Γλωσσάριο

nuthookransomΒιοτεχνολογία

10 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

286 εμφανίσεις

Γλωσσάρι ο
Γ-1
 
            -
  .  
     , 

  .
  RNA (mRNA) [messenger RNA (mRNA)]
 R 
   

  DNA

    


       


   
     .

  (agretope)  ( ) 

 -
 ,  

  
   !     
       "
 
 (MHC).   -

 agre- 

!   


-
#  AntiGen Restriction Element (  
 !
 !).
  (  )   (wild type) $   
-
!   
%    !. &  %   -
     
!.
   (aerotolerant) 
" 
  

# '   

 
 
 
*
2
.
  (aerobe) *
    


 % 

 
*
2
.   

 
 #
", -
  #
",  
 .
   (gas vesicle) +  !
 
   
   

,  
  
! -

 
  .
  (aerosol)/
0

 

-
  


 !.
 (hemolysis) 1!   %0

.
 (hemolysins) 3
 
 ' ,  -
! 

  !   %0

.
   (platelet)  
  
     

.  # 
#    -
#      


       
-


 '  .
 (hemagglutination) $     -
%0

.
 
  (quorum sensing) 4 % -
   
  0, 

    -
 
  % !.
  

 (immobilized enzyme) 5 
      # 
, #
  


   

 

  .
   (extreme halophile) *
  -
 
!' '
 #

  
 
 #  -
   NaCl (
# 

>10%).
  (extremophile) *
   
!-
'  
 

   0   0 
-

 ,  
  % 

,  pH, . .
  (irradiation) $ , 
#  "-

,  %      

 -
" 



%     
   



-

  # 
0.
 (alkaliphile) *
 

 !


! 
 9  pH.
  (brewing) & 

 
 !
 0  
  
,
  !    -
0.
  (botulism)    

 -

 
 

  ',  

# 
 Clostridium botulinum.
  (allergy) /



 
,  

 % 


 # '
  (
#    ,   !,   #    -
 ). / 0
  ! ! ,  #   
-
%

  
%    
%
.

 (  IS) [insertion sequence (IS
elements)] *
 !  ! 
% !    .
:
%   

       #% .
 Shine-Dalgarno, 
 
  
(Shine-Dalgarno sequence)    
    -
  
  ! mRNA,  "
 
!-

%    % 
'   #
. &
-
  
Shine-Dalgarno  
   "

RNA 
      "
   
'
 mRNA.
-   ,    
(signal sequence) 
  %

' 

 #
 
 
  0 
 
-
    # ( ' #). &
  
-

  
  %  !
 "

-
'
,  "%!   
#       -
  #    "#.
-   (signature sequence) ! -
         
  
,
 ..
  #    "
 RNA 16S

  #
 
  0.
Γ-2

ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ
  (food spoilage) <#% 
"  
!
      
 

  


#   


# .
  
 (allosteric enzyme) 5    -
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 0
 
 ,   
  ( 
   
) 
 
 -
   ( 
   %  ).
  (halotolerant) *
 
 


-
 %  
 
NaCl,    
  #
.
 (halophile) *
   #

# 
(NaCl) 

# '  .
       (PCR) [polymerase
chain reaction (PCR)] % in vitro 


!

   
  
 DNA,  
!
!   !%  
  0  0 

DNA   #.

(concatamer)  DNA
 ! 

!    

     %  
#

  

 
, 
 . /
-

 
#  


    ! !
 0 #.
 
 (pure culture) <
 
  -
  
  
0.
  (aminoglycoside)  " ,  
    ,
 ! 

#


 
 
'!        .
  (ameboid movement) ! 
-
 
#  
 
  
 

 
  
   
 #
.
 (anabolism) * "  
  !-
%  
0  
0

 ! 

. $ -
%

 !  

