Business Process Management

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20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Business Process Management

Systems

Pascal Ravesteyn

UU/HU
-

2007

General overview


Introduction


What is BPMS?


Research question


BPMS implementation framework


Assignment



Introduction

Business Process Management: the Third Wave

(Smith, Fingar, 2003)





Internet


Globalization


Governance (SOX, Tabaksblatt)


Outsourcing


Source: CIOinsight (2006)

View of processes and organization

IT organization

Business organization

EAI

CASE

ERP

UML

Workflow

management

Rules

engines

Java

B2Bi

webservices

Act. Based costing

ISO9001

Balanced Scorecards

Cont. process

improvement

TQM

Value

Chain

Kaizen

Six Sigma

So…

BPMS

A new software category that supports the entire lifecycle of modeling,
executing, and monitoring business processes

What is

Business Process Management
(System)

History BPMS


Management Concepts:


Total Quality Management


Business Process Re
-
engineering


Business Proces Management


Etc.


IT Innovations


Enterprise Resource Planning


Workflow Management


Enterprise Application Integration


Business Intelligence /Dashboard and portals


Etc.

Number

Total Quality Management

Business Process Reengineering

1

Process orientation

Process orientation

2

Customer focus (intern and
e
xtern)

Customer focus (mainly external)

3

Support and commitment of
employees and management

Support and commitment of
employees and management

4

Requires cultural change

Requires cultural change

5

Cross
-
functional teams to analyze
and resolve quality p
roblems

Cross
-
functional teams to redesign
processes




6

Improve existing work processes

Develop entirely new processes

7

Continuous change

One
-
time project

8

Evolutionary change

Project radical ness

9

Focus on individual process
activities

Focus on
core processes

10

Use of statistics to measure
improvement

creative use of IT to enable new
processes

11

'self
-
renewal learning' culture
with all employees involved

As few people as possible should
be involved in the performance of a
process


Table 1

based on Jarrar and Aspinwall (1999); Hackman and Wageman (1995)


Root

Characteristic

BPR

Focus on external customers

BPR

Process descriptions (graphical)

TQM

Measurement and control of process performance

TQM

Cont
inuous optimization of processes

BPR

Implementation of automated processes across functional
departments

TQM / BPR

Culture change


Systematic automation of core business processes by integrating all
software applications that support these processes

Ta
ble 2
Characteristics of Business Process Management


Databases
Back end
\
Systems
Layer
Self
-
Generating Integration
SAP using
java
API
Web
Service
API
Excel using
com
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Business
Rules
Layer
Production
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Invoices
Business Level
Obj ects
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Process
Layer
Any Process
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
Calculation
Interface
Layer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
XML
API
Back end
\
Systems
Layer
Self
-
Generating Integration
SAP using
java
API
SAP using
java
API
Web
Service
API
Web
Service
API
Excel using
com
API
Excel using
com
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Business
Rules
Layer
Production
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Invoices
Business Level
Obj ects
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Process
Layer
Any Process
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
Calculation
Interface
Layer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
XML
API
XML
API
BPMS
TQM
General Workflow
BPR
BPM
time
ERP
WFM
EAI
‘85
‘90
‘95
‘05
‘00
‘98
IT Innovations
Management Concepts
Databases
Databases
Back end
\
Systems
Layer
Self
-
Generating Integration
SAP using
java
API
Web
Service
API
Excel using
com
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Business
Rules
Layer
Production
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Invoices
Business Level
Obj ects
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Process
Layer
Any Process
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
Calculation
Interface
Layer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
XML
API
Back end
\
Systems
Layer
Self
-
Generating Integration
SAP using
java
API
SAP using
java
API
Web
Service
API
Web
Service
API
Excel using
com
API
Excel using
com
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Business
Rules
Layer
Production
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Invoices
Business Level
Obj ects
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Process
Layer
Any Process
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
Calculation
Interface
Layer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
XML
API
XML
API
BPMS
Back end
\
Systems
Layer
Self
-
Generating Integration
SAP using
java
API
Web
Service
API
Excel using
com
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Business
Rules
Layer
Production
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Invoices
Business Level
Obj ects
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Process
Layer
Any Process
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
Calculation
Interface
Layer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
XML
API
Back end
\
Systems
Layer
Self
-
Generating Integration
SAP using
java
API
SAP using
java
API
Web
Service
API
Web
Service
API
Excel using
com
API
Excel using
com
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Business
Rules
Layer
Production
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Invoices
Business Level
Obj ects
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Process
Layer
Any Process
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
Calculation
Interface
Layer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
XML
API
XML
API
BPMS
TQM
TQM
General Workflow
BPR
General Workflow
BPR
BPM
BPM
BPM
time
ERP
ERP
WFM
WFM
EAI
EAI
‘85
‘90
‘95
‘05
‘00
‘98
IT Innovations
Management Concepts
Ravesteyn, 2007

