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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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This research addresses a social need which is to solve the problem of low
academic performance to avoid the high rate of failure whose goal is not to waste
human and financial resources, that is the central idea is to improve the academic
performance of t
he subjects programming at the top of the career in computer
engineering from the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) in Mexico through a
learning model based on the theory of meaningful learning of Ausubel, Novak and
Gowin and the use and management of V

developed under this theory. The design
used in this study was quasi
experimental type of diagnosis and post
assessment, meta
analysis of the tools built by students, interviews piagetianas
modified, and final surveys of student opinion on the use an
d management of the V
metacognitive, which was aimed to evaluate and promote the meaningful learning of
Ausubel, Novak and Gowin, the positive attitude of students in subjects that involve
the design and analysis of computer algorithms (DAAC), which yield
performance in academic and the degree of acceptance of this tool as
metacognitive showed results.

Past experience and research, indicating the need to provide students a new
learning model and a heuristic type of metacognitive strategies to help th
understand and describe the structure of knowledge of Design and analysis of
computer algorithms in the paradigm of objec
oriented programming (OOP).


matter of course that is the second course of programming, where design and
analysis of algorithm
s is provided from the object
oriented paradigm is a course
that is given to eight of the race, of which two were selected for the experimental
and control 2.

The experimental group was taught through the teaching of the proposed method
and the control gro
up in the paradigm of traditional education, ie the way in which
the subject has been given so far. The course content in both groups was the same
but different in form and the sequence in which such content is provided in
education. Since in the experimen
tal group was organized according to the
structure based on the theory of Ausubel, Novak and Gowin and developed with
examples and exercises using the V of Gowin, while teaching in the control group
was provided as the content has been done in previous sem
esters, following the
syllabus attached to the sequence of topics and subtopics to the teacher

The purpose of the pilot study was the first performance of students in the
understanding and use of the V Gowin, their main difficulties and

abilities, and
visibility in the understanding and use, and note the differences that could occur in
the use of approximations in terms of implementation, implementation, involve the
concepts of a hierarchical design and analysis of computer algorithms in

paradigm of object
oriented programming, as well as the attitude which made
between experimental and control groups order to see whether these differences
were significant in meaningful learning and academic performance.

At the beginning and end of t
he course in experimental groups were used for the
interview and the concept map for the purpose of knowing the student's prior
knowledge and the attitude of those in the subject. The practice of computer lab and
the lecture was presented by Gowin V of the


The theoretical framework of this research study was mainly based on the theory of
meaningful learning of Ausubel, Novak and Gowin taking into consideration the
requirements for it to occur:

1. The course materials were organized in such a way
that was conceptually clear as we made a map of the planning of the curriculum
topics of the course (through the educational planning of the course from the
results of the Piagetian Clinical Interview Modified (ECPM) and the concept map
(MMCC) in the diagn

A willingness on the part of students toward meaningful learning, ie there must be
motivation and attitudes appropriate for it to. Because if a student increases their
critical attitude, positive, innovative is easier than what you learn is more i
to him.

3. There must be a cognitive structure in the appropriate student, which implies
that the previous concepts that students must possess to be long term and it needs
to learn the new material, because if the student has no prior knowledge ab
out the
material learn, it is very difficult to understand new concepts.

The provision of student learning, consideration of prior information of the student
as well as potentially significant it led to a significant learning concepts, definitions
and rel
ationships between concepts which are involved in the V of Gowin's triadic
model of teaching his ideas about learning and theory of education for human Novak
to take into account in thinking
feeling and action, as well as the five elements
involved in each

event will change the meaning of educational experience in the
classroom and laboratory .