#   
.
 (reduction) & 



#  



#
,  . 
"#    
.
    (reductive dechlorination) 
-
    (   
  Cl

)
 

-
 , 

 
  #%


 
 C—Cl    C—H.
     (acetylene redu-
ction assay) %    
  
 

 # 
#  
 N
2
,  
    -
 
 ! ,
 
%



 . 

 
#
     

%  
-
%#.
   (   )   (feedback
inhibition)      
  0  !

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   0-
   !       !.
  (emerging infection) 10 
 
    
 
'% 


20 -


   

'%     .
    (anaerobic respiration) &  
     
 !
  *
2

 -
'  '   


#   -
 
 
# '      !
.
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 !


 
*
2
. =
# 

"  
!, #-

,  *
2

 '.
  G+C (G+C base ratio)    
 !   ! ' (DNA  RNA)  
!

 

  ! "#  
- 
( 
  mol % G+C).
      (growth-factor analog) @-
 
#
 

     9  

' 
' ! 
#
.
anammox ! 
  
 
'
'  

 (anoxic ammonia oxidation).
  (respiration) <

" 
 #   
#-
  4,              

 
 

     
    
   
  
 

    .
 ,  (growth) $  " 
, 
!'

%!   #.
 
   (protease inhibitor) * 


-
    #  
0. $ 

 % 

  

     #, 

    
  # .
 
          -
 [nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
(NNRTI)]         
 
-
% 
   

   
     -


# 


    # .
 
         -
 [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)]
@
#      0, 



   !    

  
    #-
  
   

#.

 DNA (recombinant DNA)  DNA
    DNA   
 !    -
  
!.
 (recombination):



# 


  #   
! '  0 # 
  #
  


#
.
,    [anaphylaxis (anaphylactic
shock)] 3


   
  

 

  -
 0
.
ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ

Γ-3
  (anaphylatoxins) 


C3a 
 C5a
   0
. & #   
   
    


 
.
   [nonperishable (stable) foods] 
 
      
  ,  
!
 

  
 

%    %#
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!.
         (antibiotic resistance)/-
    
 
! 


 !


 

 " ! 
       -
%
%
.
    (O
2

) [superoxide anion (O
2

)] +
#-
  '  , 
 

   '  


  
 
0  
0.
 
 (upstream position) <#% %   -
  
  
  "
    #
 # 5´          DNA
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 -
   !   0 ,  

    -

  '  
  #  

 
-
  
.
  ! 
 (nucleic acid probe) 

  0   ! '    
% % 

 
"%        


 
 
#    0 '. $   -
 " 
,


      
-
!   
 
%
  
,


!
     " 

-
  
%  #  
0.
    (ORF) [open reading frame
(ORF)]    
DNA  
,
 

 ,  
 

      !   
 !% -
. 5

  

# 
  

  !  
   
!
.
 ,  (anoxic ) &
 
'  . $ %



 
# "
 
 
.
 (immunity) & 
 
 
! 

 -
 
  
 .
 
 (herd immunity)  
 
 #
 

 
% 
, 

  # 

  #
      
%.
  (immunological memory) & 
 

 
! 

# 
  #    
0

0  # ! 

 
%  

        % .
  (anergy) &

 




 
  ,  


  '  
  0 (   0  #).
   (immunodeficiency) & !
'   -
 !     #    !

!
  
.
 (immunogen) 5

     
-

   




.
  (immunization)/
 

 

0,  %

 ,
 # , 

 #.
 (immune) K
 

 
%    

.
   Western [immunoblot (Western blot)] -
   0   
 %   
 -
,   
 # . 3 .    
Southern 
  Northern.
  (immunoglobulin)  
.
 (tolerance)  

 


-
    
 .
   (antibiogramm)/
 
 
  


#
 
%
  #
-
 
0 
#
 " #.
   (antibiotic) @ 
#
    -
%

 
 
 
 
 "
" 
#  

!.
   
