Ch.1 - Organizing Workflows

normaldeerΔιαχείριση

20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

58 εμφανίσεις

MEIE881, Business Process Management

Ch.1
-

Organizing Workflows

Pwil van der Aalst & Kees van Hee

Workflow Management


models, methods, and
systems, The MIT Press (2004)

2007. 10. 02

POSMIS Lab.

Daegeun Hong

MEIE881, Business Process Management

2
/46

Contents


Ontology for workflow management


Work


Business process


Allocating and accepting work


Organizational structures


Managing processes


Information systems for Business Processes

MEIE881, Business Process Management

3
/46

Ontology for workflow
management


The objective of this chapter


To develop a reference framework


First, to define the business
-
management context within
which workflow management systems operate


Second, to model and analyze processes.


Third, to describe the functionality and architecture of
workflow management systems



An ontology


Workflow = business process (WFMC)


To discuss the role of work in society


To examine processes, followed by the distribution of work


The relationship between the principal and the contractor


To study organizational structures and the management of
processes


To look at the role played by (computerized) information
systems

MEIE881, Business Process Management

4
/46

Work (1/2)


The impression of living for their work







Alienation


So complex modern society


A high degree of work specialization in large companies


A negative effect upon productivity


A way that their employees clearly understand


Work

Product

Skills

Lives

Variety

Business

Unit

Efficiency

MEIE881, Business Process Management

5
/46

Work (2/2)


Organizational paradigm shift









Workflow management systems


To make work “controllable”


To encourage communication between employees


A new class of IS


A “bridge” between people’s work and computer
applications


MEIE881, Business Process Management

6
/46

Business process (1/13)


Many different types of work


Such as baking bread, making a bed, designing a house or
collecting survey results to compile a statistic


The one tangible "thing" that is produced or modified



A "thing" a
case


Work, job, product, service, or item


Does not need be a specific object


More abstract


Discrete in nature


A
process
being performed

MEIE881, Business Process Management

7
/46

Business process (2/13)


A process


A number of
tasks and
a set of
conditions


A
procedure



A task


A logical unit of work



A resource


The generic name for a person, machine or group of
persons or machines

MEIE881, Business Process Management

8
/46

Business process (3/13)


An example of a process


How a (fictional) insurance company deals with a claim


1.
recording
the receipt of the claim;

2. establishing the
type
of claim (for example, fire,


motor vehicle, travel, professional);

3. checking the client's
policy,
to confirm that it


does in principle cover what has been claimed for;

4. checking the
premium,
to confirm that payments


are up to date;

5.
rejection,
if task 3 or 4 has a negative result;

6. producing a
rejection letter,

7.
estimating the
amount to be paid,
based upon


the claim details;

8. appointment of an
assessor
to research the


circumstances of the damage and to establish


its value;

9. consideration of
emergency measures
to limit


further damage or relieve distress;

10. provision of
emergency measures
if approved


as part of task 8;

11. establishment or revision of
amount to be paid


and offer to client;

12. recording of client's
reaction:
acceptance or


objection;

13. assessment of
objection
and decision to revise


(task 11) or to take legal proceedings (task 14);

14. legal
proceedings
-
,

15.
payment
of claim; and

16.
closure
of claim: filing.

MEIE881, Business Process Management

9
/46

Business process (4/13)


Insurance claim process diagram (1/2)



Sequence




Omission




Selection




Parallel




Synchronization

MEIE881, Business Process Management

10
/46

Business process (5/13)


Insurance claim process (2/2)


Four different basic mechanisms in process structures


Sequence


Selection


Parallelization


Iteration



Very commonplace in practice, and in principle all processes



Greater detail in chapter 2

MEIE881, Business Process Management

11
/46

Business process (6/13)


Tasks


A computer without human interference


Human intelligence: a judgment or a decision



Knowledge


Tacit knowledge


In their minds by experience


Explicit knowledge


By learning and information retrieval



Knowledge management


The acquisition, enrichment, and distribution of knowledge


The right knowledge is at the right time with the person
who has to fulfill a task.