With regard to the evaluation of the course for the purpose of this study was
conducted by analyzing the ECPM to know the student's cognitive structure, as well
their feelings and actions with respect to the design of algorithms, concept maps
to obtain diagnostic information before the start and end of the course to meet the
learning achieved by students are developed as conceptual domain and creative
ability, the

practices of the laboratory submitted through the departmental
examinations and V, this system of evaluation the teaching and learning of pupils in
the design and analysis of computer algorithms in the paradigm of object
programming through the V

of Gowin was quite useful for feedback from the
students after each unit and practice laboratory which was reflected in the final
results of the examinations and MMCC developed at the end of the course, because
it was a summative evaluation is assessed at

baseline, during and after the course,
which was assessed throughout the learning process student and not just the final
results are performed conceptual, procedural.

Considering that this assessment helped to build the teaching and learning by
making it

more effective, the feedback helped students understand and learn the
course content and the teacher to make decisions about the teaching method on its
efficiency or correcting deficiencies in students to promote meaningful learning and
a more positive at

Was consistency between the model of Novak and Gowin education and type of
evaluation carried out in the semester because there was discussion, dialogue and
exchange of meanings through the feedback between teacher and students through
the activit
ies both individually and in groups of maximum 3 students for a two
and via email.

With regard to the concept of learning is based on the ideas Ausubel
as a reference. According to Gowin (1981), after achieving the exchange of
meanings, t
he students were ready to learn to decide whether or not "an act of
individuality to connect the new patterns of meaning in the old (that students bring
in a teaching situation ) and that could be integrated to work together voluntarily
maintained. " And s
aid: "The reorganization of meanings is under voluntary control
of the student ... according to their own interest."

The analysis of the V and post
assessment to students enrolled in the experimental
group enrolled in the subject of object oriented progra
mming (OOP) provided in the
computer engineering at the School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering at the
unit Culhuacán (ESIM
Cu) of the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), ie implement
these groups in a teaching method based on the theory of Ausub
el, Novak and Gowin
and tools developed under this theory, this research was carried out during the
semesters 01
08, 02
08 and 01
09, 02

Statistical analysis of results followed a simple but laborious because of the amount
of data that were obtained f
rom the measurement tools (concept maps, clinical
piagetiana modified final questionnaire Part 1 and Part II), as well as those of V
Gowin built by students for the challenges and tasks within the classroom and
class reporting practices in the labora
tory tests and 3 departmental
computing laboratory tests conducted, the groups were carried out statistical
procedures that were necessary for the purpose of the experiment. Evidence
inferred from the different tests are summarized in the following paras.
terms of
the performance measures of mean and standard deviation to the control group
there were no significant differences

The average number of words associated concepts increased in the experimental
groups, but particularly in the case of "association
of meaning" little evidence there
was a significant, although this effect was more pronounced in the experimental
group. In terms of matching words associated, on average also increased in all
groups, but there was evidence which could be interpreted as in
dicating that the
differentiation was larger and more uniform in the experimental group. In this case,
all groups had a very closed, however the statistics show us that was significantly
more pronounced in experimental groups.
Lo cual quiere decir que al f
inal del curso,
en el grupo experimental se vio un mayor grado de asociación entre conceptos.
detection of conceptual errors was more evident in the control group, ie the
experimental group achieved a significant breakthrough in reducing conceptual

The results of this trial provide strong support for the evidence prior to the
concepts of association and differentiation, the maps drawn by students in the
experimental groups were qualitatively different, students in experimental groups
showed gre
ater conceptual differentiation, more associated decline in conceptual
errors and consistent with a skill hierarchical theory Ausubel

In short an attempt of qualitative analysis of these maps and the ECPM in terms of
differentiation between t
he more general, intermediate and final of the concepts
and conceptual errors decreased, significantly favored the experimental groups in
all cases.

