Introduction business process management

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20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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1

Workflow/Business Process Management


Introduction business process management
and workflow management

Eindhoven University of Technology

Faculty of Technology Management

Department of Information Systems

P.O. Box 513

5600 MB Eindhoven

The Netherlands

w.m.p.v.d.aalst@tm.tue.nl

Wil van der Aalst

2

Overview of this course

Workflow management

Relation with BPR

Techniques for business process modelling

(Re)design of workflows

Analysis of workflows

Resource management

Workflow management systems

Staffware

Protos

Concepts

With or without WFMS

Logistical aspects

Guidelines

process mining

Adaptive workflow

Interorganizational workflow

Business Process Management

FLOWer

Simulation

Patterns

3

Relevant WWW sites


http://www.workflowcourse.com


http://www.workflowpatterns.com


http://www.processmining.org


http://is.tm.tue.nl/


http://is.tm.tue.nl/staff/wvdaalst


http://www.wfmc.org


http://www.aiim.org


http://www.waria.com


http://www.workflow
-
research.de


http://www.sigpam.org




http://www.pallas
-
athena.com/



http://www.
staffware.com



http://is.tm.tue.nl/research/woflan/



http://www.exspect.com



http://www.ids
-
scheer.com

4

WARNING

It is not sufficient to understand the workflow
models. You have to be able to design them yourself

!

5

WARNING

Start early with the assignment and tools: You really
need the time

!!

6

Context

-

role of models and trends
-

7

Focus on models


Operational process

Information
System

Model

8

Some trends in Information Systems

1.
From programming to assembling

2.
From data orientation to process
orientation

3.
From design to redesign and organic
growth

operating
system

generic
applications

domain specific
applications

tailor
-
made
applications

9

Before BPM: WFM

-

workflow management
-

10

Workflow management

Goal


To manage the flow of work such that the work is done at the right time by
the proper person.


Definitions



A workflow management system (WFMS) is a software package that can
be used to support the definition, management and execution of workflow
processes.


A workflow system (WFS) is a system based on a WFMS that supports a
specific set of business processes through the execution of computerized
process definitions

11

Relevance of workflow management systems

Trend
:

Processes:


are becoming more important (BPR)


are subject to frequent changes


are becoming more complex


are increasing in number

Workflow Management System



OS

OS

OS

OS

DBMS

appl.

appl.

DBMS

DBMS

WFMS

appl.

appl.

UIMS

UIMS

1965
-
1975

1975
-
1985

1985
-
1995

1995
-
2005

12

The basic idea:


separation of processes, resources and applications


focus on the logistics of work processes, not on the
contents of individual tasks

processes

resources

applications

WFMS

13

BPM: The next step

-

business process management
-

14

Business Process Management (BPM)


“True Business Process Management is an amalgam of
traditional workflow and the 'new' BPM technology. It
then follows that as BPM is a natural extension of


and
not a separate technology to


Workflow, BPM is in fact
the merging of process technology covering 3 process
categories: interactions between (i) people
-
to
-
people;
(ii) systems
-
to
-
systems and (iii) systems
-
to
-
people


all
from a process
-
centric perspective. This is what true
BPM is all about.”

Jon Pyke, CTO Staffware.


“…a blending of process management/workflow with
application integration.”
David McCoy, Gartner Group




15

Alternative view on BPM: The BPM life
-
cycle

process
design
implementation/
configuration
process
enactment
diagnosis
16

1993

process
design
implementation/
configuration
process
enactment
diagnosis
17

1998

process
design
implementation/
configuration
process
enactment
diagnosis
18

2003

process
design
implementation/
configuration
process
enactment
diagnosis
19

2008 ???

process
design
implementation/
configuration
process
enactment
diagnosis
20

BPR, CPI, Office logistics

-

relationships to other domains
-

21

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

(Business Process Redesign)



Hammer and Champy: "Reengineering the corporation" (1993)


Keywords:


fundamental


radical


dramatic


process


The "organize before automate"
-
principle is replaced by "process
thinking".

22

Processes and the organization

23

Continuous Process Improvement (CPI)


Instead of of seeking a radical breakthrough, optimizing the process
by continuous, incremental improvements.


Part of the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach

("doing it right the first time", "eliminate waste", ...)

high

low

low

high

impact

frequency

BPR

CPI

chaos

stagnation

change

time

BPR

BPR

CPI

CPI

CPI

BPR and CPI are both
process centric

and can be supported by a WFMS.

24

Differences between information logistics and production logistics


Making a copy is easy and
cheap.



There are no real limitations
with respect to the in
-
process
inventory.



There are less requirements
with respect to the order in
which activities are executed.


Quality is difficult to measure.


Quality of end
-
products may
vary.


Transportation of electronic
data is timeless.


Production to stock is seldom
possible.


Loops or rework occurs
frequently in administrative
processes, but are very seldom
or even impossible in
production processes.


The customer (can)
influence(s) the handling in an
administrative process.


The difference between design and
control is fading!