MEIE881, Business Process Management

12
/46

Business process (7/13)


A single process


Each case


The same process


A different route through that process



A routine for performing processes


The number of processes in a company is (generally) finite
and far smaller than the number of cases


An
activity:

the performance of a task by a resource



The clothing industry


Off
-
the
-
rack


Made
-
to
-
measure


The economy of scale


To keep the number of processes small and to make the
number of cases that each can perform as high as possible

MEIE881, Business Process Management

13
/46

Business process (8/13)


Combination of two processes into one


In theory


One additional task


Deciding what type of case we are dealing with and

so choosing which of the processes to follow


A false economy



The tailor and the architect


Design and start up a new process for each case


Use a standard approach


Highly dependent upon the case


The complexity of a process

MEIE881, Business Process Management

14
/46

Business process (9/13)


Situations in which many cases pertain to a single process


A new process needs to be designed for each case


"one of a kind“ processes


The case is the design of its specific process


Frequently standard tasks from which the process is compiled


Its own
project



A Discrete nature of the work


Each case has a single beginning and a single end



A continuous nature of the work


For example, a doorman or a policeman


Identifying periods and regarding door keeping or patrolling for a
particular period as one case


A continual sequence of cases, one for each period


One case comprising a continual repetition of tasks

MEIE881, Business Process Management

15
/46

Business process (10/13)


Processes into three categories:


Primary, secondary,
and
tertiary



Primary processes


To produce the company's products or services


Production processes


The purchase of raw materials and components


The sale of products and services


Design and engineering


Production and distribution



MEIE881, Business Process Management

16
/46

Business process (11/13)


Processes into three categories:


Primary, secondary,
and
tertiary



Secondary processes


To support the primary ones


Support processes


Maintaining production


The purchase and maintenance of machinery, vehicles, and
premises


Personnel management


Recruitment and selection, training, work appraisal, pay rolls,
and dismissal


Financial administration


Marketing

MEIE881, Business Process Management

17
/46

Business process (12/13)


processes into three categories:


Primary, secondary,
and
tertiary



Tertiary processes


To direct and coordinate the primary and secondary processes


Managerial processes


The objectives and preconditions within which the managers of
the other processes must operate are formulated


The resources required to carry out the other processes are
allocated.


Encompass the maintenance of contacts with financiers and other
stakeholders.

MEIE881, Business Process Management

18
/46

Business process (13/13)


Links between the three types of processes







MEIE881, Business Process Management

19
/46

Allocating and accepting work (1/5)


Most people's work is also assigned or outsourced to
them by other people: their principals


The
boss
and the
customer



Directly or indirectly related to work for customers



If the work carried out results in a product or service for a
customer


The primary processes



If the work involves maintaining or improving the
production process


The secondary and tertiary processes

MEIE881, Business Process Management

20
/46

Allocating and accepting work (2/5)


A hierarchy under which assignments


A
contractor or
a
resource


A person who is assigned a task


Not necessarily carry out the work itself


May redirect or subcontract it to third parties



Principals and contractors


If they are individual people


If they can be company departments or separate firms


Actor
to describe principals and contractors in general

MEIE881, Business Process Management

21
/46

Allocating and accepting work (3/5)


The role of a customer


Dependent upon the situation


The baker vs. the gardener



"the customer is always right“ > "working for the boss“


More conscious and
more careful approach to their work

MEIE881, Business Process Management

22
/46

Allocating and accepting work (4/5)


A
communications protocol


Contract
with one another about the case

MEIE881, Business Process Management

23
/46

Allocating and accepting work (5/5)


A
contract tree


A network of tasks


The task is the transportation of a cargo from point A to
point K

MEIE881, Business Process Management

24
/46

Organizational structures (1/6)


