Personal Observations of

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Personal Observations of
Environmental Engineering at the
U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency

on the Occasion of Rensselaer’s
50th Anniversary Environmental
Engineering Colloquium

K. Jack Kooyoomjian, Ph.D.

RPI Class of 1974

EPA IMPLEMENTATION OF
ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION


Creating A Law Requires an Act of Congress and
Agreement by the President of the U.S.: Events & Issues
Create Such Legislation


The Agency Operates in a “Fishbowl”: It’s A Very “Public”
Process


Creating A Regulation Implements the Legislation


The Whole Process Creates a Need for Technical
Staff/Support


Must Study & Understand Issues


Stakeholder & Public Involvement


Develop Federal Register Notices of Proposed & Final
Rules


Prepare Technical Background Docs, Preamble, Public
Docket, etc.


Effluent Guidelines Example


Superfund & RCRA Regulatory Support Examples



ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION


1899 Rivers and Harbors Act (Hazards to Navigation &
Commerce)


1947 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act


1948 Water Pollution Control Act (PL 80
-
845)


1955 Clean Air Act


1965 Shoreline Erosion Protection Act


1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act


1965 Water Quality Act (PL 89
-
234)


1966 Clean Waters Restoration Act (PL 89
-
753)


1969/70 National Environmental Policy Act:


Signed into Law Jan 1,1970


EPA is created as well as NOAA and CEQ


1970 Pollution Prevention Packaging Act


ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION



1970 Resource Recovery Act


1970 Water Quality Improvement Act (PL 91
-
224)


1971 Lead
-
Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act


1972 Coastal Zone Management Act


1972 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act


1972 Ocean Dumping Act


1972 Water Pollution Control Act (PL 92
-
500)


1973 Endangered Species Act


1974 Safe Drinking Water Act


1974 Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Act 1975
Hazardous Materials Transportation Act



Environmental Legislation


1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act


1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (PL 94
-
469)


1977 Clean Water Act (PL 95
-
217) & Its Amendments


1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act


1978 Environmental Research, Development, and
Demonstration


Authorization Act (ERDDAA, 42 USC 4365)


1978 Uranium Mill
-
Tailings Radiation Control Act


1978 Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act


1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act


1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act


1984 Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act

ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION


1986 Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act


1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know
Act


1987 Water Quality Act (PL 100
-
4)


1988 Indoor Radon Abatement Act


1988 Lead Contamination Control Act


1988 Medical Waste Tracking Act


1988 Ocean Dumping Ban Act


1988 Shore Protection Act


1990 National Environmental Education Act


1990 Oil Pollution Control Act


1990 Pollution Prevention Act …others, and


2002 Homeland Security Act



PRESIDENTIAL EXECUTIVE
ORDERS


Presidential Executive Orders Overlay the Process …see
examples


Indian Tribal Governments
below


Marine Protected Areas


To Protect Migrating Birds


Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply,
Distribution and Use


Federal Workforce, Transportation


“Greening” the Government & Transportation Efficiency


“Greening” the Government thru Leadership in
Environmental Management


Environmental Review of Trade Agreements


Developing & Promoting Bio
-
based & Bioengineering


“Greening” the Government thru Efficiency Management

PRESIDENTIAL EXECUTIVE
ORDERS


“Greening” the Government thru Waste Prevention,
Recycling & Federal Acquisition


Coral Reef Protection


Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks &
Safety Risks (Exec Order 13045 April 1997)


Energy Efficiency & Waste Conservation at Federal
Facilities (Exec Order 12902, March 1994)


Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in
Minority Populations and Low
-
Income Populations (Exec
Order 12898, Feb 1994)


Federal Use of Alternative Fueled Cars (Exec Order 13101,
Nov. 1993)


Presidential Executive Orders Can & Have Been Issued &
Recalled, Depending on Administration Policy

CEQ Regs Implementing NEPA


NEPA of 1969 as amended (Pub. L. 91
-
190, 42
USC 4321
-
4347, Jan 1, 1970, as amended by
Pub. L. 94
-
54, July 3, 1975, …)


Environmental Impact Statement


NEPA & Agency Planning


Commenting


Pre
-
Decision Referrals to the Council of
Proposed Federal Actions Determined to be
Environmental


Agency Compliance with NEPA


State/Local Government Role in
Environmental Programs


States Administrate Many Environmental Statutes & Regulations



State

Laws, Administrative Rules, Regulations, Codes & Statutes



Standards Cannot be Less Restrictive than the Federal Government, but May
be More Restrictive



Localities Administer Ordinances, Codes & Statutes, Comprehensive Plan
Process



States & Localities Deal With All Manner of Issues:

e.g., Agriculture, Air
Pollution & Air Quality, Acid Deposition, Dams, Ecosystem Management,
Endangered Species, Energy Conservation, Environmental Conservation,
Environmental Remediation, Environmental Treaties, Fisheries Conservation
& Management, Environmental Health, Hazardous Waste Management,
Land
-
Use, Municipal Landfills, Natural Resource Management, Non
-
Point
Sources, Public Health, RCRA Implementation & Compliance, Solid Waste
Management, “Smart
-
Growth,” Storm
-
Water Management, Suburban
Sprawl, Sustainability, Superfund Site Cleanups, Transportation Issues,
Water, Wildlife Management


& many others.