   (broad-spectrum antibiotic)
 "        
% # 
# Gram,
 
 

 # 
# Gram "
 
.
   (antigenic drift) $   -
 , # 

 
    
( 

# 
    ),  -

  #
'.
      (antigenic shift) $   -
 ,   

 
     (


# 
    ),  
  -

.
  (antigen) * 
  
  #

-

  # 
  # .
        (HLA) [human leuko-
cyte antigen (HLA)] 1 

  
-
%0 ,
           "
-
   (MHC)  0.
Γ-4

ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ
       (APC) [antigen-presenting
cell (APC)] <!
   ' #
,  , 


 # 

 

!

.
   (replication) $!%  DNA 
#  

 
 DNA  
 .
    (replicative form) :  
DNA    
  #   # 


-

    DNA-0.
    [oxidation-reduction (redox)
reaction] L !
 #     
 
' -
0
, 0 #
# 
#
    9 
   
 % 0
 
#  '  

 
.
  (anticodon)    
0 "#   

 RNA,  
   ! "#    -
 
  RNA 
#  # 
 !-
%    0.
   (antimicrobial)/ 
  -

!, 
0
  %
#   
 -
 
!'.
      (antimicrobial agent) @
 
 %

0  
!  

  

# '  .
   (antiserum) *    
 0

.
    (antiparallel) $ , 
#   
DNA,       
  0   # 5´→3´, 0
 #  3´→5´.
   (antiseptic) +
#
  %

0   
-

    "

!',
#   
 -
 
   ! 
%0 .
          (antimicrobial
drug resistance) &    
 
 -

! 


 !
 
 

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!

# ,   
 
 
# 

#  .
      (reverse transcription) & 

-


#  

 #
   DNA   

  RNA.
        (reverse electron trans-
port) &   
# '
 0  
   

 %    %  
  ,  
 


%         .
      (reverse translation) &   
-


  
 
  %

  

 mRNA    
  ,   "% 

   ! 0

 
  %

'
-
   .
  (antibody) +   !  #  
-
0 0    
 
    0  #-

 . $ 0 :

.
    (antibody-mediated immunity) -


 #
   #  
 

 # . 1
    .
   (antitoxin)  

 # 0
 
' 
  '  0 .
       (upper respiratory tract) &
 
   
,  # 
, 
  
 
.
 "  (clonal deletion) $      -
#    %!,  %
#   #  
 
-
# 
0  0.
  (haploid) *
  !
,    #-
% 
 

 

 
.
          (  ) -
 (DGSE) [denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis
(DGSE)] &         

 #     0 '   -
 %
# 
 
  
"# .
  ,   (denaturation) 
    


   
 ,  
 ..  

-
  
     %
.
  (colony) 
# 
  %   -
# 

 !
   # 
  ! % -
 !  ,



    -

 !
.
  (colonization) +


  -

!  #      '    
  #
#  # 
.
  (disinfection) & 



# 
     
%,
#  
    
 
0,
 
# 
 
#"
 -
  .
   (disinfectant) +
#
   0  -

!,
#   

 "
" 
 

 
%0   !.
   (denitrification) 
   0 -
  
 #  
'  % .
   (desiccation) 0 
 !  

.
   (apoptosis) +

 
 %#-

.
    (decontamination) & 




-
  '! 
#  (" !  !) 


% #

  
  

     
#"

# 
.
   
 (sterile) @ 
! 
! 
!.
    (sterilization) & %
#  
# 
   
0 
0 
  0  
  -
 %   .
ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ

Γ-5
   (abscess) /  '  

 -


  

 ! .
    DNA (DNA fingerprinting) &     -
 
 
 
%    
DNA
 
 
 !.

 (hapten) * 
! 
! "#   ,


   #   
 

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  %   #
 
.
     (negative selection) 
  -
 
#   

 
   %!
!


 
 ! 
 
