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Research Issues and
Applications of Mobile
and Ubiquitous Learning

Gwo
-
Jen Hwang

Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

E
-
mail: gjhwang.academic@gmail.com

IDLS (Intelligent Distance Learning
Systems) lab


Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning


Funded by NSC of Taiwan with
NT$15,000,000 per year


Natural science courses


Social science courses


Computer science courses


English courses

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

The backgrounds of the members in this lab include
Computer Science and Educational Technology.


Academic Publications of IDLS Lab


150 journal papers


Computers & Education (SSCI)


Educational Technology & Society (SSCI)


Innovations in Teaching and Education International (SSCI)


British Journal of Educational Technology (SSCI)


Electronic Library (SSCI)


Interactive Learning Environment (SSCI)


Ecommerce Research and Application (SSCI)


IEEE Transactions on Education (SCI)


IEEE Transactions on SMC, Part C (SCI)


IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (SCI)


Expert Systems with Applications (SCI)


Other SCI/EI/TSSCI journals


250 papers presented in conferences


3 book chapters

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Six SSCI (Social Sciences Citation Index)
journals of e
-
learning


Computers & Education (C&E)


Educational Technology & Society (ETS)


British Journal of Educational Technology
(BJET)


Innovations in Education and Teaching
International (IETI)


Educational Technology Research &
Development (ET R&D)


Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (JCAL)

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Number of m
-
learning/u
-
learning
papers published from 2001 to 2010

2
0
13
5
12
7
12
22
27
54
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Number of MUL publications from 2001 to 2010
Hwang, G. J., &
Tsai, C. C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A
review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to 2010.
British Journal of Educational
Technology
, 42
(4), E65
-
70.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Sample groups selected for mobile and
ubiquitous learning studies from 2001 to
2010

Sample group

Elementary
school students

H
igh school
students

Higher
education

Teacher
s

Working
adult
s

Non
-
specified

2001
-
2005

7

3

9

2

2

9

2006
-
2010

34

14

50

4

4

16

Total number

of
articles

41

17

59

6

6

25


Hwang, G. J., &
Tsai, C. C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A
review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to 2010.
British Journal of Educational
Technology
, 42
(4), E65
-
70.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Research learning domains selected from
2001 to 2010

Learning
domain

Science

Mathematics

Language

&

Art

Social
science

Engineering
(including
Computers)

Others

Non
-
spe
cified

2001
-
2005

5

2

3

2

2

5

13

2006
-
2010

25

4

21

9

20

7

36

Total number


of articles

30

6

24

11

22

12

49


Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

M
-
learning/u
-
learning with
sensing technologies


Some researchers have tried to conduct m
-
learning or
u
-
learning activities with
sensing technologies
.


This has lead to
context
-
aware ubiquitous learning

(Hwang, Tsai , & Yang, 2008)


The learning system is able to
detect and record

the
real
-
world learning status of the students.


More learning supports can be provided by the learning
system for guiding the students to learn in the real
world.

Gwo
-
Jen Hwang*, Chin
-
Chung Tsai and Stephen J.H. Yang (2008), “Criteria, Strategies and
Research Issues of Context
-
Aware Ubiquitous Learning”,
Educational Technology & Society
,
11(2), 81
-
91.

(SSCI)

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Ubiquitous Learning

(anywhere and anytime learning)









Mobile Learning

(Learning with mobile devices and


wireless communications)







Context
-
Aware U
-
Learning

(Learning with mobile,


wireless communications

and sensing technologies)

Broad sense
definition

More specific
definition

Gwo
-
Jen Hwang*, Chin
-
Chung Tsai and Stephen J.H. Yang (2008), “Criteria, Strategies and
Research Issues of Context
-
Aware Ubiquitous Learning”,
Educational Technology & Society
,
11(2), 81
-
91.

