MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

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20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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E. Wainright Martin


Carol V. Brown


Daniel W. DeHayes

Jeffrey A. Hoffer


William C. Perkins


MANAGING

INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY

FIFTH EDITION

CHAPTER 15

M
ANAGING THE
I
NFORMATION
S
YSTEMS
F
UNCTION



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Rapid technological change


Exploding applications and data


Growth in business management
understanding of technology


Frequent external shocks




T
HE
C
HALLENGES
F
ACING

IS

L
EADERSHIP

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IS leadership must manage these
organizational assets:


Human resources


Organizational data


Physical infrastructure


Applications portfolio




M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

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Provide specialized IT
training for IS
professionals and others

M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Page 584

Developing Human Resources



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M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

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585


Figure 15.1 Selected IS Management


Positions (1 of 3)

Possible IS Management Positions



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M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Page 584
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585


Figure 15.1 Selected IS Management


Positions (2 of 3)

Possible IS Management Positions



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M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Page 584
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585


Figure 15.1 Selected IS Management


Positions (3 of 3)

Possible IS Management Positions



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Develop policies and
procedures to manage
an IT system’s physical
assets


computer
hardware and networks

M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Page 584

Improving the Physical Infrastructure



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Infrastructure management issues addressed
in policy statements:

1.
Location

2.
The workstation

3.
Supported operating systems

4.
Redundancy

5.
Supported communications protocols

M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

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588

Improving the Physical Infrastructure



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Infrastructure management issues addressed
in policy statements (cont.):

6.
Bandwidth

7.
Response time on the network

8.
Security versus ease of access

9.
Breadth of network access

10.
Access to external data services

M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Improving the Physical Infrastructure

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588



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Most companies cannot operate without
software applications


they are critical assets


Just as physical infrastructure, software
portfolio needs managed as an asset

M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Managing the Applications Portfolio

Page 588



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A company must know:


What software it owns


Where it is located


What it does


How effective it is


What condition it is in


M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Managing the Applications Portfolio

Page 588



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Policies and guidelines must exist for the
development
and maintenance

of IS
applications


Maintenance should be treated as an activity
necessary to preserve an asset’s value

M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Managing the Applications Portfolio

Page 588



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Application portfolio policies must address:

1.
Assumed user

2.
Application location

3.
Process
-
driven or data
-
driven design

4.
Evaluation criteria for new applications systems

M
ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON

Managing the Applications Portfolio

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Process
-
Driven Design


Collects, manipulates,
and stores only data
needed to operate a
particular process


Most often used in the
past


Data
-
Driven Design


Concentrates on all
data needed and
collects into database


Each application
accesses common
database for needed
information

Managing the Applications Portfolio

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ANAGING THE
A
SSETS IN
AN
IS

O
RGANIZATON



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Ten key issues:

1.
Developing effective change management system
(Chapter 12)

2.
Ethical use of IT
(Chapter 16)

3.
Agreeing upon the role of the IS organization

4.
Selecting effective IS leadership

5.
Creating an active partnership with business managers

6.
Determining an outsourcing strategy

7.
Designing an equitable financing system

8.
Deploying global information systems

9.
Designing an appropriate IS organization and governance
system

10.
Ensuring regular performance measurement


I
NFORMATION
T
ECHNOLOGY
M
ANAGEMENT
S
YSTEM
I
SSUES

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IS organization:


Role is continually changing


Needs a mission statement


Must be future
-
oriented while fulfilling today’s
requirements


Must be aligned closely with business activities



1. Agreeing Upon the Role of the IS Organization

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SSUES



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IS organization is expected to:


Demonstrate business understanding and maintain close
communication with business managers


Respond quickly to changing business needs


Help reengineer business processes to be more customer responsive


Ensure business can participate in e
-
commerce


Keep final customer in mind


Build systems that provide direct customer benefit


Help business managers make better decisions with information


Use IT for competitive advantage


Help business integrate IT


1. Agreeing Upon the Role of the IS Organization

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NFORMATION
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ECHNOLOGY
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IS organization is
also

expected to:


Be steward of organization’s IT resources


Deploy IT resources throughout the organization


Facilitate productive use of resources


Lead development of information vision and IT architecture


Communicate vision and architecture


Maintain managerial control over important information resources


Administer corporate data


Make current and new IT available at lowest possible cost


Help business managers know and use technology


Develop partnership with business managers to exploit technology


1. Agreeing Upon the Role of the IS Organization

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SSUES



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Chief Information Officer (CIO):


A member of executive management team


Needs mix of business and technical knowledge


Guides and unifies entire organization’s IT resources


Masters understanding of business, products, vendors, sales
channels, customers, and competition


Recognize IT advantages and where to apply


Hires good people and delegates


Works with executive management team to achieve
competitive advantage



2. Selecting Effective IS Leadership

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Senior IS Management Issues:


Improving data and IT planning, especially linking IS to the business


Gaining business value through IT


Facilitating organizational learning about and through IT


Refining the IS unit’s role and position


Guiding systems development by business managers


Managing organizational data as an asset


Measuring IS effectiveness


Integrating information technologies


Developing systems personnel



2. Selecting Effective IS Leadership

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3. Creating an Active Partnership with Business Managers

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NFORMATION
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YSTEM
I
SSUES