   
-
!. 3 .    .
    ! 
 [minus (negative)-
strand nucleic acid] < 0 DNA  RNA   
 % -
 «
»
  mRNA  ! ( , 
  -
 
 
).
 (Archaea) U    «0»  
 -
0   
 
 %

,
  







  % 
"
 
, 
 
Thermoplasma.
   (aseptic technique) @
 -
 
  %  0 0 
 
, 
 % 
 .

,  (disease):    
 '  , 



 

, " #",  0 
#-

.
#$% 
 ,     


  
 
!

.
   
 (spontaneous generation) & %   

 
 ! 
!9 


-
 ! .
  (auxotroph) *
   
  
    

     #
'.
3 .   ! .
  (autoimmunity) 

  
'   
   0 
 .
   (autoantibody)  
 # 
 

-
  (

 


#


   
  
#  


 0

).
   (autoclave)     "
  
  

    
 

-
   
0
  9  % 
-

.
 ,     (motility) & 
 
-
   #      # .
  (autolysis) & !   #  
-


    
  
    -
# .
    (autoradiography)    
 -
 
   
,  #   # 
  0
 (..

),   
  
%     
   
!  .
   (autotroph) *
    
-
   CO
2

    #%

.
   (bacteremia) +
 # "
 
 

.
 
 (Bacteria) V   
 0    
 
  «0»    .
  
(bacteroid): 
  #

 !
 Rhizobium  0  
-
,  
 
 
0  .
    (bacteriocidal) @   
#-

 
 
 0  "
 
.
   " (bacteriorhodopsin)  "
 -
  '
 #
    ,  

    #  
        
 
-
"!  !%  4.
   (bacteriocins) +
#  
 % -
0

 
"
 

 %

0    -
#  "
   

    
# '  .
     (bacteriostatic) +
#
   
 
 



    


 
"
 ,
#  

%

0 .
   (bacteriophage) K   !  "
 
-
# !

.
   (barotolerant) *
 

 
9  
  ,
#

 !
 
! -

   1 atm.
  (barophile) *
    " 

9  
  .
 DNA (DNA library) $   -
 (
   
 ) -
#  DNA    #        -

 
!. *#
    

 -
.
    (bioremediation) &  
-
0 


    '   '0 

 %!  0  0
 
 "# .
 (biogeochemistry) &      -
! 
  0 
0    

 "
 #. +

 
 #, 

!-
    0   %  .
  (biocatalysis) &  
0 

 !%     

 %  #
  -
  
.
Γ-6

ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ
  (biological warfare) &  " -
0 

  
 %
#   '   
 % !.
    (bioconversion) &  
0
  "
 " 
, 
  -
 
  
.
    (bioinformatics) &  
# 
  0   0 

# ,
% -
, 
 ! 
  
  DNA  
-
 %

'   0.
 (biosynthesis) & 




    -

0  
0
 #
( %
 ! 
) -

.
   (biosynthetic penicillin) +

-
 
 
     , 
#  



 
  
   
        
 .
  (biotechnology) &  
0 -

0        
% -
0
 #  
"
 
.
 (biofilm)   "   !
% #   
   ( 

 
 % !
) 
  0
  
# 
.
     (BOD) [biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD)] &  

 '   
-


0

   
! 
#   
'   
 


 !    
-
  !.
 (viable) L
, 
 




% .
-  (beta-lactam)  "  
    -
 ,      
     
-
 !  
-
 #.

 (mucus):
      -


 % 
# !

,    
!   
"  
.
 
 (mucous membrane) $ "#  %-

0  # 
 !   '   -
"# .
  (cilium) 
0  !   



    # , -

    !
.

 (gametes) $   
 0 ,

   
 -
# !

 !  
   .
    
   [genetically modified
organism (GM*)] *
    

  %        
. &
!   
 
     .. 
GM
  ! GM.
  (genetics) &       
 

 
   
  
0.
   (genetic engineering) &  in vitro
0  
,    ,  

 -

, 
   
  DNA, 
%0 
   
-

    #  
0.

 (genus) 
' #
  0 0.
  ,   (slime layer):#   -

  

     0,   
-

 !
 