History of SOA

Programming

language

Distribution

technology

Business

computing

Content: data &

Business logic

Remote access &

infrastructure

Implementation

Platform, interfacing

Techniques interaction


patterns

Service Oriented Architecture

1950

1980

1960

1970

1990

2000

Mainframe

Batch

processing

Assembler

COBOL

Databases

SQL

SIMULA

Pascal

VT3270

VT100

Visicalc

R/2

IBM PC

TCP/IP

sockets

RPC

Client/Server

CORBA

NFS

EAI

WWW

EJB

MQ

SOAP

WSDL

EAI

R/3

Data Warehouse

WWW

BPM

Modula2

Smalltalk

PROLOG

Ada

C++

Java

C#

.NET

Classification of Services



Basic services
; represent the basic elements of a SOA



Data centric services



Logic centric services



Intermediairy services
; are stateless services that


function as client of server in a SOA



Process centric services
; encapsulate the knowledge of the


organization’s business processes (maintain the process state)



Public enterprise services
; provide interfaces for cross
-
enterprise


integration

Application frontends are the active elements of a SOA. They initiate

all business processes and ultimately receive their results (e.g. GUI)

Classification of Services (2)

Basic Services
Intermediairy
Services
Process-centric
services
Public Enterprise
services
Description
simple data or
logic centric
services
technology
gateways,
adapters and
functionality
adding services
encapsulate
process logic
service shared with
other enterprises or
partner organizations
Implementation
complexity
low to moderate
moderate to high
high
service specific
State
management
stateless
stateless
stateful
service specific
Reusability
high
low
low
high
Frequency of
change
low
moderate to high
high
low
Mandatory
element of SOA
yes
no
no
no
Krafzig et al. 2005

BPMS Architecture

Example
-

1

Back end
\
Systems
Layer
Self
-
Generating Integration
SAP using
java
API
Web
Service
API
Excel using
com
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Business
Rules
Layer
Production
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Invoices
Business Level
Obj ects
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Process
Layer
Any Process
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
Calculation
Process
Designer
Web Work
Portal/
Forms/
WSDL
Component
Manager
Existing
Systems
Interface
Layer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
XML
API
Back end
\
Systems
Layer
Self
-
Generating Integration
SAP using
java
API
SAP using
java
API
Web
Service
API
Web
Service
API
Excel using
com
API
Excel using
com
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
MSMQ using
com or java
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Databases using
jdbc
API
Business
Rules
Layer
Production
Business Level
Objects
Business Level Objects
Invoices
Business Level
Obj ects
AFE’s
Business Level
Objects
Anything
Business Level
Objects
Process
Layer
Any Process
General Workflow
System and User Interactions
Calculation
Process
Designer
Web Work
Portal/
Forms/
WSDL
Component
Manager
Existing
Systems
Interface
Layer
Web
Service
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
XML
API
XML
API
Enterprise Applications (
ERP + others
)

Enterprise Service Bus (
ESB
)

Business Process Management (
BPM
)

Business Activity Monitoring (
BAM
)

Role Based Presentation + Applications (
CAF
)

BPMS Architecture

Example
-

2

Market Overview

“The Forrester Wave™:

Integration
-
Centric Business Process Management Suites”

(Q4, December 20, 2006)

When to use BPMS

low

low

high

high

Frequency

of change

Complexity of

coordination

BPMS

EAI

Application

server

Krafzig et al. 2005

Maturity of SOA

in relation to Business Integration

maintainability

flexibility

agility

Scope of

Business integration

Maturity of

SOA

Not feasible

Not cost
-
effective

Process

enabled

networked

fundamental

Intra

departmental

Cross

departmental

Cross

Bus. unit

Simple


B2B

Complex

Processes

integration

Intra

enterprise

Cross
-
enterprise

Krafzig et al. 2005

Research

Research goal


“Provide an overview of the critical success
factors when implementing a BPMS”



To accomplish this….



