Multitrophic interactions in the rhizosphere and the ... - British Council

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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H. S. GAUR

Dean & Joint Director (Edu.)

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

E
-
mail:

hsg_nema@iari.res.in


ROSANE CURTIS

Principal Scientist

Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts., UK

E
-
mail:
rosane.curtis@bbsrc.ac.uk

Multitrophic interactions in the
rhizosphere and the management
of nematode pests and diseases


Indian Agricultural
Research Institute, New
Delhi, India


Prof. Hari S. Gaur

Dr. Uma Rao

Dr. Anil Sirohi

Dr. Pankaj

Dr. Sharad Mohan


Strong nematology research
and teaching programme


Rothamsted Research,
Harpenden, UK


Prof. Brian Kerry

Dr. Keith G. Davies

Dr. Rosane Curtis

Dr. Penny Hirsch

Dr. Tony Miller


Strong soil function and
rhizosphere biology programme


UKIERI Standard Award, 2007

Multitrophic interactions in the rhizosphere and the
management of nematode pests and diseases

Partners

India


Population:




1200 million


Food production:



230 m tonnes


Population engaged in agriculture: 60%


Share of GDP from Agriculture:


18%


Wide range of agroclimate and soils:


Temperate


Sub
-
tropical
-

Tropical


Arid
-

Sub
-
humid
-

humid


Sandy


Loam
-

Clay


Wide variety of crops and farming systems


Multiple cropping, intensive cultivation


Many pest and disease problems including
nematodes

National Agricultural Research System
of India

Indian Council of Agricultural Research


4 National institutes: Deemed Universities


IARI
, IVRI, NDRI, CIFE


80 research institutes and national research
centres


75 All India Coordinated Research Projects


46 State Agricultural Universities


Focus
-

Research
: Fundamental and applied




Education
: UG, PG and Doctoral




Extension
: Transfer of technology

INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE

New Delhi

Premier agricultural research institute

Established in 1905 at Pusa, Bihar

Shifted to Delhi in 1936

Post
-
graduate teaching since 1923

Deemed to be University since 1958:


Grants M.Sc. & Ph.D. Degrees in 23 subjects

Indian Agricultural Research Institute

The Flagship Institute

The seat of Green Revolution

Led India from Paucity to Plenty

Director

Joint Director

(Research)

Dean and Joint Director

(Education)



Joint Director

(Extension)

Joint Director

(Administration)

19 Divisions

7 Units

9 Regional Stations


PG Disciplines

22 Ph.D., 23 M.Sc.

Faculty trainings

Farmer Trainings

Transfer of Technology

Agri. Tech. Centre

Extension & Social Science

Trainings, Demonstrations

Administration

Budget

Maintenance

400 Scientists, 700 Technicians, 700 Supporting Staff, 400
Administrative Staff

19 Divisions, 7 Units, 5 Multidisciplinary Centres

650 Post
-
Graduate students , 200 Research Fellows/ Associates

Schools and Centres of Excellence

Basic Sciences

Crop
Improvement

Natural
Resource
Management

Crop
Protection

Social
Sciences

Biochemistry

Genetics

Agronomy

Plant
Pathology

Agri.
Extension

Plant
Physiology

Fruit Science

Soil Science &
Agri.Chemistry

Entomology

Agri.
Economics

Biotechnology

Vegetable
Science

Microbiology

Nematology

CATAT

Molecular
Biology

Floriculture &
Landscaping

Environment
Science

Agricultural
Chemicals

KVK

Agricultural
Physics

Post
-
Harvest
Technology

Agricultural
Engineering


NRCPB &

Plant Genome
Centre

National
Phytotron
Facility

Water
Technology
Centre

NCCU Blue
Green Algae

Agricultural
Statistics

Computer
-

Applications

Nuclear
Research Lab.

National Agri.
LIBRARY

Simulations &
Informatics Unit

Advanced
Virology Centre

Plant Genetic
Resources

Old relationship between IARI and Rothamsted


1964: International Nematology Training Programme at
IARI: Helped by Dr. F.G.W.Jones of Rothamsted


1989
-
90 & 1994
-
95: Dr. H.S. Gaur worked as a Visiting
Scientist at Rothamsted Research under Commonwealth,
Royal Society and RI Felloships.


1995: Dr. Rolo Perry visited IARI.


1996: Dr. Keith Davies, visited IARI.


1998
-
99: Dr. Sharad Mohan worked at Rothamsted


2002 & 2006: Prof. Brian Kerry visited IARI


Motives:



Both research Institute had active research programmes in
nematology and rhizosphere interactions involving plant,
nematodes and fungal/bacterial biocontrol organisms.


Interaction was ad
-
hoc. UKIERI provides opportunity for
structured interaction.

Complementarities


India has several nematode problems of
economic importance in crop production, and a
team of nematologists involved in applied
research.


Rothamsted research has an excellent
fundamental research programme on nematode
plant interactions and biological control.


The two institutions and teams of scientists form
a nice complementary group.