!

   
  


#    !
.
   (glycosidic bond)/  !
 !     
  #  
# 

  

 .
 (glycocalyx) V   



 

 #  
#  
! 0
-
  "
 . $ %  


 



    0 0   
   ' -
   # .
 (glycolysis) *
 #   ! Embden-
Meyerhof,        

   -

  '!.
  (gene library) $   -
 #  DNA,          
 
   
!.
    (gene therapy) Y 
 
 



      ,   
-
    ! 
   !
 # 

!.
   (gene cloning) 3 .     -
 .
 
 (gene family) =
    !-
    
  
"#   #


 
!.
 (gene) & #
  
Ø  

DNA  
%  
      



    ,  tRNA   rRNA.
-     (reporter gene) =  
-
0
        !
  #
-


  !  
 ,     -

 !

 !.
 (genome)  !     #-
   
 
.
  (genomics)        -

"#   
 # 
 
 ! 
0
.
ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ

Γ-7
 (gonococcus) Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 
 -
 
# Gram    
 
% 


.
   ,    (genotype) &
"   
!
  
!. $!  !   .
   DNA, DNA   (DNA gyrase) 5  


 #        
 0  
 

! 
  

        
DNA.
     (viable count) *
% 
0
 #  
 "
  % .

   ,  
  (electron acceptor)
* 
 
"#    

#  # 


 ' 


 
.
    (competence) & 
 
  # ,  -
% "
 
!, 

"#  (
  -

) DNA 
 



   #.
 (reservoir) $   
,  
 
  "#          %  

 '   
 
% 
.
 !  (DNA) [deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA)] +         
 
'!
    !  !  ' "0 
#-
. $  #        # 
 -
 0.
   (deoxyribonucleotide)    -
  '!    % 3´   ' "  -
! 
# . @ 
   % Sanger 


 !  DNA.

 ( )  ,  
 (nitrogen
fixation) 
 

0  


 
 
 #.
  ,    (hydrogen bond)
%     
'! 
 

   !  ,   
      , 

  '    # .
      (secondary treatment)   #
  ' 


"   
#  
"#  0-


"


"

  # ,
!
0


 %! ( ! 
 ' 

)
 
-
0 

   
.
      (secondary metabolite) +
    
     
-
'  #  
#   # #.
         (secondary antibody
response)  0

(
# 

 

 IgG)
 
#

 
 ! , 
   % 
 
!    
 .
     (secondary structure ) 
 -


            -
 ,  %   
!  0  .
  (public health) &  
  % !  
!   .
   (transgenic organisms) U # 
0
   
% # 
      -
     DNA 
  
""#  
% #
  
 .
 (screening) V  

     
-
' 
0
# 
  
   
   , 0
 
# ' # 


 
# ' # # .
   (gene disruption) &    0
0 

     ,  
  
 "#
       


DNA  
  '    (.. 
 -

 
 " #).  
% 
DNA 

 %   
  



   "-
   .
   (systemic)   (  )
  0
. +

 
 #, 
  !




    0
.
  [clarifier (coagulation basin)] : '
   

 
0
 


!


!-
 
  #
 


   .
     
 (differential media) Y  # -
#      
 
 


0  "# 
# '  .
   (differentiation)   
/
    
   # , 
"#  0


#  # 

# '.
 (filtration) &
# 
!  
-

        
 
  -
   
 
  "#   
(.. #,
-
%
 ,  
).
  (diploid) $   
 0 ,  
  
!
  !
  
# , 
%




! 
 

   
 .
   (binomial system)  ! 

-

  
0, !
   #% 
-

 # 
 ! # Ø  0  


-

   , 0   !     .
   (tuberculin test):



'
" 
  
  Mycobacterium
Γ-8

ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ
tuberculosis,  

 

 
 0  -




 
.
   ,    (electron donor) * -

     

#  # 

 ' 
-


 
.
      (sickle-cell anemia) =  


 
  
   
%! 
 