Research Activities and Articles


Literature Research


Framework & Model


Validation (qualitative & quantitative)


Case Studies


CONCEPT
BPR
TQM
BPM
WFM
EAI
BI/BAM
BPMS
Other
Number
ARTICLE
1
Aalst (2002)
X
2
Aalst, et al(2003)
X
X
X
3
Aalst, Hee (2004)
X
4
Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004)
X
X
5
Al-Mashari, Zairi (1999)
X
6
Anzböck, Dustdar (2005)
X
7
Arkin(2002)
X
8
Armistead (1996)
X
X
9
Armistead, Machin (1997)
X
X
10
Aversano, et al (2002)
X
X
11
Becker, et al (2003)
X
12
Bhatt, Stump (2001)
X
X
13
Bhatt, Troutt (2005)
X
X
14
Box, Platts (2005)
X
15
Burlton (2001)
X
16
Çakular, Wijngaarden (2002)
X
17
Chang (2006)
X
18
Cunningham, Finnegan (2004)
X
X
19
Datastream (2005)
X
20
Davenport (2000)
X
21
Deming (1982)
X
22
Dennis, et al (2006)
X
23
Es, et al (2005)
X
24
Fremantle, et al (2002)
X
X
25
Georgakopoulos (1999)
X
X
26
Grefen, De Vries (1998)
X
27
Gulledge, Sommer (2002)
X
X
28
Hammer, Champy (2001)
X
29
Harrington (1995)
X
30
Hill (1999)
X
X
31
Hillegersberg, et al (2004)
X
X
32
Informatica (2005)
X
33
Ishikawa (1986)
X
34
Jablonski (1995)
X
35
Jarrar, Aspinwall (1999)
X
X
36
Jeston, Nelis (2006)
X
37
Jeston, Nelis (2006)
X
38
Juopperi, et al (1995)
X
39
Juran (1945)
X
40
Juran (1951)
X
41
Karagiannis (1995)
X
42
Kettinger, et al (1997)
X
43
Khoshaflan (2006)
X
44
Kim, Ramkaran (2004)
X
X
45
Klen, et al (2001)
X
X
46
Kobayashi (2003)
X
X
47
Koedijk, Verstelle (1999)
X
48
Kuo (2004)
X
49
Laudon, Laudon (2000)
X
50
Lee, Dale (1998)
X
Conceptueel
Empirisch
Theoretisch
Modelmatig
Case studies
Surveys
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Wetenschappelijk
Toegepast (consultancy gericht)
Cross-sectional
Longitudinaal
Vergelijkende case studies
Vergelijkende studies (bijv. Van
software of implementatie methode)
Cross-sectional
Longitudinaal
ARTICLE
Aalst (2002)
X
Aalst, et al(2003)
X
Aalst, Hee (2004)
X
X
Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004)
X
Al-Mashari, Zairi (1999)
X
Anzböck, Dustdar (2005)
X
Arkin(2002)
X
Armistead (1996)
X
Armistead, Machin (1997)
X
Aversano, et al (2002)
X
Becker, et al (2003)
Bhatt, Stump (2001)
X
Bhatt, Troutt (2005)
X
Box, Platts (2005)
X
X
Burlton (2001)
X
Çakular, Wijngaarden (2002)
X
Chang (2006)
X
Cunningham, Finnegan (2004)
X
Datastream (2005)
X
Davenport (2000)
X
Deming (1982)
X
X
Dennis, et al (2006)
X
Es, et al (2005)
X
Fremantle, et al (2002)
X
Georgakopoulos (1999)
X
Grefen, De Vries (1998)
X
X
Gulledge, Sommer (2002)
X
Hammer, Champy (2001)
X
Harrington (1995)
X
X
Hill (1999)
X
Hillegersberg, et al (2004)
X
Informatica (2005)
X
Ishikawa (1986)
X
X
Jablonski (1995)
X
Jarrar, Aspinwall (1999)
X
Jeston, Nelis (2006)
X
Jeston, Nelis (2006)
X
Juopperi, et al (1995)
X
Juran (1945)
X
X
Juran (1951)
X
X
Karagiannis (1995)
X
X
Kettinger, et al (1997)
X
X
X
X
Khoshaflan (2006)
X
Kim, Ramkaran (2004)
X
Nummer
ARTIKEL
KRITISICHE SUCCESFACTOREN ZOALS GENOEMD IN ARTIKEL
(niet alles is KSF, soms betreft het aspecten zoals uit artikel naar voren komt)
1
Aalst (2002)
the level of detail in
modeling entire
processes in a supply
chain
when modeling a
supply chain this
requires each
business partner to
understand the nature
of their partners' local
processes
when altering private
processes, which
modifications are
allowed without
jeopardizing the
correct operation of
the overall workflow
2
Aalst, et al(2003)
Not applicable
3
Aalst, Hee (2004)
Not applicable
4
Aguilar-Savén, Ruth (2004)
Is it possible to use
modelingtechniques
that are related to the
type of company?
5
Al-Mashari, Zairi (1999)
change management
management
competency and
support
organisational
structure
project planning and
management
IT infrastructure
6
Anzböck, Dustdar (2005)
Not applicable
7
Arkin(2002)
Not applicable
8
Armistead (1996)
Designate a process
champion
Know the process
Understand the
linkages
Work on the trade-
offs
Teach others about
the process
Train within the
process
Measure the process
Manage careers
Build
specialist
expertise
Improve
the
process
9
Armistead, Machin (1997)
organization
coordination
process definition
organization
structuring
cultural fit
improvement
measurement
10
Aversano, et al (2002)
use of a well-defined
and practical method
to reverse engineer
processes
accurately select
process owners and
key users
listen to process
owners and key users
use multiple data
gathering approaches
draw early drafts of
process maps
use a standard
process modeling
language
delay the technology
evaluation until
process reverse
engineering is
finished
take into account the
industrial partners
and the target
environment
11
Becker, et al (2003)
Involvement of
management as
targeted users of the
system
Management
understanding and
support
The effectiveness of
datawarehouses for
business process
integration
The availability of
data within the Supply
Chain
Integration of CRM
and SCM data from
an operative (EAI)
perspective and a
management (data
warehouses and
decision support
systems) perspective
12
Bhatt, Stump (2001)
to enable
communication
among IS systems
standardization is
needed
for global inter-
operability,
transparency to the
end user is needed
Integrative capability
of IS networks
Top management
support is critical to
establish Network
connectivity and
Network Flexibility
13
Bhatt, Troutt (2005)
Not applicable
14
Box, Platts (2005)
involve many people
translate project
objectives into very
specific deliverables
formulate a business
case
deliver on the
business case
good executive
involvement (sponsor)
assign the best
possible people to the
project full time
create challenging
roles and new job
perspectives after the
project
rewards & incentives
when deliverables are
met before time, with
higher quality etc.
make sure
that
people
that are
engaged
to the
project
can attach
their own
meaning
to the
project
strong
leadership
is
essential
for
effective
change
a clear
path must
be created
from
corporate
strategy to
project
goals, and
ultimately
to team
and
individual
objectives
single
point
accountab
ility; each
person
should
fully
understan
d her role
in
achieving
the overall
objective
and be
accountab
le for
his/her
tasks
BPMS