Partnership



a critical strategy based on sustaining a
long
-
term relationship between IS and business
management



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IS steering committee
or advisory board used to:


Ensure frequent interaction


Set priorities


Check progress


Allocate scarce resources


Communicate concerns


Provide education


Develop shared responsibility


3. Creating an Active Partnership with Business Managers

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NFORMATION
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ECHNOLOGY
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ANAGEMENT
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YSTEM
I
SSUES



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4. Determining an Outsourcing Strategy

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YSTEM
I
SSUES

Outsourcing


hired outside services to perform some of a
company’s IS operations

Application service providers (ASPs)


provide total
systems to organizations, ranging from competitive
intelligence systems to broad ERP applications



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Outsourcing:


Allows an organization to pay only for what it uses


Trend might relate to the position of the CIO


Popular, largely due to:


Fast pace of technological change


Dissatisfaction and costs related to past in
-
house services


Must be both a remedy for service failures or costs and
a strategic choice


Should not be used for strategic information systems
with security or privacy issues


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Key factors in selecting an outsourcing vendor:


Vendor reputation


Quality of service


Flexible pricing

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5. Designing an Equitable Financing System

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NFORMATION
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ANAGEMENT
S
YSTEM
I
SSUES

Typical measures used to track IT costs:


Total IT budget as percentage of total organization
revenues or income


Total IT budget as percentage of total organization
budget


IS personnel costs as percentage of total organization
professional personnel salaries and wages


Ratio of hardware and software costs to IS personnel
costs


Costs for IT hardware and software per managerial or
knowledge worker



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5. Designing an Equitable Financing System

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YSTEM
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SSUES

Why is it hard to measure IT costs?


Some IT costs are hidden


No relationship to benefits included in
these measures


Benefits may happen after development
costs occur



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YSTEM
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SSUES

Measuring Benefits


No simple way to measure value
added benefits of IT


Can track IS performance measures
over time




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Controlling IS Costs


Use IS organization’s budget


Divide costs:


Personnel


Equipment and software


Outside services


Overhead




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YSTEM
I
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Chargeback Systems

IS chargeback process


places control of IS spending
with business managers, and is used to better understand
true costs



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5. Designing an Equitable Financing System

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Why use a chargeback system?


Assign costs to those who consume


Control wasteful use of IT resources


Overcome belief that IT costs unnecessarily high


Provide incentives using subsidy


Change IS to be more business driven


Encourage managers to be knowledgeable
consumers



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5. Designing an Equitable Financing System

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NFORMATION
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ANAGEMENT
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YSTEM
I
SSUES

Successful chargeback systems must be:


Understandable


Timely


Controllable


Accountable


Clearly linked to benefits


Consistent with IS and organizational goals



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6. Deploying Global Information Systems

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I
SSUES


Region and country issues influencing


global IT management:

1.
Country telecommunications infrastructures

2.
Legal and security considerations

3.
Language and culture

4.
Time zone differences




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6. Deploying Global Information Systems

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I
NFORMATION
T
ECHNOLOGY
M
ANAGEMENT
S
YSTEM
I
SSUES

Key trends of global outsourcing:


Offshore development centers



permanent offshore
presence


Near
-
shore sourcing



outsourcing to countries close to
home and overlapping time zones


Multisourcing


relying on multiple service providers in
a number of companies, based on price and skills



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6. Deploying Global Information Systems

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Global team manager traits:


Multiculturalist


E
-
facilitator


Recognition promoter


Internationalist


Traveler



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7.
Designing an Appropriate IS Organization


and Governance System

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Figure 15.8 Classic IS Organization


Structure



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7.
Designing an Appropriate IS Organization


and Governance System

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Types of IS Organizational Design:


Centralized



IS applications and resources housed,
managed, and controlled centrally


Decentralized



business units have complete control of
their own IS resources


Federal



attempt to achieve benefits of both centralized
and decentralized


Customized



mixed design in large enterprises where
each division determines best design for that division



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Page 605


Figure 15.9 Common Designs for


the IS Organization

Centralized Decentralized Federal Customized



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7.
Designing an Appropriate IS Organization


and Governance System

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YSTEM
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SSUES


Organization design depends on:


How rest of business is organized


Type of customer markets, products, and
geographical spread


Role of IT within the organization


Reporting level of most senior IS leader


Types of technologies managed by IS organization



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Page 606


Figure 15.10 Four Types of IS


Governance Mechanisms



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8. Ensuring Regular Performance Measurement


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Necessary for internal customers to regularly
evaluate IS organization


Need to show if promised cost savings are
realized


Required:


Agreement on measurable criteria


Metrics to judge work quality



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8. Ensuring Regular Performance Measurement


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IS Evaluation Criteria


Meeting business objectives


Responding rapidly and economically to new needs


Expanding business or services


Developing an architecture and plan


Operating reliable and efficient technology resources


Focusing on the customer


Providing quality IS staff


Reducing size of backlog


Satisfying users


Adopting new technologies


Figure 15.11 IS Evaluation Criteria



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8. Ensuring Regular Performance Measurement


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Other measures to evaluate IS performance:


Service level agreements

with internal business units
can be used to evaluate IS performance


Annual
surveys

for each major system


User satisfaction surveys