 1999:8 in
Sacred Ecology
).



TEK and Cultural Environmental
Management Practices


Work with the “Natural” conditions of the local
environment across many different habitats


Often mimics natural processes observed in nature
to increase biodiversity locally and/or regionally


Refinement of TEK and CEMP through time lead to
the maintenance and/or enhancement of ecosystem
productivity


Effects vary in intensity, spatially and temporally
across the landscape


Cultural Environmental
Management Practices


Mimics natural physical and biological
disturbance processes

Fire (seasonality and location may differ)

Animals (extent and duration may differ)


Buffer against extreme ranges of natural
variability


Fosters biodiversity and productivity



Learning to read and understand Nature

The Development of Native
Peoples’ Ecological Literacy


Traditional Ecological
Knowledge


Cultural
Environmental
Management Practices


Fostering of
Community


Ethics of Sustainability

Ecological Literacy


Expanding and developing further than environmental
education


Leaning to “Read” and understand ecological processes
and explain phenomena of Nature


Integrate TEK and Western Scientific Knowledge


Accumulates inter
-
generationally by individuals and
community



Defined: The ability of an individual or community to
observed, understand, and predict ecological
processes and phenomena of Nature.


Evolution of TEK and CEMP

Humans?

Lertzman, Spies, and Swanson 1997

Sustainable forest management
-
What is it any way?


… “is the process of managing forest to achieve
one or more clearly specified objectives of
management with regard to the production of a
continuous flow of desired forest products and
services without undue reduction of its inherent
values and future productivity and without undue
undesirable effects on the physical and social
environment”

ITTO

Criteria and Indicators: Cultural
vs. Western
-
Should they differ?


Tribal governments and communities have the
unique ability to set the stage and lead by
example what sustainable forest management
can be and is.


Criteria and indicators can reflect multiple
knowledge systems and include a broader
definition of forest productivity or “goods and
services” provided by the land base.

Integrated Resource Management
Plans and Forest Management Plans


These documents provide an opportunity for tribal
governments and communities to a have functional role
in the world timber market and retain their unique eco
-
cultural values and a modest quality of life.



These documents also often reflect a strong place based
commitment that accounts for social
-
ecological
processes and interactions that are not often reflected in
other non
-
Native management plans.

Forest Productivity



A tribal definition ?


Sustainable supply of timber and other forest products


Preservation of water quality and quantity


Preservation of fish and wildlife habitat


Good quantity and quality of food, medicinal, and
material resources


Preservation of spiritual
-
cultural resources


Maintenance of a sense of place: self and community
identity


Timber harvesting practices that
account for multiple values

Harvesting practices that account for
productive basket material patches


Over story
-
canopy
conditions:
basal area and
species
preferences


Light and
nutrient
requirements


Low intensity
fires

Harvesting practices that account for
productive berry and herb patches


Over story
-
canopy conditions: basal area and
species preferences


Light and nutrient requirements


Harvesting and fire sensitivity of tree and
understory species to management

Forest Restoration: Fuel Reduction and
Prescribed Burning



Understand how Native
peoples used fire in the
past


Landscape level effects


Lighting vs.
Anthropogenic


Fire Adapted
Ecosystems


Overstory vs.
understory


Photo: Curtis, Klamath Indian

Oak woodland and savanna restoration:
Reinstating Indigenous land use practices.



Harvesting of conifers and hardwoods


Prescribed burning


Establishment Study: Culturally significant plants

Camas, Lilies, Brodiaea, Wyethia, Lomatium, etc.



Aquatic
-
Headwater Springs


Sacred places/prayer spots

Pacific giant salamander




Water and food processing
sites


Burning

Clear vegetation

Water yield

Water Quantity and
Quality



Closing Ideas and Questions?


How realistic is the integration of TEK with
western science for sustainable forest
management?


Can tribal IRMPs and FMPs serve as templates for
other governments or companies if such
divergent eco
-
cultural values of forest resources
exist between western and tribal communities?


What current tribal forest management examples
are available as case studies or of successful
adaptive management?