WFM

TQM

BPR

Business Process Management


Framework

Monitoring & Control

Information

Technology

Strategy & Policy

People & Culture

Organization

& Processes

Bus.

Proc.

Model.

BI / BAM

EAI

Ravesteyn, 2006


A literature study of 104 articles and books



Based on a meta
-
analysis of the literature a list was compiled with
over 337 critical success factors from the different background
principles



This list was based upon the principles according to the following
composition:


3.86% of the factors came from TQM


17.51% from BPR


29.97% BPM


11.57% WFM


12.76% EAI (incl. SOA)


2.08% BAM


12.17% from the BPMS domain


10.08% from various other related areas


Business Process Management System


Implementation approach

Man.
Org. & Proc.
Architecture
Information
Process
Development
Infrastruc
.
Ser.
Appl
.
Man.
Org. & Proc.
Management of Implementation & Change
Measurement and Control
Man.
Org. & Proc.
Architecture
Information
Process
Architecture
Information
Process
Development
Infrastruc
.
Ser.
Appl
.
Development
Infrastruc
.
Ser.
Appl
.
Man.
Org. & Proc.
Management of Implementation & Change
Measurement and Control
Business Process Management System


Implementation approach

Organizational domain

Project domain

(Ravesteyn, 2007)

Management of Organization & Processes

Critical Success Factors:

1)
Project management

2)
Change management and involving people

3)
Understanding the BPM concept

4)
Management support and involvement

5)
Strategic Alignment

6)
Governance & accountability

7)
Training

8)
Culture

Management of Organization & Processes

Other factors mentioned:


take into account the customers, industrial partners and the target
environment


create challenging roles and new job perspectives after the project


establishing a support organization because ongoing maintenance and
management is very difficult