Relevant research interests of
collaborating scientists

Prof. Hari S. Gaur

Nematode ecology, physiology and
integrated nematode management

Dr. Uma Rao

Molecular diagnostics and

host plant resistance

Dr. Anil Sirohi

Molecular basis of plant
-
nematode
interaction

Dr. Pankaj

Biological control and plant resistance

Dr. Sharad Mohan

Biological control, entomopathogenic
nematodes and bacteria, eg.
Pasteuria
and
Photorhabdus

Rothamsted Research






Nematode Interactions Unit

UKIERI


Root Health


Water and nutrient use
efficiency in crops in view of predicted
climate change


Relevant research interests of
collaborating scientists

Prof. Brian Kerry

Biological control (Fungi) and
nematode management

Dr. Keith G. Davies

Invertebrate pathology, Biological
control (Bacteria)

Dr. Rosane Curtis

Molecular basis of plant
-
nematode
interaction, host recognition

Dr. Penny Hirsch

Soil microbial biodiversity,
metagenomics

Dr. Tony Miller

Plant physiology, nutrient uptake and
transfer in nematode infected plants

UKIERI Project: Objectives


Understanding host recognition processes and identify
novel targets for selective chemical and genetic
intervention.


Determine the role of diversity in the rhisosphere
microbial community in supporting plant growth and
identify key groups, processes and/or genes that
underpin soil quality and the biological control of
nematodes and root diseases.


Investigate the impact of soil amendments on the
diversity of microbial agents in the rhizosphere and
thier impact on plant parasitic nematodes.


Develop sustainable management strategies for soil
borne nematode pests.



Main Focus
: Root
-
health


Water and nutrient use efficiency in


crops under predicted climate change

Exchanges of scientists and students
begun


Dr. Keith Davies visited IARI three times in 2007
-
08.


Prof. H.S. Gaur is currently visiting Rothamsted for 4
weeks from 15 November, 2008. Designed experiments
to test the attraction of the nematodes
M. graminicola
and

M. incognita

to the roots of different host plants.


Mr. Junaid Ali Khan, UK Ph.D. student posted to work at
IARI, New Delhi starting 29th October, 2008.


Mr. Jagadeesh Patil, Indian Ph.D. student posted to work
at Rothamsted Research, UK, starting 15 November,
2008.


More exchanges have been scheduled.

Ph.D. students’ research


Mr. Junaid Ali Khan investigates the host specificty of the
bacterium
Pasteuria penetrans
, which has potential to be
developed into a biocontrol agent of plant parasitic
nematodes.


Mr Jagadeesh Patil, studied effect of
Meloidogyne
graminicola

infection on the metabolism and nutrient
uptake of rice plants at IARI, New Delhi. At Rothamsted
he will develop these studies further and using electro
-
physiological techniques will study the effect of nitrogen
and its uptake in rice in the presence of nematodes.


Mr. Tushar Dutta, will study differences in interaction of
M. incognita

and
M. graminicola

on rice and tomato.

Initial Research Results


Xenorhabdus

spp. of bacteria that have an
association with insect pathogenic nematodes
have been shown to be able to control soil borne
root pests.


Isolates of these bacteria have been collected
from soils in India and antibodies raised against
Xenorhabdus

bacteria have been tested for
recognition of different
Xenorhabdus
bacterial
isolates from the entomopathogenic nematodes,
Steinernema
spp. from Indian soils to look at the
diversity of types.


The effect of synthetic peptides has been studied against
root
-
knot nematodes with some initial interesting
results.These peptides could reduce the reproductive
potential of root
-
knot nematode.


Effect of, root
-
knot nematode,
Meloidogyne graminicola

infection on the metabolism and nutrient uptake of rice
plants and on grain quality has been investigated at
IARI. Data indicate reduction in photosynthesis, nutrient
uptake and poor resource use efficiency due to
nematode infection. The protein and amylose content in
grain was also reduced. The degree of reduction was
negatively correlated to the level of nematode infection.

Initial Research Results

Contd
.

Activities after completion of the
first phase


A preliminary meeting was held between the
RCUK official at New Delhi and the leaders of
this UKIERI project to discuss future course.


Possibilities of further extending the research
collaboration will be explored after analysis of
the findings under this project.


A bilateral dialogue between, IARI & ICAR, India
and Rothamsted Research, BBSRC and RCUK
would help in ensuring future sustainability.

Viewing other activities in
future


Opportunities for collaboration on certain other
aspects of nematode plant interactions.


Opportunities of developing similar
collaborative activities between some other
disciplines including Microbiology, plant
pathology, crop improvement, genomics,
biotechnology, bioinformatics etc.

Benefits of the UKIERI project


The project has enabled the formation of cohesive teams
at the two collaborative institutes


Strategic research partnership has been established to
address scientific issues related to interactions among
the plant, root parasitic nematodes and biocontrol
organisms in the rhizosphere,


Results will have implications on crop productivity and
help in development of mechanisms to ameliorate some
of the damage caused by the nematodes to the crops of
economic importance and relevant to food security.


Key staff exchanges have been identified and
programmed to build capacity and develop the research
collaboration.

Delays and difficulties


The start of actual research programme and
exchange of students took longer than expected
to commence, due to administrative procedures,


Extension of the duration of the project by one
year will be required, without additional funds.



Involvement of the collaborating scientists and
students in other activities/commitments.


In future projects, a provision to appoint
temporary workers like Research/Post
-
Doc
Fellows will be helpful.


Due to rising prices, funds are very small.

Early Lessons


An initial project implementation workshop
between the two groups would facilitate greater
clarity and smoother start.


RCUK and relevant authorities in India should
negotiate rapid and simple procedures to set up
Material Transfer Agreements, which enable
the ready interchange of scientific materials
required to underpin the research collaboration,
whilst protecting IP rights of both parties.