Environmental Protection Agency


A Decentralized Organization: 10 Regions, Labs & Field
Offices


“Stove Pipe” Legislation Still Does Heavily Drive
Programs


Work With the States in Implementation of Programs
(e.g., RCRA Permitting, NPDES Permits, Wetlands issues,
etc.) is Essential


Other Agencies, Dept., Commissions are Involved [e.g.,
CDC, HDS, DOD (includes U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers), DOE, DOI, NIH, NRC, NIST, USDA, etc.]


Need for More Integrated Cross
-
Media Problem
-
Solving
and Issue Management, as Risk Assessment/Risk
Management Coordination


Emphasis on Risk Reduction, Harmonization, Integrated
Risk, Benchmarking & Sustainability


Since 9/11, More Emphasis on Homeland Security Issues
(Water Supply, Wastewater Treatment Plants,
Information Security, Web Access, etc)

SCIENCE ADVISORY BOARD


Established by Congress in 1978 by the Environmental
Research, Development, and Demonstration
Authorization Act (ERDDAA, 42 USC 4365)



Emphasis on Providing the Administrator & the U.S.
Congress with outside, independent advice on scientific,
engineering &, economics & social science issues that
impact the technical basis for EPA positions, regulations,
research plans, etc.



Since It’s Inception, the SAB has Published over 600
Reports, Commentaries, Advisories, Consultations, etc.



Among Many of the SAB “Messages” is that Ecosystem
Health is as Important as Public Health, More Attention
Needs to be Paid to Cross
-
Media Issues, and Integrated
Risk Assessment is Difficult to Achieve, but is to be
Encouraged.




SCIENCE ADVISORY BOARD


The Board (Currently around 35 members)



Standing Committees Include DWC, EPEC, EEAC, EEC,
EHC/IHEC, RAC, & Separately Chartered CASAC &
COUNCIL (totals around 100)



Many Ad Hoc Panels: (Includes Approx. 300)


(e. g. Children’s Health, Regulatory Environmental
Models, Second Generation Model, etc.)




For SAB Reports, Meetings, etc. go to
www.epa.gov/sab


Fresh Water Institute Beginnings


1965
-

1975 Time
-
Frame


“Gull Bay” on East Side of Lake George (Town of
Putnam) leased from Mr. Harold Strang (RPI Trustee &
VP GE, Retired)


Dr. Richard Folsom, President of RPI &


Dr. Clayton Dohrenwend, Provost of RPI


Obtained NY State Science & Technology Foundation
Grant to purchase Specialty Laboratory Equipment


Research Theme was discussed with & endorsed by Dr.
C. Mervin Palmer, Dr. Cornelius Weber & Mr. Kenneth
Mackenthun of the US PHS/ FWPCA


RPI’s Proposal for the FWI was taken to Wash., DC and
received funding through US DOI’s OWRR & US PHS
FWPCA (later FWQA


the pre
-
US EPA Organization)

Fresh Water Institute Beginnings


Multi
-
Disciplinary, multi
-
institutional Proposal to US
National Committee of the International Biological
Program (IBP)


Lake George was Selected as a Study Site in the Eastern
Deciduous Forest Biome (EDFB) within the US IBP


Management for the EDFB resided with the Oak Ridge
National Lab, with Dr. Stanley I. Auerbach as the Biome
Director


The US IBP Received Multi
-
Year Funding from NSF’s
Ecosystem Analysis Division


Many Graduate Students were supported by the FWI,
not only at RPI, but also at other district
-
area
universities

Fresh Water Institute Beginnings


Dr. Alfred E. Emerson. Noted Pioneering (retired)
Ecologist from the University of Chicago was “Honorary
Advisor” to the IBP Research at Lake George, where he
Resided


Mr. David M. Darrin Visited “Gull Bay” Lab & become
benefactor (and later Mrs. Peggy Darrin) for the Lake
George Water Research Center (LGWRC), later named
the Fresh Water Institute, which continues today


Dr. Ruth Patrick (noted Limnologist) & President of the
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences visited the
FWI & favorably received its mission


An Endowment was Obtained for the FWI from the UPS
Foundation (formerly the 1907 Foundation), and
continues today. UPS Funded Workshops at Lake
George with Acadame, Gov’t & Industry. These
Workshops were hosted by Dr. Emil. Mrak, Chancellor
Emeritus, UC Davis

THANKS TO PROF. KILCAWLEY &
THOSE THAT FOLLOWED, & THOSE
THAT CONTINUE THE LEGACY,
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
AT RPI HAS A LEGENDARY, NOBLE
& COMMENDABLE PAST, AS WELL
AS A BRIGHT & SUSTAINABLE
FUTURE !



End of Talk

Identification of Future Problem, Initiating Event,

or Public Policy Mandate

Formulate the Problem

Define Risk Management

Objectives

Identify and Evaluate

Risk Management Options

Risk Management

Decision

Implement

Decision

Measure Environmental and

Public Health Improvement

Reduced Environmental

and/or Public Health Risk



Public Health Considerations



Statutory/Legal Considerations



Social Factors



Economic Factors



Political Considerations

Develop Environmental

Indicators

RISK MANAGEMENT

Dose
-
Response

Assessment

Hazard

Identification

Exposure

Assessment

Risk

Characterization

RISK ASSESSMENT