An Introduction to Environmental Institutions in Germany and the Federal Environmental Agency

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An Introduction to Environmental Institutions in
Germany and the Federal Environmental Agency

Christina Pykonen, Umweltbundesamt, I 1.2


International
Environmental Protection

Content













1.

Responsibilities for environmental management

5.

Cooperation and coordination


2. Administrative structures

3.

Environmental
institutions


4.

Federal Environmental Agency


6.

European Union


Responsibilities for environmental management



Environmental management

shared between the

Federation, the
Länder
, and

municipalities



Environmental responsibilities

are laid down in constitution,

laws and regulations.



Federation has lead role and

Länder

take part in legislative

process through the

Bundesrat.



Länder

have main

responsibility for enforcing

environmental laws.

German
Länder

Responsibilities for environmental management

Atomic Act

General
administrative
regulations



TA Air



TA Noise




TA Waste



EIA

Framework
legislation



Water budget



Nature conservation



Landscape mgt.

Concurrent
legislative powers



Waste management



Air quality control



Noise abatement



Chemicals Act

FEDERATION

Enforcement responsibilities



Authorizations for


-

Building and operation

of industrial plants, power

plant, waste disposal site

and treatment plants


-

hazardous waste


transport


-

waste water discharge



Establish and certify

inspection and

monitoring stations



Monitoring and

controlling



Create emission and emission

register



Determine air, nature,

landscape, and water

protection areas



punish offences

LÄNDER

Typical responsibilities:



Building and landscape

planning



Urban sanitation



Water supply



Sewage disposal



Upgrade waste

recovery and recycling



Clean
-
up contaminated

sites



Sanitation of old

sewage system



Noise protection

measures



Implement nature and

landscape protection



Observe environmental

compatibility of energy

supply



Advise citizens and

supply of information

MUNICIPALITIES

Division of environmental responsibilities

Fed. law
presides over
Länder

law

Elaborate and
implement

Consent of
Länder

Executed
by order of
Federation

Administrative structures

Inter
-
mediate
authority

Lower
authority

Superior
authority

Superior
authority

Superior
authority

Superior
authority

Su
-
perior
au
-
thority

Intermediate
authority
(special
administration)

Lower authority
(special
administration)

Intermediate
authority
(general
administration,
e.g. District
Government)

Ministry

Ministry

Federation

Ministry

Ministry

Ministry

Länder

Counties


Municipalities

Major county
towns

Towns not
belonging to a
county


Lower
authority
(special ad
-
ministration)

Municipalities

Structure of the Administration in Germany

Environmental
institutions


A profile of the

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature
Conservation and Nuclear Safety

-

Bundesumweltministerium



Established in 1986, offices in Bonn and Berlin



There are some 830 employees in six departments



Areas of responsibility include: environmental protection,

health
-
related aspects of environmental protection, nature

conservation, nuclear safety and radiation protection



Environmental Minister

since 1998



Jürgen Tritt
i
n,

Parliamentary State Secretaries


Margareta Wolf

and

Simone Probst, State Secretary


Rainer Baake



Three federal agencies in portfolio: Federal Environmental

Agency, Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, and

Federal Office for Radiation Protection

Environmental
institutions


Directorate General IG

Environmental Health,
Imm
ission Control, Safety
of Installations
and
Transport, Chemical Safety

Directorate General RS

Safety of Nuclear
Installations, Radiological
Protection, Nuclear Fuel
Cycle

Organizational chart of the Federal Ministry of the
Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

Directorate General G

Strategic and Economic
Aspects of Environmental
Policy, Cross
-
sectional
Environmental Legislation,
International Cooperation

Directorate General Z

Central
Functions

Directorate General WA

Water Management,
Waste Management,
Soil Conservation,
Contaminated Sites

Directorate General N

Nature Conservation and
Sustainable Use of Nature

State Secretary

Parliamentary State
Secretary

Parliamentary State
Secretary

Minister

Environmental
institutions


Government spending on the environment in 2004

(in Million

)

Ministry of Environment

789

Foreign Office

93

Ministry of Finance

439

Ministry of Economics and Technology

473

Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture

235

Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing

451

Ministry of Defense

341

Ministry of Health

1

Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth

34

Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development

771

Ministry of Education and Research

600

general financial management

57

environmental protection loans from the ERP special funds

900

environmental protection loans from the federal banks

1.300

Source: BMU Website
-

www.bmu.de/en/1024/js/tasks/ausgaben/main/htm


Total

6.484

Federal Environmental Agency

A profile of the Federal Environmental Agency
-

Umweltbundesamt



Established in 1974



Largest
environmental
scientific authority operating at the

f
ederal level



Covering diverse spectrum of responsibilities including classic

and
interdisciplinary areas



The Agency has 5 functions: advise and support
BMU
and other

ministries
,
implement legislation
,
collect and provide data on the

environment
,
inform and educate the general public
,

international activities



Headquarters located in Berlin and in 2005 Dessau



Operates 23 measuring stations throughout Germany



Employs nearly 1200 people

with a
nnual budget of 100 Million



Federal Environmental Agency

Division III

Environmentally
Compatible
Technologies


Processes and
Products

Department E

German Emissions
Trading Agency

Division I

Environmental
Planning and
Strategies

Administrative Division
Z

Administration,
information and
documentation

Division IV

Safety Chemical and
Gene Technology

Division II

Environment and
Health: Water, Soil
and Air Hygiene,
Ecology


President

Vice
-

President

President‘s
office

Press Office

Secretariat of
the Council of
Environmental
Advisors

Organizational chart of the Federal Environmental Agency

Cooperation and coordination




Federal government has stepped up efforts to address

environmental protection as a cross
-
sectional task



Joint Rules of Procedure
(GGO)
of the Federal Government

determine the cooperation between the federal ministries



§

19 of GGO, ministries cooperate on areas with overlapping

jurisdiction to achieve common position



When diverging opinions between ministries, lead ministry

requires consent of other ministries



Inter
-
ministerial
working groups established



Examples of areas where consent sought
:




1)
Clement and

Trittin in CO
2

trading for NAP



2) German Sustainable Development Strategy (long
-
term targets)

European Union


Development and facts about the European Union



Established in 1992 with the Treat of Maastricht, formally

comprised of ECSC (with „The Six“ founding members)
, EEC

(“four freedoms”) and Euratom (promoting nuclear energy)

which existed since the 1950’s



25 member states with some 454 million people



First environmental policy adopted in 1972: precautionary

principle, principle of prevention, polluter
-
pays principle,

principle that environmental damage should be rectified at its

source



First Action Programme in 1973



1986 Single European Act (SEA passed)



Over 300 environment
-
related directives and regulations



Acquis Communautaire

European Union


Recent EU environmental legislation and priorities


6
th

EAP
-

4 priority areas until 2010:



Climate change



8% emission reduction target, call for

structural changes in transport and energy sectors, call for

energy
-
efficiency and energy
-
saving, established EU
-
wide

emissions trading



Nature and bio
-
diversity



Establishment of Natura 2000

network, focus on protecting landscapes via agricultural and

regional policies



Environment and health


Launch of Environment and Health

Action Plan in June this year, focus on managing risks from

chemicals and pesticides, Water Framework Directive



Sustainable use of natural resources and waste



Decoupling

waste generation from economic growth, heightened focus on

recycling improved resource efficiency