Properties of the three most important forms of
organizational structure that are relevant to workflow
organization



The three most important forms of organizational
structure


The hierarchical organization


The matrix organization


The network organization

MEIE881, Business Process Management

25
/46

Organizational structures (2/6)


The
hierarchical organization


The best known


A "tree" structure


An
organizational chart


an individual role

or function

groups of staff or
departments

authority relationships

MEIE881, Business Process Management

26
/46

Organizational structures (3/6)


In designing a hierarchical organization


What departments are created


What management layers exist above them



In allocating staff into departments


Three principles


The capacity group


Put people with the same skills together in the same department



The functional department


Performs an interdependent group of tasks



Process or production departments


Responsible for a complete business process or for the
manufacturing of a product.

MEIE881, Business Process Management

27
/46

Organizational structures (4/6)


T
he

matrix organization


Two dimensions: the
functional
and the
hierarchical


No fixed structure can be created based upon the tasks


In companies that operate on a project basis



Staff allocation in a matrix organization

Project
-
1

Project
-
2

Project
-
3

Supervisors

Louise

Anita

John

Carpenters

Pete

Karl

Geraldine

Masons

Henry

Tom

Jerry

Painters

Bert

Simone

Simone

Plasterers

Charles

Peter

Paul

Function

Hierarchy

MEIE881, Business Process Management

28
/46

Organizational structures (5/6)


How one person can take part in more than one project


Someone to work alternately on several projects during
the same period


Several people within one department work on the same
project



A process manager


Responsible for the quality and efficiency of "her" process


A
case manager


The rapid and correct completion of "her" cases



This can lead to a conflict of interests

MEIE881, Business Process Management

29
/46

Organizational structures (6/6)


The network organization


A
virtual organization


Autonomous actors


No formal permanent (employment) relationship



More and more network organizations


First, firms are trying to keep their permanent workforce
as small as possible instead making more extensive use of
temporary staff and subcontractors.


The flexibilization of labor


To control their fixed costs


The use of
comakers
and
outsourcers



The second reason is that specialist companies, each with
only a limited product range, can supply together an entire
product.

MEIE881, Business Process Management

30
/46

Managing processes (1/3)


A
management system vs.
a
managed system


"system“


Means all those people, machines, and computerized
information systems that carry out particular processes



Recursive management paradigm


The whole entity is a managed system

MEIE881, Business Process Management

31
/46

Managing processes (2/3)


Process management


Four levels of process management

Management

level

Time horizon

Financial
impact

Type of
decisions

Supporting

methods

Real
-
time

Seconds
-
hours

Low

Equipment
control

Control theory


Operational

Hours
-
days

Limited

Resource
assignment

Combinatorial

optimization (e.g.,

scheduling)


Tactical

Days
-
months

High

Resource
capacity
planning and
budgeting

Stochastic models

(e.g., queueing

models)


Strategic

Months
-
years

Very high

Process design
and resource
types

Financial models,

multi
-
criteria

analysis

MEIE881, Business Process Management

32
/46

Managing processes (3/3)


Decision making


An important feature of (process) management


Operations research (OR), Artificial intelligence (AI)



The four phases


Definition


What the problem is, scope, criteria



Creation


Formulating one or more solutions



Evaluation


Assessing different solutions



Selection


Selecting one solution

MEIE881, Business Process Management

33
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (1/14)


Based upon the role played by the system in the
processes


In ascending order of functionality



Office information systems


To assist the staff responsible for carrying out and
managing processes


Writing : word processors


Drawing : drawing packages


Calculating : spreadsheets


Filing : simple data base management systems


Communication : electronic mail



Do not themselves contain any knowledge of the processes

MEIE881, Business Process Management

34
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (2/14)


Transaction
-
processing systems


Registrational systems


Register and communicate the relevant aspects of changes in
the circumstances of a process and record these changes



Inter
-
organizational information systems


Electronic data interchange (EDI)



