Business Management and Change

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20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Classical
-
scientific

Behavioural

Contingency

Management Approaches


Functions of Management:


Planning


Organising


Leading



Note POLC are the 4 main


Controlling


Motivating


Communicating


Negotiating


Classical


scientific


Management as planning, organising and
controlling


Hierarchical organisational structure based on
division of labour (specialisation of labour)


Autocratic leadership style


Behavioural


Management as leading, motivating,
communicating


Flat organisational structure, teams


Participative/democratic leadership style



Contingency


Adapting management and organisational
approaches to circumstances




Identify the main functions of management.


These are
-

planning, organising, leading, controlling,
motivating, communicating


They are important to the business because they influence
:


The organisation and allocation of tasks to staff


The organisational structure


Levels of management


Management styles


The behavioural approach:
stresses that people should
be the main focus of the
way in which the business
is organised.


Workers have a social need
to be fulfilled and want to
feel part of a team. This
leads to job satisfaction and
output.

Behavioural

Flat organisational
structure and
teams

The most important
functions
of
management are
leading, motivating,
communicating

Participative

democratic

Leadership style


Leading and directing human
resources in an organisation to
achieve its objectives.


A good leader:


Delegates tasks to suitable
employees
-
hand over
responsibility


Listens to and respects employees


Conveys the goals of the business
and motivates them to be achieved


Is flexible


Understands the business and the
industry
-

has vision


Motivation

is the individual, internal process that
energises, directs and sustains an individual’s
behaviour. It is the personal force that causes a person
to behave in a particular way.


Recognition, self
-
worth and positive reinforcement are
as important as pay rates and working conditions.


Communication

is the exchange of
information between people, the
sending and receiving of
messages.


Encompasses every management
function


Unless managers are able to
communicate their thoughts and
plans they will find it difficult to
influence others.

Management

Employees or work teams


Shorter Chain of Command and a Wider span of
control

This means that there is a greater degree of two
way communication between management and
employees


Flatter organisational structures: have evolved due to a ‘de
-
layering’ of management structures resulting in the
elimination of one or more management levels.


They are more responsive to change, give greater
responsibility to individuals, increase the span of control
and provide greater freedom and autonomy for workers to
carry out their tasks.


Work cells concentration on one product, process or
customer.


Encourages multi
-
skilling, quality control and maintenance.

TEAMS


Teamwork: involves people who
interact regularly and coordinate
their work towards a common goal.


Can lead to superior performance.


Specialists in different areas work
together.


The manager will become a
facilitator:


Members must share a common
goals


They must trust each other and
feel valued


Decisions are made by consensus

Laissez
-
faire

Participative/democratic

Autocratic/authoritarian

Single source of
authority, subordinates
follow orders, one way
communication,
motivation through
sanctions and rewards.

Power shared, employee
empowerment, employees are self
directed and intrinsically
motivated. Employees abilities and
skills are similar.

Virtually no central
management.

Highly skilled
workers reaching
specific objectives
and results.

1.













3.

1.

1.

Management as leading,
motivating and communicating

Flat organisational structure

Democratic or participative
leadership

Leading

Motivating and directing human
resources in an organisation to achieve its
objectives.


Motivation is the individual, internal process
that energises, directs and sustains an
individual’s behaviour.

Communication is the exchange of
information between people, the sending
and receiving of messages.

a ‘de
-
layering’ of management structures
resulting in the elimination of one or more
management levels.

Power shared, employee empowerment,
employees are self directed and intrinsically
motivated. Employees abilities and skills are
similar.

1.

2.

3.

2.

Contingency management
Approach


Stresses the need for flexibility and adaptation of
management practices and ideas to suite
changing circumstances.


Each situation requires its own solution.


It believes that managers should use parts from a
wide range of
management approaches.


Managers needs to be adaptable and flexible.


Management is constantly evolving with new
ideas and theories which is helpful for managers.