   
   % # 

 

  ,
# 
 


 
  

. * 
   #
' 

.
  ,   (E
0
´) (reduction
potential) & #  
 #   '  

  
,  
' 

  !, 


-
   
  Ø  
  volt.
 (species) $   
  ! 
!, -
 
 
   #   0  0 ( >97%
 

  
   #
16S  RNA 

>70% "  # ),  



0 
 
 

#
 , 0 

  
% %  
  #
.
  (icosahedron) =   
 0 -
# ,  

 

 20   

 12  .
  ( )  (exponential growth) !-
'  
! 
#  

% 
 # 
#
  
%   # 
.
  (primer)  ( % #    -
 ),       #  DNA   
 -
 
0
 ' "   

# 
 
-
  DNA.
   
 (secretion vector) U
  -
         
  

-
   !     !
,
# 


 

.

  (outbreak) & #  # 
%!  #-
 

% 
,  !   # 
.

  (expression) & 
 

 -
 
   
#   
   

  
!  .
 (degeneracy) $ , 
#     0-

,      
 
#    



 
'!.
     
  (MIC) [MIC (ini-
mum Inhibitory Concentration)] & # 

 ! 
   
  
 


    "
-

# '.
  
 (free energy) &  
 
 
-
% 
      .

 (helix) $     
,   -
  



"
  "
.
ELISA (
      )
[ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay)]  -
     
!
 #
 -
0



 
  
 #  
" #  

. 
! 

  
%
-

 
# #  
    
  
 -

. +% 
#   
!  0-

   ! 
 -
 
-    

  
  
   .

 (deletion) 
    ! !.
 (malaria) % 
 

   -
 ( %
 

   ! Anopheles),

#  
     Plasmodium spp.@

 -


 


"
 
 
  ! 




.
 (vaccination)/
   '  ,  -
%
,   


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(nucleoid) &    #
DNA 

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.
ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ

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#   
  
 
,
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!   (radioisotope) K      , 



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! 
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!%.
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protein) 

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0

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! 
  
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 0
 
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.  
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/   
  
  


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# 
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!.
 
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% , 
# 

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%  , %
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!.
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ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ
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mine drainage) V'       H
2
SO
4

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#  % !  .
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0

0,  !    %
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0.
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 !  0   ! ' (DNA  RNA) 
%
!

DNA   
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!  0   ! ' (DNA  RNA)  


RNA   
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    (  
!
),

#  # 
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#   
 
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#   ! !


 
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 0     !  


 
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%   
  
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#   
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, 
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# 
% 

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aureus.

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        0 #. +
# 
:
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%     

  
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 (complex medium) <
  
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# 
 
%


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%  0,   '
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%    
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 ! 
    
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% 

 

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 (   #). V
 #
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! 0
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     %   .
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' 



.
ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ

Γ-23
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-

 
 # !

.
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  .

 (tetanus) % 

#  





9

 
#    0  0,    -

  
' '  Clostridium tetani.
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% 
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.
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 !  
%
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     (artificial chromosomes) U 
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%

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 -

. 
 # 0

 !

! 


3
 
#   # @0


(BAC) 

L   
#   # @0


(YAC).
joule (J) #
 
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7
ergØ 1000 Joule -
 
!  1 kilojoule (kJ).
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 #  

# 
.
   (toxigenicity) * "
% 
 
 

! 

 '#   0

.
   (toxicity) * "
% 
% 
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0  
% 
!.
 (toxin) * 
,  % "
  ! ,
   

  " #"  # '  .

