Microbiology

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Microbiology

Microbiology


Microbiology is a study of the activities
of very tiny organism


Micro
-
organism


There are 3 main types


Bacteria


Fungus



Viruses

Viruses


Extremely small


Can not be seen with the naked eye


All viruses are PARASITES


A parasite is an organism that lives on or in
another living organism


Most viruses cause disease


Colds, Influenza & chicken pox


Mumps, Measles


Polio, AIDS


Foot and Mouth Disease

Fighting Viruses Infection


Vaccines but how do they work?


White blood cells produce chemicals called
ANTIBODIES that destroy harmful microbes


A vaccine is a small dose of a disease
causing microbe that causes the body to
produce antibodies against the invader so
that the body has a supply of antibodies to
protect itself against the disease if exposed
to it


Examples of Vaccines


MMR ( Mumps, Measles & Rubella)


Tetanus


Flu vaccine


TB Tuberculosis


Whooping Cough

Bacteria


Slighty bigger than viruses


Bacterial colonies are shiny slimy
circular patches


They can live almost anywhere


They are SAPROPHYTES


Saprophytes live on dead matter


Bacteria in the soil help the dead
leaves to decay

Bacteria

The good, the bad & the ugly


Ripen and flavour
cheese


Produce alcohol &
vinegar


Used to make yoghurt


Produce ANTIBIOTICS


Help to make SILAGE


Help make nitrogen
available to plants



Germs


Cause disease eg Food
Poisoning


Cause food spoilage
and tooth decay


Cause milk to go sour


Cause crop disease eg
fire blight in apples



Fungi


Largest microbe


Hairy, fluffy or mouldy growths


Some are saprophytes


Bread mould, mushrooms & Yeast


Some are parasites


Potato blight


Ringworm & athletes foot

Toe nail fungus

Toadstool


Brewing industry uses
yeast to make alcohol


Baking Yeast causes
the bread to rise


Food
-
Mushrooms and
to flavour cheese


Produce antibiotics


Penicillin


Cause human disease


Athletes Foot


Cause plant disease


Dutch Elm Disease


Mildew


Can be poisonous to
eat
-
Toadstool “Death
Cap”


Can cause food
spoilage





Fungi

The good, the bad & the ugly


Fighting Bacteria & Fungi


Antibiotics


Antibiotics are produces by bacteria
and fungi


They kill or slow down the growth of
some disease causing bacteria and
fungi


Antibiotics DO NOT effect viruses

Web sites


www.medinfo.co.uk

To investgate the presence of micro
-
organisms in

our environment


Apparatus


Agar Plates


Sellotape and samples


Oven


Method


Open the nutrient agar
plate that you were given


Expose it to one of the
following air, hair, soil etc
for 3
-
5 minutes


Use sellotape to seal the
agar plate


Place in an incubator at
20
-
30
o
c for 24 hours








Exam Questions

1.
[2009]


One
petri

dish containing agar was left
covered. All of the dishes were kept warm
for some days and inspected daily.

(i)
What is the function of the agar?

(ii)
Why was one
petri

dish left covered?


Describe and explain the appearance of the
agar in the exposed dishes after some time
passed.

1.
[2007]


The photograph shows a stage in the
industrial production of cheese. This is an
example of the use of biotechnology in
industry.


Give two other examples of the use of
biotechnology in industry or medicine.


1.
[2008]


The photograph shows Amanita
Phalloides
, a poisonous fungus, whose
common name is ‘Death Cap’. Fungi are
decomposers
.


Explain the underlined term.


1.
2006]


Decomposers are living things that release
useful materials, from the waste products
of plants and animals and from dead plants
and animals, for reuse by living organisms.
Name two kinds of decomposers found in
the soil.