Treat value as realizable by all stakeholders, irrespective of geography or
organizational boundaries


Build a knowledge base around processes


implementation guide: follow an "inside
-
out" strategy, this means first
prioritize the integration of internal systems and applications, defining and
institutionalizing your business processes then the company is better suited
for integration with external systems


use of best practices

Architecture Design

(process model)

Critical Success Factors:

1)
Understanding the process

2)
Use the 'best' modeling standards & techniques

3)
Organizing the modeling ‘design’ phase

4)
Maintenance and control
-

including quality
-

of the models is important

Architecture Design

(process model)

Formal models

Analysis

Visualisation

For different

stakeholders

Link with

implementation

Maintenance

Version control

Napkin

Whiteboard

Powerpoint

Idea

Design

Use

Management

Architecture

process

The architecture description life cycle (Lankhorst et al. 2005)

Architecture Design

(coherence)

(Lankhorst et al. 2005)

Other factors mentioned:


W
hen altering private processes, which modifications are allowed without
jeopardizing the correct operation of the overall workflow


Strategic objectives and functional objectives should be identified and linked to
process model



lack of documentation of embedded processes in application systems


Multi process adaptation alternatives should be present, and also a contextual
adaptation process


Underestimating the difficulty in integrating offshore
-
supplier employees into the
processes and work flows of their companies


Modeling interfaces related to software systems


pre
-
determined collaboration choreography of participating organizations (ad
hoc changes are not possible)


Architecture Design

(process model)

Architecture Design

(information model)

Critical Success Factors:

1)
Interdependencies and Integration of Data sources

2)
Discovery of Information

3)
Process Orientation

4)
Defining (web) services

5)
Understanding the BPMS paradigm

6)
Business & IT divide

7)
Use of Business Rules

Architecture Design

(information model)

Other factors mentioned:


Sometimes information
-
processing work is subsumed into the real
work that produces the information


For global inter
-
operability, transparency to the end user is needed
which has consequences for the information availability


Development

(infrastructure)

Critical Success Factor:

1) IT Infrastructure:


IT infrastructure is not aligned to the developed solution


embedded business logic within communications networks


Development

(Service Oriented Business Appl.)

Critical Success Factors:

1)
Integration of processes and data

2)
(Use of) Webservices

Development

(Service Oriented Business Appl.)

Other factors mentioned:


Transformation of design models into implementation models


Delay the technology evaluation until process reverse engineering is
finished


SOA (currently) works best when working with applications from large
IT vendors


Reliability of Internet (standards)


The process manager might get direct access to the application server
where connections are running


Testing prototypes and the final solution


The inflexibility of IT application systems


Management of Implementation & Change

Critical Success Factors:

1)
Project management

2)
Change management and involving people

Measurement & Control

Critical Success Factors:

1)
Performance Measurement

2)
Continuous Optimization

3)
An organization and culture of Quality


Other factors mentioned:


Use multiple data gathering approaches


The availability of data within the Supply Chain is critical


Both formal and informal monitoring and reporting activities should be taken into
account


Capture information once and at the source (tasks are performed wherever it
provides the most value)


Granularity and visibility control (information is not available or private
information is made public)

Measurement & Control

Assignment

Assignment

Investigate the validity of (part of) the provided
success factors. Extend and/or drill
-
down
when necessary. Aspects to consider:


Mapping on the Model


Weight


Aspects per CSF


Assignment form


Teams of two


Several teams are validating one domain


One paper per domain with at least one chapter per team

Structure team chapter:

Structure domain paper:

Introduction

Validation

Results

Team x

Introduction
Validation
Results
Team x
Introduction
Validation
Results
Team n
Summary
Conclusion
(validation method & overall results)
Introduction
Validation
Results
Team x
Introduction
Validation
Results
Team x
Introduction
Validation
Results
Team n
Introduction
Validation
Results
Team n
Summary
Conclusion
(validation method & overall results)
Resources


BPM Forum


Suppliers (BEA (Fuego), Cordys, IBM,
Microsoft, SAP, Seebeyond, Tibco,
Webmethods etc.)


Consultancy Organizations (Capgemini,
InterAccess, LogicaCMG, Ordina etc.)


Users (Interpay, ING, ABN
-
AMRO, Nuon etc.)

Questions?