The heart of such a system


A database management system


Today a workflow management system


MEIE881, Business Process Management

35
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (3/14)


Knowledge
-
management systems


To take care of acquisition and distribution of knowledge to
be used by knowledge workers



Explicit knowledge


A search engine coupled to a document
-
management system



A case
-
based reasoning system


To search through a database of best
-
practice cases


To find cases with a high level of similarity to the actual case



Data warehouses


Tools for statistical analysis

MEIE881, Business Process Management

36
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (4/14)


Decision
-
support systems


D
ecisions

through interaction

with people



Two types of decision
-
support systems


Based upon mathematical models


Budgeting and investment systems


Production
-
planning systems


Based upon logical reasoning systems


Expert systems


Using at all levels of management

(operational, tactical, and strategic)

MEIE881, Business Process Management

37
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (5/14)


Control systems


Based upon the recorded state of a process



To
calculate and implement decisions entirely
automatically


Automatic ordering


Climate control


Invoicing systems


MEIE881, Business Process Management

38
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (6/14)


An information system


A combination of the four types



The viewpoint of efficiency


The control system


no staff


Very limited



Decision
-
support systems


The most potential


interaction with people



No idea how an information system should make a decision
about many problems at the strategic level


Most information systems


Office
-
information and transaction
-
processing systems.

MEIE881, Business Process Management

39
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (7/14)


A historical summary


The boundaries of the time periods


To highlight the influence of workflow management
systems



Decomposition of generic functionality



Application

Operating System



Operating System







Application

WFMS

UIMS

DBMS

MEIE881, Business Process Management

40
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (8/14)


1965
-
1975: decompose applications


Ran directly on the operating system and either had no
user interface or one entirely of their own



No exchange of data between different applications

MEIE881, Business Process Management

41
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (9/14)


1975
-
1985: database management


"take data management out of the applications“



The rise of the database management system (DMBS)


Hierarchical and network databases, later relational ones


A piece of generic software


To add, view, revise, and delete data



The advantages


Data Managed by different applications


Data structures only need to be defined once


The same data item only needs to be stored once



The data
-
oriented approach to system development


To be extracted from application programs

MEIE881, Business Process Management

42
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (10/14)


1985
-
1995: user
-
interface management


"take the user interface out of the applications“



The next bottleneck in system development


Operating in a different way


a standard way



User
-
interface management systems (UIMS)



From character
-
based user interfaces to graphics
-
based ones


Increasing the utilization


Integrating in other tools


Database management systems


Program environments


Web browsers



To be extracted from application programs

MEIE881, Business Process Management

43
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (11/14)


1995
-
2005: workflow management


"take the business processes out of the applications“



To offers the added advantage that the business processes
become easier to maintain



Workflow systems


To manage the workflows and organizes the routing of case
data amongst the human resources and through application
programs



Workflow management systems (WFMS)


To define and use workflow systems



To be extracted from application programs

MEIE881, Business Process Management

44
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (12/14)


Some of the early work on workflow management


In the 1970s


Skip Ellis


At Xerox PARC on "Office Automation Systems“


Petri
-
net
-
based work
-
flow models



Michael Zisman


"Representation, Specification, and Automation of Office
Procedures" in 1997 (University of Pennsylvania)


MEIE881, Business Process Management

45
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (13/14)


A long time before workflow management systems


First, workflow management requires users linked to a
computer network.


Only in the 1990s



Second, information systems evolved from systems that
are unaware of business processes


Workflow was never considered as a really new piece of
functionality



Finally, the rigid and inflexible character of the early (and
some of the contemporary) products

MEIE881, Business Process Management

46
/46

Information systems for Business
Processes (14/14)


Disentangling
functions from applications


The way to improve efficiency



Component
-
based


Configuration


The setting of parameters, which may take all sorts of forms


Integration


So
-
called middleware


A set of standards and language features



A standard software package


The advantage


No development costs


Drawback


No customization