25

History and CSCW

-

the WFM/BPM market
-

26

Historical overview of systems

Office Automation Prototypes
Scientific Workflow Systems
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
SCOOP
Backtalk
DAISY
Officetalk-Zero
METEOR
MOBILE
WIDE
CrossFlow
WASA
WASA
2
Officetalk-P
MENTOR
WISE
INCA
TRAMs
Panta Rhei
ADOME
WorCOS
Mariflow
APRICOT
Melmac
WorCRAFT
Poise
Polymer
D-Polymer
Polyflow
OVAL
ObjectLens
WAMO
Domino
Officetalk-D
FreeFlow
ProMInanD (Esprit)
(Zur Muehlen, 2003)

27


Workflow
management is
already 25 years old
(cf. OfficeTalk, Skip
Ellis/Xerox)!


The WFM hype is
over …, but there
are more and more
applications, and
WFM is adopted by
many other
technologies (ERP,
Web Services, etc.).

Commercial Workflow Systems
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Exotica I - III
FlowMark
MQSeries Workflow
jFlow
Staffware
Pavone
Onestone
Domino Workflow
BEA PI
CARNOT
ViewStar
Digital Proc.Flo.
AltaVista Proc.Flow
ActionWorkflow
SNI WorkParty
AdminFlow
Chang
e
ngine
WorkManager
OpenPM
FlowJet
Verve
Versata
Action Coordinator
ActionWorks Metro
DaVinci
FileNet WorkFlo
Visual WorkFlo
FileNet Ensemble
Panagon WorkFlo
Xerox InConcert
TIB/InConcert
Plexus FloWare
BancTec FloWare
NCR ProcessIT
Netscape PM
MS2 Accelerate
Teamware Flow
Fujitsu iFlow
Beyond BeyondMail
DST AWD
IABG ProMInanD
DEC LinkWorks
COSA
BaaN
Ley COSA
Fujitsu Regatta
Pegasus
LEU
Banyan BeyondMail
Olivetti X_Workflow
Oracle Workflow
Digital Objectflow
ImagePlus FMS/FAF
VisualInfo
DST AWD
Continuum
Recognition Int.
WANG
SIGMA
Eastman
WANG Workflow
eiStream
Lucent Mosaix
BlueCross
BlueShield
JCALS
iPlanet
(Zur Muehlen, 2003)

28

CSCW spectrum

data centric
process centric
unstructured
structured
production workflow
(e.g., Staffware)
ad-hoc workflow
(e.g., InConcert)
groupware
(e.g., Outlook)
database application
(e.g., SAP R/3)
case handling
(e.g., FLOWer)
29

Refined view (without datbase applications)

explicitly
structured
implicitly
structured
ad-hoc
structured
unstructured
data-driven
process-driven
ad-hoc workflow
groupware
production
workflow
case handling
30

Trade
-
offs

ad-hoc
workflow
groupware
production
workflow
case
handling
low
high
flexibility
support
design
effort
performance
31

human

oriented

system

oriented

groupware

workflow

transaction

processing

P2P

=

Person

To

Person

A2P

=

Application

To

Person

A2A

=

Application

To

Application

32

Focus on "classical" workflow management systems, but ...

Four types of "workflow
-
like" systems:

1.
Information systems with
hard
-
coded

workflows
(process& organization specific).

2.
Custom
-
made

information systems with
generic

workflow support (organization specific).

3.
Generic software

with embedded workflow

functionality (e.g., the workflow components of ERP,
CRM, PDM, etc. systems).

4.
Generic software

focusing on

workflow

functionality
(e.g., Staffware, MQSeries Workflow, FLOWer,
COSA, Oracle BPEL, Filenet, etc.).



33

WFM architecture

-

reference model and example
-

34

Reference model of the Workflow Management Coalition

Process
Definition Tools
Administration
& Monitoring
Tools
Interface 1
Interface 4
Interface 5
Workflow Enactment Service
Workflow API and Interchange formats
Other Workflow
Enactment Service(s)
Workflow
Client
Applications
Interface 3
Interface 2
Workflow
Engine(s)
Workflow
Engine(s)
Invoked
Applications

What?

When?

Who?

35

Process
Definition Tools
Administration
& Monitoring
Tools
Interface 1
Interface 4
Interface 5
Workflow Enactment Service
Workflow API and Interchange formats
Other Workflow
Enactment Service(s)
Workflow
Client
Applications
Interface 3
Interface 2
Workflow
Engine(s)
Workflow
Engine(s)
Invoked
Applications
36

Process
Definition Tools
Administration
& Monitoring
Tools
Interface 1
Interface 4
Interface 5
Workflow Enactment Service
Workflow API and Interchange formats
Other Workflow
Enactment Service(s)
Workflow
Client
Applications
Interface 3
Interface 2
Workflow
Engine(s)
Workflow
Engine(s)
Invoked
Applications
37

Process
Definition Tools
Administration
& Monitoring
Tools
Interface 1
Interface 4
Interface 5
Workflow Enactment Service
Workflow API and Interchange formats
Other Workflow
Enactment Service(s)
Workflow
Client
Applications
Interface 3
Interface 2
Workflow
Engine(s)
Workflow
Engine(s)
Invoked
Applications
38

39

Workflow perspectives

-

processes dominate!
-

40

Workflow perspectives


Process perspective

(tasks and the routing of
cases)


Resource perspective

(workers, roles, 4
-
eyes
principle, etc.)