(SSCI)

the use of mobile,
wireless
communications and
sensing technologies
for supporting students
to learn in the real
world

SKIP

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Illustrative example of a context
-
aware

u
-
learning environment

Server
Learner


Teaching
Materials
Learning
Portfolio
Wireless Network
Aristolochia
heterophylla
Hemsl
Aristolochia
zollingeriana
Miq
Aristolochia
kaempferi
Willd
Aristolochia
cucurbitifolia
Hayata
Tetradium
meliaefolia
Benth
………
Learning Location
Once the student walks
close to a learning
target, the RFID reader
can receive the
information from the
corresponding tag.

Target

Object 1

Target

Object 2

Target

Object 3

Target

Object 4

Target

Object 5

Each student uses a
PDA

equipped with an
RFID reader and
wireless
communication facility.

Each learning
target has an
RFID tag on it.

The learning
system is
executed on the
server

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

TAG

Reader

The student holds
a PDA equipped
with an RFID
reader

Each ecology
area of butterflies
has an RFID tag

Learning missions
or supplementary
materials

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Benefits of using sensing
technologies


The learning system is able to guide the learners in
the real world via detecting their locations


The learning system can
more actively provide

learning supports to the learners if necessary


E.g., Give hints to the students who are doing a
dangerous chemical experiment before something goes
wrong


Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

More parameters in a context
-
aware u
-
learning portfolio


Personal context in the real world
:
learner’s location, time of
arrival
, body temperature, heartbeat, blood pressure, etc.


Environmental context

:
the learning target’s ID and location,
the environmental temperature
, humidity, air ingredients, and
other parameters of the environment around the sensor


The data collected by the students in fields
, e.g.
PH value
of water
.


Personal data in the database

:
learner’s profile and learning
portfolio
, such as the predefined schedule, starting time of a
learning activity, the longest and shortest acceptable time
period, place, learning sequences.


Environmental data in the database

:
equipment in the lab,
the rules of using the equipment
, the time table of using the lab

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Research Issues concerning
mobile and ubiquitous learning


Proposing new strategies or tools for supporting
m
-
learning or u
-
learning activities


Developing adaptive or collaborative m
-
learning
or u
-
learning environments


Investigating students’ real
-
world learning status
from different aspects, such as



learning achievement and problem
-
solving skills



cognitive process



cognitive load



learning style or cognitive style



self
-
efficacy

Earlier applications

-
Serving as a Guide for
Science Observations

The u
-
learning system serves as a guide for
observing a set of learning targets in the real
world.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Background and Motivation


Observation and classification abilities


important learning objectives for
science education
.


In the Natural Science courses of elementary
schools in Taiwan


the students need to learn to observe and classify
some learning targets (e.g., plants on school campus,
butterflies in the garden)


In the followings, several learning activities are
designed for the “Butterfly and Ecology” unit of
a natural science course

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Conventional
“Butterfly and Ecology”
learning activity

A teacher usually needs to train
10 or more
students

at the same time.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

In such a one
-
to
-
many instruction mode:

It is difficult to
provide personalized instructions or
feedback
to the students or to record their learning
status.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Scenario 1: Butterfly museum

Students are guided by the u
-
learning system to
learn to identify different types of butterflies based
on the appearances of the butterflies.

more than 10
thousands
Butterfly samples

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning


Location of the
target butterfly

What is the name
of the butterfly in
front of you?

The most significant
feature of the target
butterfly

Observe and compare
the target butterfly
with other butterflies
based on the feature.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Scenario 2: Butterfly ecology garden


The Butterfly Ecology Garden consists of
18
ecology areas

for raising
host plants of butterflies
.

華他卡藤
玉蘭花



柑橘
爬森藤
蓖麻
鐵刀木


蜜源
草花
魚木
蜜源
草花
蜜源
草花
土肉桂
山刈葉
土肉桂



柑橘
鐵刀木
瑪利筋
賊仔樹
賊仔樹
魚木
黃蝴蝶
鷗蔓
蓖麻
華他卡藤
玉蘭花



柑橘
爬森藤
蓖麻
鐵刀木


蜜源
草花
魚木
蜜源
草花
蜜源
草花
土肉桂
山刈葉
土肉桂



柑橘
鐵刀木
瑪利筋
賊仔樹
賊仔樹
魚木
黃蝴蝶
鷗蔓
蓖麻
Hui
-
Chun Chu, Gwo
-
Jen Hwang*, Shu
-
Xian Huang and Ting
-
Ting Wu (2008), “A
Knowledge Engineering Approach to Developing E
-
Libraries for Mobile Learning”,
The
Electronic Library
. 26(3), 303
-
317.
(SSCI)


Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

The students are guided by the learning system to observe
the host plants and the butterfly ecology in each target area.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Some preliminary findings in the
earlier studies


Advantages of the u
-
learning approach


Providing a personalized guide for individual
students


Providing supplementary materials and hints in
the right place and at the right time


Motivating the students to learn


To engage students in higher order thinking,
more effective learning supports or
knowledge construction tools are needed

Recent applications

-

Leading in Mindtools for
u
-
learning activities

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Definitions of Mindtools


Jonassen (1999, p9) described Mindtools as “a
way of using a
computer application program
to
engage learners in constructive, higher
-
order,
critical thinking about the subjects they are
studying.”


Mindtools used in our studies


Grid
-
based Mindtool


Helping the students identify and differentiate
a set of learning targets based on the features
of the targets


Concept maps


Helping the students organize their
knowledge via linking the new knowledge and
their prior knowledge


Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Trait (1)

ⴭⴭ
䍯C獴牵捴猠⡦(慴畲a猠潦⁴桥 灬慮瑳)
ⴭ-

o灰o獩瑥⠵⤠

Repertory grid (Kelly, 1955)


A repertory grid is represented as a matrix or table


Its columns are labeled with
elements.


Its rows are labeled with
constructs
.


A
5
-
scale rating mechanism is usually used.

Elements (e.g., plants)

Trait

(1)

Golden
Chinese
banyan

Arigated
-

leaf
croton

Cuphea

Indian
almond

Opposite

(5)

Leaf
-
shape is
long and thin

2

2

2

4

Leaf
-
shape is
flat and round

The leaf has a
tapering point

3

1

1

4

The leaf has a
hollow point

Perfectly
smooth leaf
edge

1

1

4

1

The leaf edge
has deep indents

Elements: targets to
be indentified or
classified

constructs: traits
for identifying the
targets.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Two stages for providing learning
supports based on the repertory grid


1st stage
-

creating the
objective repertory

grid by teachers


2nd stage
-

using the objective repertory
grid to help students develop their
repertory grids

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Trait
Construct

Lalang
Grass

Arigated
-

leaf
croton

Cuphea

Indian
almon
d

Money
Tree

Crown
of
thorns

Pink
ixora

Opposite
Constru
ct

Leaf
-
sha
p
e long
and thin

1

2

2

4

2

2

2

Leaf
-
sha
p
e flat
and
round

The leaf
has

a
tapering
point

1

1

1

4

2

1

3

The leaf
has

a
h
ollow
point

Perfectly
smooth
leaf edge

1

1

4

4

1

5

1

The leaf
edge has
deep
indents

The leaf
vein has
few
branch
es

5

3

2

2

3

3

3

The leaf
vein has
many
branche
s


Trait
Construct

Lalang
Grass

Arigated
-

leaf
croton

Cuphea

Indian
almon
d

Money
Tree

Crown
of
thorns

Pink
ixora

Opposite
Constru
ct

Leaf
-
sha
p
e long
and thin








Leaf
-
sha
p
e flat
and
round

The leaf
has

a
tapering
point








The leaf
has

a
hollow
point

Perfectly
smooth
leaf edge








The leaf
edge

has

deep
indents

The leaf
vein
has

few
branch
es








The leaf
vein
has
many

branch
e
s


The Objective RG

The RG constructed by the student

The student is asked
to observe the “leaf
shape” of “Lalang
grass” by asking a
question.