There was evidence that students in the experimental group were more skilled and
able to identify the main

concepts involved in the computer lab in practice, closer to
the optimal solution of the problem and proposed the analysis of it. The results show
that the control group had more difficulty in finding a solution and in the worst case,
those who arrived to

find an answer to this problem was not the most optimal. With
regard to laboratory tests, applications, statistics show that the experimental group
achieved better average with respect to the control group to analyze the V
constructed by students in solvi
ng the problems set, so there was evidence that
attitude and behavior of the experimental group was more positive in relation to the
experimental one in which yield better academic performance and it was found that
significant weight in the reviews departm
ent, says this is because:

Ho: the mean of the control group <half of the experimental group, Ha: the average
of the experimental group <half of the control group, which rejected the null
hypothesis and accept the alternative.

It had to be very clear evi
dence that the experimental group improved significantly
in their academic performance significantly in the control group.

5.2 Discussion of Results

Applying the tool of concept maps to students with the purpose of their previous
concepts, their preconce
ptions about what they must know in order to assimilate
the new material, will provide the principle of teaching because, as mentioned in
Chapter two, according to Ausubel (2000: p. 6) an attempt was made to ascertain
that the student knew about the concep
ts that students should know in order to
assimilate the new. It is clear that through the instruments used, which were
consistent with the theory Ausubel, Novak and Gowin, such as the ECPM, concept
maps and Gowin of V by the findings, they showed the state

of knowledge with those
who started the current students, and the progress we had during the process in
regard to the progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation of the

There is evidence that teaching through individualized tutori
ng both virtual presence
as well as revision and correction of the proposed solutions to problems using the V
as a strategy to be more efficient Gowin showed that teaching in small groups to
areas of significant material . When education is given to studen
ts individually,
taking into consideration their preconceptions, their general and specific
intellectual ability, their level of abstraction in which the student works, his style of
cognitive attributes and idiosyncrasies of her personality, highlighting a
spects of
their progress in mastering a learning task.

About the factors stressed by Ausubel, favoring a significant learning about
teaching in groups, the emphasis on the concepts before, attention to content
(through the logical and psychological organi
zation of the course, organized and
hierarchical concepts , an educational plan based on identified shortcomings) and a
comfortable environment for the student presentation was certainly present in the
experimental groups and not in control groups, under t
he terms of Ausubel
these factors could contribute to a meaningful learning be given in the first and
could also be an explanation for the factor of approximation Ausubeliana which has
been most effective in this case.

In chapter two it was mentione
d that under the theory of meaningful learning of
Ausubel, had developed two very powerful tools that allow not only reveal the
cognitive structure but also, and modify concept maps and Gowin of V, which were
implemented during the course having a very con
ducive to meaningful learning and
academic performance of students in computer engineering.

Regarding Gowin who see teaching as a triad, an episode of meanings of exchange
of pieces of knowledge between teacher, student and the occurrence of the event in
education as the achievement and success in this existence and the satisfaction of
having achieved something for students. Then consistency between initial and final
concept was to reach the expectations of students in the experimental group
allowed to int
erpret in terms of a vast achievements of meanings corresponding to
those groups.

The V of Gowin used in the computer lab in the class was developed with theoretical
foundations of the theory of meaningful learning (Ausubel, 1983) as a
methodological reso
urce that showed the process of knowledge construction and
the research and evaluation of a dynamic and flexible, can be considered "...
research as a way of generating structure of meanings, ie, link concepts, facts and
events" (Moreira, 1977:7), which ar
e of the structure that arises.

Novak and Gowin touch the issue of the purpose of any educational event, which is
to develop the cognitive abilities in students, was implemented in this way an
analytical method of teaching through the use of V, which help
ed the elements
involved , teacher, student, curriculum, environment, and assessment authorities in
any event must interact to achieve educational progress in student learning.

5.3 Conclusions

1. With respect to the main question: Is the theory of Ausub
el, Novak and Gowin
contribute to the development of a teaching model to explain whether the V of Gowin
help students to learn from?

From the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results obtained in this
investigation can be concluded that: The th
eory of Ausubel, Novak and Gowin if
contributed to the development of a teaching model that explained that the V of
Gowin helped students enrolled in computer engineering course in object oriented
programming at the College of Mechanical Engineering and El
ectrical Unit Culhuacán
at the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico to gain a significant learning.