Case/data perspective

(process instances and
their attributes)


Operation/application perspective

(forms,
application integration, etc.)


...

41

Process perspective: Protos (extended Petri nets)

42

Process perspective: Staffware

43

Process perspective: COSA (Petri nets)

44

Process perspective: Baan DEM

45

Process perspective: Event driven process chains (ARIS/SAP)

Planned
trip
is approved
Need
to correct
planned
trip
is transmitted
Entry
of a
travel
request
Need
for trip
has arisen
Trip
is requested
Approval
of travel
request
Planned
trip
is rejected
46

(Oracle) BPEL


<sequence name="main">


<flow name="Flow_1">


<links>


<link name="receive
-
to
-
assess"/>


<link name="receive
-
to
-
approval"/>


<link name="approval
-
to
-
reply"/>


<link name="assess
-
to
-
setMessage"/>


<link name="setMessage
-
to
-
reply"/>


<link name="assess
-
to
-
approval"/>


</links>


<sequence name="sequenceReceive">


<source linkName="receive
-
to
-
assess" transitionCondition="bpws:getVariableData('inputVariable','payload','/client:LoanAp
provalProcessRequest/client:amount')
&lt; 10000"/>


<source linkName="receive
-
to
-
approval" transitionCondition="bpws:getVariableData('inputVariable','payload','/client:Loan
ApprovalProcessRequest/client:amount')
&gt;= 10000"/>


<receive name="receiveInput" partnerLink="client" portType="client:LoanApproval" operation="initiate" variable="inputVar
iable" createInstance="yes"/>


</sequence>


<sequence name="sequenceAssess">


<target linkName="receive
-
to
-
assess"/>


<source linkName="assess
-
to
-
setMessage" transitionCondition="bpws:getVariableData('risk') = 'low'"/>


<source linkName="assess
-
to
-
approval" transitionCondition="bpws:getVariableData('risk') != 'low'"/>


<assign name="initiateAssessor">


<copy>


<from variable="inputVariable" part="payload" query="/client:LoanApprovalProcessRequest/client:firstName"/>


<to variable="invokeAssessor_initiate_InputVariable" part="payload" query="/ns1:AssessorProcessRequest/ns1:firstName
"/>


</copy>


<copy>


<from variable="inputVariable" part="payload" query="/client:LoanApprovalProcessRequest/client:name"/>


<to variable="invokeAssessor_initiate_InputVariable" part="payload" query="/ns1:AssessorProcessRequest/ns1:name"/>


</copy>


<copy>


<from variable="inputVariable" part="payload" query="/client:LoanApprovalProcessRequest/client:amount"/>


<to variable="invokeAssessor_initiate_InputVariable" part="payload" query="/ns1:AssessorProcessRequest/ns1:amount"/>


</copy>


</assign>


<invoke name="invokeAssessor" partnerLink="Assessor" portType="ns1:Assessor" operation="initiate" inputVariable="invokeA
ssessor_initiate_InputVariable"/>


<receive name="receiveAssessor" partnerLink="Assessor" portType="ns1:AssessorCallback" operation="onResult"
variable="receiveAssessor_onResult_InputVariable" createInstance="no"/>


<assign name="completeAssessor">


<copy>


<from variable="receiveAssessor_onResult_InputVariable" part="payload" query="/ns1:AssessorProcessResponse/ns1:level
"/>


<to variable="risk"/>


</copy>


</assign>


</sequence>


<sequence name="sequenceNoApproval">


<target linkName="assess
-
to
-
setMessage"/>


<source linkName="setMessage
-
to
-
reply"/>


<assign name="setAccepted">


<copy>


<from expression="'Accepted'"/>


<to variable="outputVariable" part="payload" query="/client:LoanApprovalProcessResponse/client:result"/>


</copy>


</assign>


</sequence>

47

Petri nets as a basis


The process perspective is the most dominant one.


There are many modeling techniques and tools


BPEL, BPMN, DFD, ISAC, SADT, PN, HLPN, PA, FC, UML, ...


Simulation tools, design tools, CASE tools, WFMS, ...


Focus on the essential concepts rather than (system
-
)specific
languages.


Approach in this course (1) first master workflow modeling
in terms of workflow nets (a subset of Petri nets), and (2)
only then look into mappings to and from (system
-
)specific
languages.

48

Example of a process model: A Petri net modeling order processing

star
t
register
send_bill
receive_payment
archive
ship_goods
wait_for_availability
reminder
end
c1
c2
c3
c5
c4
c6
49

Play the token game …

star
t
register
send_bill
receive_payment
archive
ship_goods
wait_for_availability
reminder
end
c1
c2
c3
c5
c4
c6
50

Test Exercise: Dining philosophers


5 philosophers sharing 5 chopsticks: chopsticks are located in
-
between
philosophers


A philosopher is either in state eating or thinking and needs two chopsticks
to eat.


Model as a Petri net.