Biotechnology, DNA, Transcription, Translation

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20 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

PBIO 4500/5500


Biotechnology terminology


Common hosts and experimental organisms


Transcription and translation


Prokaryotic gene organization & expression

Terminology


Molecular biology
-
The study of biology on a molecular level
including the structure, function, and makeup of biologically
important molecules such
as DNA, RNA, and proteins


Recombinant DNA technology
-
a set of techniques for
manipulating DNA, including: the identification and cloning of
genes; the study of the expression of cloned genes; and the
production of large quantities of gene product


Genetic engineering
-
the process of transferring DNA from one
organism into another that results in a genetic modification


Biotechnology
-
production of goods and services using
biological organisms, systems, and processes


Molecular biotechnology
-
rDNA technology + biotechnology

Selected developments in the history of
molecular biology/biotechnology

1944
-
Avery, MacLeod & McCarty determine DNA is the genetic material

1953
-
Watson & Crick determine the structure of DNA

1970
-
First restriction endonuclease isolated

1973
-
Boyer & Cohen establish recombinant DNA technology

1976
-
DNA sequencing techniques developed

1980
-
U.S. Supreme Court rules genetically modified microorganisms can be patented

1981
-
First DNA synthesizers sold

1988
-
PCR method published

1990
-
Human genome project initiated

1996
-
Complete DNA sequence of a eukaryote (yeast) determined

1997
-
Nuclear cloning of a mammal (a sheep named Dolly)

2000
-
Arabidopsis

genome sequenced

2001
-
Human genome sequenced

2002
-
Complete human gene microarrays (gene chips) available

2009
-
FDA approves first drug produced in a genetically engineered animal (a goat)


Copyright © 2010 ASM Press

American Society for Microbiology

1752 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036
-
2904

Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant

DNA,

Fourth Edition

Bernard R. Glick, Jack J. Pasternak, and Cheryl L. Patten

Chapter 1

The Development of Molecular Biotechnology

Table 1.1

Many scientific disciplines contribute to
molecular biotechnology, which generates a
wide range of commercial products

Copyright © 2010 ASM Press

American Society for Microbiology

1752 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036
-
2904

Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant

DNA,

Fourth Edition

Bernard R. Glick, Jack J. Pasternak, and Cheryl L. Patten

Chapter 1

The Development of Molecular Biotechnology

Figure 1.2

Many scientific disciplines contribute to molecular biotechnology,
which generates a wide range of commercial products

Common host organisms used

in molecular biotechnology


E. coli


Yeast (
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
)


Insect cell lines


Plant cell lines


Animal cell lines


Copyright © 2013 by W. H. Freeman and Company

Molecular Cell Biology,
7
th

Edition

Lodish et al.

Figure 1.13
Each experimental organism used in cell biology has advantages for certain types of
studies.


Copyright © 2013 by W. H. Freeman and Company

Molecular Cell Biology,
7
th

Edition

Lodish et al.

Figure 1.13 (
Continued
)
Each experimental organism used in cell biology has advantages for
certain types of studies.
Listen to the podcast!


Copyright © 2013 by W. H. Freeman and Company

Molecular Cell Biology,
7
th

Edition

Lodish et al.

Review protein secretion and protein targeting


Signal peptide sequences


Consider gram negative vs.
gram positive bacteria


Consider eukaryotic cells


In eukaryotic cells, short
peptide sequences (or
other modifications) tell a
protein where to go


See MCB Chapter 13 & 14
-
Protein sorting animations

Central Dogma of Biology

DNA



RNA



Protein

transcription

translation

reverse

transcription

DNA

replication

$$$

Molecular

Biotechnology

Chemical structure of DNA & RNA

Chemical structure of dsDNA

Chemical structure of dsDNA

Prokaryotic gene expression

In prokaryotes, RNA polymerase binds to the
-
10 and
-
35 regions of the promoter relative to
the start site of transcription (+1)

promoter

operator