2. From the results obtained, we can conclude that the care of Gowin's suggestion in
his triadic model, which enhances the dialogue between teacher, st
udent and
educational materials, and human Novak with his theory of education, results were
achieved both in positive evaluations, as in the conceptual advance in the
experimental group in relation to the control group.

3. With regard to the response to t
he research question, What problems will the
students in the experimental group by using the V in education, built on the basis of
the theory of Ausubel, Novak and Gowin?

According to the results we can conclude that:

The differences were negligible, and

only some students have found difficulty in
understanding the relationship between concepts by 18% and 33% for

21% chose the option very difficult to understand the interaction between the left
side (the conceptual part) and the right sid
e (part methodology), and 36%

4. What facilities will the students in the experimental group by using the V in
education, built on the basis of the theory of Ausubel, Novak and Gowin?

In analyzing the results of the questionnaire final opinio
n of the students in the
experimental group it was found that on a high percentage of students are provided
the use of V Gowin, as shown in Table II (anexo7), a number of students (49%),
externalization have difficulty understanding the role of terms like
philosophy, like
assertions with a value of 33%, and this was given because in the case of the
subject of OOP concepts are not with which the student is familiar.

However in some parts of the V as the events, major concepts, records
measurements, transfor
mations, data interpretation and main question, a higher
percentage of students considered to have no difficulty understanding and
identifying these elements.

5 º unavariación Will there be considered significant in relation to enhancing more
positive att
itudes among students in which implemented the V Gowin of the DAAC, in
connection with the control group?

Based on the analysis of test results and some reactive attitude of Modified
Piagetian clinical interview, we conclude that if there is evidence that

the student
increase significantly more positive attitudes towards the subject of object oriented
programming, since there is evidence greater participation in the work extraclase
in solving problems in the classroom, and its active participation in the p
ractices in
the computer lab and especially the results of their examinations and departmental
reporting practices of the laboratory computer, because as students demonstrated
in the experimental group method of teaching through metacognitive strategies no
only helped them to solve problems but to understand the process to choose the
most optimal solution.

By understanding the new concepts and be able to implement in practice, ensured
that pupils became more interested in subjects that involve the DAAC is

to have a
more positive attitude towards them.

6. Is there a significant change in the indicators of a learning process more
meaningful, the experimental group and in relation to the control group, using the V
in the analysis and design of algorithms?

ased on the analysis of the results of the tests ECPM and applied knowledge before
and after the course, the test of attitude and opinion of students on the material of
the course contents, we can conclude that:

There is evidence that if students have ach
ieved significant learning, we can say this
because he met the three conditions necessary to achieve a significant learning.

In this investigation the group to which he was taught under the proposed model is
able to integrate theory and practice through t
he V of Gowin, this not only resulted
in enrichment of strictly theoretical or methodological issues, but allowed us to
draw conclusions of daily teaching practice.

And these four research questions could generate a fifth:

7 Is there a significant change

in the indicators of better academic performance in
the experimental group and in relation to the control group, to implement the
method of V Gowin metacognitive instruction in the analysis and design of
algorithms designed?

Analyzing the information from

the application of evaluation tools such as
laboratory and departmental reviews, and problem solving through the V of Gowin, it

If there was evidence in the indicators of improved performance of students in the
experimental group in relation t
o the control group, since the results of final
evaluations in the experimental group improved as shown by the validity of the
hypothesis, both in the assimilation of concepts and in implementing them, the
decline in conceptual errors, the conceptual break
through was observed and seen
in the different evaluations.

So you can say that at least in this research the use of V, supported the students to
achieve the target in the practices of the computer labs, as well as the construction
of knowledge in the clas
sroom through review and analysis of V constructed by the
learner is concluded that there was evidence of significant learning.