(toxoid)  ',    

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#  
   
 

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 # .
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0  0 
'!  !      
#       #,      
-
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.
    (tertiary structure) & ,

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-
 ,  
 ..       (sex pilus)
  
 
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#  "
 
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    (food poisoning)  
!-
 
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 # 
!.
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 '
  
   9   (
   

"
) .
 (typhus) % 
 

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  9   
  
   Rickettsia prowazekii.
+
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,
 

, '
9, 
%0

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 ! 
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! '   
0 "# 
# 
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%

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%#
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-
!)  #  
!
, 
 


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-
" 
  0,    ' 0
   
 -
  &
2
+ CO
2
+ '.
  

(hydrothermal vents) Y  

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" !     %
#  %
,   

 #'  
   #  !.
  (hydrolysis):#
    !  -
   # ,  %  ,   %
  !Ø 9.
     (hydrophobic interactions)/ -
   #  
'!     
     -

      0  ! .
  (inoculum) 
%  #-
   
 
 
' 
 "
-
 
 
.
 
 (supercoil)    DNA,  !  

   .
   (hypersensitivity) 

 (
"
"   %     
 
), 


 

 # 
  -
 0


 


 

 . 3 .  .
    (hyperthermophile) +
 0   #-
  % 


# '  %#    "
   
80

C.
   
 
(hypervariable regions) +

-

 
  %

'   
"    -
 

0 Ig,   TCR,
 ! 
 
!  # 

 
  
 Ø

            -
   (CDR).
Γ-24

ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ
  
     (immuno-
globulin gene superfamily) * 
  ' -
 #, #, 
   #  
  
-

 .
 
    $ (T-cell receptor)/
 -
 
   # 
  # .
   (promoter) & %  DNA   
-

  RNA   # 

   

.
   (substrate)   

 


 
 .
    (obligate) +  

  

       "#   
 # 


 -
  
# '  
! (.. «

  #

"»).
   (phagocyte) <!
  0
 
 


0  
 
  '


.
   (phagocytosis)/ # !  -


 ! ,  
 ..   # -
"


#


!


0 

0.
 (phagemid) U
     




    
   "
 -
#.
 (phage) 3 . )  !  .
   (phenotype) 

# 

  # 

!,  

  
#   0
 . 3 .    .
FAME, 
    
 [FAME (Fatty Acid
Methyl Ester)]  %  
  
! '.
 
 (lag phase) &      -

" 
# 
  %
 
 
 


   
'
# ' .
  (ferredoxin) U
    
 !


!  
!Ø        -
% !
 
0

.
    (fluorescent antibody) 
-

      %   
 % 

  
   
% .
     in situ (FISH) [FISH (Fluorescent
In Situ Hybridization)] :


  

-

  %   # ,  %  0 
 
    ! '     

 %  
% 
 .
  (fluorescent) & 
 

  
 
-
9        !
,
  -
% 
  #    !
.
  & (flavoprotein) +      


#  "
" 
      

     ! 

#   .
 (inflammation) @

  
 
 
'


 0 
 %

,  
 -
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, 
, %  
, 
 .
 (cortex) &        
-
!
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.
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, 
  %! 
"0

%
! 


   #
'  .
 (cidal) Y

.

 (carrier) ‚      
! 
-
!,
#   
    0

'.

 (vector) +
#
 ( %    #
#  
)    

""#  
 
%-
 

 
 '    # # .

     (replacement vector) U
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 "
       "
 #-
 ,       
 DNA   -
%
 
#   
 
% # 
   -
! !  # .


  (expression vector) U
  -
       


    % 
-
   
 

 
   #
   -
     
%  
.

   (integrating vector) U
  -
    

%       
 '  .
    (cloning vectors) =  #   

( % 
#
  0), 

  

 %  
    ! !  
# -
   !. * 
   
% 
  -
! !   
 


%    # 
 -

, 
 "
 
! '  .
 (algae) U   
 0 .
  (  ), 
 (phylogeny) & 
#-

'  0  !   #  
  

  
   0   "#  '    
 .
  (nodule)/'
 0   0
  "0  
   # "
 
, 
 
  

"
 

#.
   - [natural killer (NK) cell]/'  -
 !
 