The use of the V Gowin by students in computer engineering from the IPN, facilitates
analysis and define the problem or key que
stion proposal from the observed
objects, and solve the problem through the DAAC, not just visualizing outcomes but
through understanding the process of knowledge construction and management of
conceptual theory in practice, power and resolve the problems
raised during the
course yield a positive attitude by students and it was found with test the attitude of
these, the final questionnaire to implement and validate the hypothesis with the
Lickert scale.

The behavior of the students was positive to participa
te actively in the classroom
and in the computer lab with questions, in implementing the resolution of the
problem solving teaching strategy and doubts, which could be detected in the
analysis of conduct the test applied.

With regard to the overall objecti
ve, we noted the importance of the theory of
Ausubel, Novak and Gowin and strategies developed from this, in the teaching
learning process. This is a learning that within the current constructivist aims to
learn how to learn, providing the student the tool
s to be able to address the
information and gain useful knowledge and built to solve problems of multiple

It has gone from a concept to understand learning from a traditional perspective to
another type of constructive, from the perspective of

Ausubel characterized by
significant feature of learning and metacognitive tools to help you learn to
construct their own knowledge.

5.4 Contribution of this research

One could mention at least two contributions:

In the social area has several answers:

• When submitting a proposal that attempts not only failed to reduce the number of
subjects in programming, which is based on algorithm design, but increase the level
of use in them.

• Seeks to improve, among other things, the financial resources allocated

education in these subjects, making it possible to clear the input.

As for the human aspect:

It is clear that when attempting to reduce the number of failed also to avoid the loss
of human resources, which inevitably leads again to save financial reso
because if a student drop a definitive study of The money invested in their education
is not how to draw.

5.5 Scope of research:

• Immediate: Those students who are applying the technique in question will be
directly benefited.

• Medium term: Substances that are not covered within the context of heuristic
techniques could, in the medium term, also be involved in this effort, ESIM

• A longer
term thinking is the power to implement these techniques at the national

It i
s clear that the proposal helps to solve real problems, because the failure in
higher education is a serious problem nationwide and in Latin America.

5.6 Recommendations

The implementation of a teaching model based on the theory of Ausubel, Novak and
n would be strengthened considerably if it had succeeded in engaging a large
number of teachers who attend the groups on subjects that involve the design of
algorithms, mathematical and physical as they are the most difficult subjects to give
the student i
n computer engineering in the Cu
ESIM, a practice that is advised to be
viable in subsequent research work.

The results confirm the fact that they should be taught separately as the
metacognitive strategies of V Gowin, but rather should be integrated into
content of the course and be assessed accordingly.

They are recommended for students in the personalized advice in this area not only
implement the V, but to transfer this learning experience to other subjects and
situations. But as suggested above is

more effective the proposed model when
applied to the contents and should be a guided process to start.

Another observation is that one of the aspects that one should pursue
implementation of a teaching model is its practical usefulness in the context in

which they acquire meaning. It is therefore clear that if they are taught
metacognitive strategies such as concept maps and V beyond the curriculum, they
do not show their usefulness in the daily classroom and laboratory, students do not
necessarily consi
der them useful and not internalized. It should be noted, therefore,
that to obtain better results in terms of learning strategies are concerned, they can
be taught as a part of the same curriculum map and not in parallel, and more so if
the teacher of eac
h subject is limited to playing a traditional role, ie being a mere
transmitter of conceptual knowledge is transferable to other learning, while bearing
some similarity.

In this regard, it has gone from a teacher transmitting knowledge to a facilitator
d coordinator of the effort to learn because it necessarily the role of the student
must change, receptive and passive, which only acquires knowledge for the results
we have obtained past students active, participatory and builder of his own
knowledge and
the learning process. This is where everything takes on its meaning
to teach, this is learning to learn, learn to think, to acquire skills and abilities, be
critical, to develop their own judgments and claims of knowledge, and who knows
how to use metacogn
itive strategies to facilitate and will encourage the