  
 

   
   '
!

  
!


  '  .
ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ

Γ-25
   (normal flora) 

  %

 !     !.
  (phytanyl):



#-
%

    20 # 
#%

Ø

 #  # 


   .
    (phosphodiester bond)/
 !  !     
% #
   -

 
    .
  (phospholipid) 1 
 



          
    -

! 

0 ' 
 
 #
.
         (electron trans-
port phosphorylation):


!%  4,   -

"#   
#    
#  



  "
0  0 
   
-
    !
. *#
 
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! . 3 .  .
          (substrate-level
phosphorylation) $!%  0  0 9 
 
   # 

 0
0  
  
  
.
  (luminescence) +

  .
    (photoautotroph) *
  -
  
     
    -

 
  CO
2
 
  #%

.
     (photoheterotroph) *
 
       
 
 
# -
#   #%

.
  (photosynthesis) &    
 
  
 #   CO
2


# #.
3 . !        " 
 !  
    " .
     ,    -
   (anoxygenic photosynthesis) & 
    
 
 !%  4,   -

         
  !-


 

 *
2
.
    ,   
  (oxygenic photosynthesis) &   -
 
    
 !%  ATP 
 NADPH 
          !


 

 *
2

  &
2
*.
    (phototaxis) 
   .
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"# 
 

  .
   (photophosphorylation) $!%  -
0  0 9   
   4, 

'   
   .
   (operator)/    DNA,  
-
    ,   


  
  
  !
 
 
   

mRNA.
   (chemotherapy) & % 
 
0  -

   
 "    .
       (chemotherapeutic agent)
 "
 
#
    
-
%   #.
 (chemokine):
   ! 
-
! "# ,   %    
 



,  


  #   #.
  (chemolithotroph) *
  

#    
  #

  ' 


 0 .
   (chemoorganotroph) *
 
 
#    
  #

  ' -
 
0 0 .
   (chemostat) $     ! 
 -

  

      
%  0 0 
   %

.
   (chemotaxis) <  

  

# 

.
 (chemiosmosis) &
'  
"#%-
       , 
 
 
"#%
      , 
%    "
-
0, 
 

 ATP. 3 .   
 .

     (commodity chemicals) @-
   ,  
%
 ,     # 
 
 
  !
   #      .
  (chloramine) @  
%
!   -
!,    %

   
   

-

  
% 

 .
  (chlorine) @  
  ,  -
 
  

  

 !
 
 !. <
# 
 
 !
 
%’    -
    
 ! .
  (chlorination) K
 

 
 
-



 !
    !,   
-
 
 
 
  
#
  0 
-

  0     .
    (chloroplast)  
    -
0 
0       ! .
   (chlorosomes)/     
  # % "
  
  Chloroflexus,
  "# 

 
   
  "# 

Γ-26

ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙΟ
        "
  !  (c,
c
s
, d,  e).
      (chlorophyll and ba-
cteriophyll) @     0 
0

 !

  
%

  

-
 .
  (chronic) 
% .
   (generation time) *  

 


 

   % !.
    (doubling time) *  

-

 



  
  % . 3 . 
    .
   (chromogenic)    
#  0
.





 


.
 ,    (chromosome) =    -
     
%  0  

 
  -

    . * 
 0    
( -
%)    
0


 ! 

 

    
  DNA, 0  
 0 
  ( %)   
0

, 
%




   

  DNA.
  (humoral immunity) 


   
"#   


 # .
  ,    (vacuole)  

#      
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. $
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,
  
  

#

.
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0    " 
'-
. *   «0»  " 0 
0


)  ,
  

*  .
"   (psychrotolerant) K
 


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  % 

,
#  "   % 



!' 9    15

C.
"  (psychrophile) *
 
 


-
 !
  
  % 
 ,     #-
  % 


# ' 
    15

C.
 (osmosis):#   !   "#, 
  

      
    -
  
  0       9-
    .