The learning mission:
observing the “leaf shape”
of “Lalang grass” and
answer the following
question.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Trait
Construct

Lalang
Grass

Arigated
-

leaf
croton

Cuphea

Indian
almon
d

Money
Tree

Crown
of
thorns

Pink
ixora

Opposite
Constru
ct

Leaf
-
sha
p
e long
and thin

1

2

2

4

2

2,

2

Leaf
-
sha
p
e flat
and
round

The leaf
has

a
tapering
point

1

1

1

4

2

1

3

The leaf
has

a
hollow
point

Perfectly
smooth
leaf edge

1

1

4

1

1

5

1

The leaf
edge has
deep
indents

The leaf
vein has
few
branch
es

5

3

2

2

3

3

3

The leaf
vein has
many
branche
s


Trait
Construct

Lalang
Grass

Arigated
-

leaf
croton

Cuphea

Indian
almon
d

Money
Tree

Crown
of
thorns

Pink
ixora

Opposite
Constru
ct

Leaf
-
sha
p
e
is
long
and thin

1







Leaf
-
sha
p
e
is
flat
and
round

The leaf
has

a
tapering
point








The leaf
has

a
hollow
point

Perfectly
smooth
leaf edge








The leaf
edge has
deep
indents

The leaf
vein has
few
branch
es








The leaf
vein has
many
branche
s


The Objective RG

The RG constructed by the student

The student has correctly
answered the “leaf shape”
of “Lalang grass” to be “long
and thin”, and is asked to
describe more detailed
features of the leaf shape.

Acicular

Linear

Lance
-
shaped


Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Trait
Construct

Lalang
Grass

Arigated
-

leaf
croton

Cuphea

Indian
almon
d

Money
Tree

Crown
of
thorns

Pink
ixora

Opposite
Constru
ct

Leaf
-
sha
p
e long
and thin

1

2

2

4

2

2

2

Leaf
-
sha
p
e flat
and
round

The leaf
has

a
tapering
point

1

1

1

4

2

1

3

The leaf
has

a
hollow
point

Perfectly
smooth
leaf edge

1

1

4

1

1

5

1

The leaf
edge

has

deep
indents

The leaf
vein
has

few
branch
es

5

3

2

2

3

3

3

The leaf
vein
has
many

branch
e
s


Trait
Construct

Lalang
Grass

Arigated
-

leaf
croton

Cuphea

Indian
almon
d

Money
Tree

Crown
of
thorns

Pink
ixora

Opposite
Constru
ct

Leaf
-
sha
p
e

is

long
and thin

4







Leaf
-
sha
p
e
is
flat
and
round

The leaf
has

a
tapering
point








The leaf
has

a
hollow
p
oint

Perfectly
smooth
leaf edge








The leaf
edge has
deep
indents

The leaf
vein has
few
branch
es








The leaf
vein has
many
branche
s


The RG constructed by the student

The Objective RG

The answer “Flat
and Round” to the
“leaf shape” of
“Lalang gtass” is
incorrect.

The student is asked to observe
the leaf shape of “Indian Almond”
and compare it with the leaf
shape of Lalang grass”.

Flat and
round

Long
and thin

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Experiment Design


Subject unit : “Knowing the plants on
school campus” of the Natural Science
course


Comparing the learning performance of the
students who learned with/without the
Mindtool

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Comparing u
-
Mindtool learning
with u
-
Learning


Participants: 61 fifth graders


Control group
: 29 students, learned with a
tour
-
based u
-
learning system that provided
location guidance and supplementary materials


Experimental group
: 32 students, learned with
the Repertory Grid
-
oriented u
-
learning
approach

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Learning Achievements

Table 1
.

t
-
test

of the pre
-
test results

N

Mean

S.D.

t

V1

control group

29

73.09

11.21

.591

V2

experimental group

32

71.14

14.56

Table 2
.

Descriptive data, and ANCOVA of the post
-
test results

Variable


N

Mean

S.D.

Adjusted
Mean

S
td.Error
.

F value

p

post
-
test

E
xperimental
group

32

52.69

13.45

52.185

2.236

7.533
*

.024


Control
group


29

44.31

13.68

44.652

2.346



*
p
<.05

No significant
difference between
the two groups

A follow
-
up learning activity


The students needed to develop their own repertory
grids by determining the traits for identifying the target
butterflies.



Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning


The can also share their findings to peers and modify their
repertory grids via a knowledge
-
sharing interface.



Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Modify one’s own
repertory grid
Delete the selected
constructs
Option for referring
to other students’
repertory grid
Add new constructs
Confirm if the
operations are to be
saved/executed
Concept map
-
oriented Mindtool for
u
-
learning

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Students
Students
Students
Students
Wireless
network
Personal computer mode
Butterfly ecology garden
Server: the learning system
PDA mode
Ecology area
Ecology area
Ecology area
Ecology area
Ecology area
Computer classroom
Ecology area
1. Develop concept
maps in the classroom
based on what they
have learned from the
textbooks.

2. Go to the butterfly
garden to observe the
ecology of the butterflies.
Check if their concept
map is correct and
complete via browsing
the developed concept
maps on the PDA.

Take notes on the PDA.

3. Go back to the
classroom to modify
their concept maps

CmapTools developed by the Institute for Human
and Machine Cognition (IHMC) of the Florida
University System (Novak & Cañas, 2006).

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Working space for
developing concept
maps

Set up concept
map
parameters

Insert the
picture of
the concept

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

“Idea leuconoe
clara”

Concept to be
modified

New concept

Interface for entering
Chinese character s

The students can
browse their concept
maps via the mobile
devices.

Take notes or record
what they have found
during the learning
activities.

Context
-
Aware U
-
Learning for complex
experiment procedures

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Background and Motivation


Development of a context
-
aware u
-
learning system for
training the

“Single
-
Crystal X
-
ray Diffraction” procedure

in
a Chemistry course.


It is the most effective method for
analyzing 3D structure
of
compound materials.


The learners are
graduated or PhD students
.


It is time
-
consuming to train a new researcher (usually 6
months to 1 year)


The operations could be
dangerous
, and hence the
learner requires
full
-
time guidance

during the training
process

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Microscope

products


examining,
selecting, crystal
mounting

leaner

Indexing,

data collecting

Centering and
aligning the
sample

Single Crystal

X
-
ray Diffractometer

Instructing

Data transmitting

Data transmitting

PC

Data processing
& Structure
determination

PC

(1)

(2)

(3)

Location: 2
nd

floor, R 204

Location: 2
nd

floor, R 203

Location: 1
st

floor, R 126

Expert

System

Ubiquitous learning
environment

Give advice
or hints
based on
the context

Context of
learner

RFID

Temperature meter

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Stage 1: Select a crystal of
good quality and suitable size

through an
optical microscope

and mount the crystal on the
top of the glass fiber.

The expert system guides
the learner to complete
the procedure and check
if
the selected crystal is
usable
.


Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Stage 2: Analyze the crystal by
operating the X
-
ray
diffractometer

to
find the cell constants

within
acceptable deviation.

This stage is very
complex since there are
several rules to be
followed

and
various
parameters

to be
considered.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Stage 3: Determine the 3D structure of the
crystal
-
line solid

using a
special program

The outputs of the
program include the
shape, the exact distance
between atoms, and other
parameters for describing
the structure.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Benefits of the context
-
aware u
-
learning approach


based on the responses from
5 researchers who had 6
months experiences

and the
system logs
of
5 new
learners


Traditional
Approach

(mean, S.D.)

U
-
learning
Approach

(mean, S.D.)

t

Average number of experiments
conducted per week

1.9 (0.55)

8 (2.38)

-
5.59**

Number of mistakes made per
experiment

2.3
(0.65)

0.32 (0.08)

6.75***

Average time needed to deal with
faults
in an experiment

2.5 days (0.66)

0.45 days (0.15)

6.77***

Time for fully understanding the
operating
procedure

5.5 months (1.49)

2 months (0.45)

5.04**

**p<.01, *** p<.001

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Estimation about cost benefit for
using the approach

Save 80,000 USD per year for training 10 researchers

SKIP

Other applications of
U
-
Learning

U
-
learning for Local culture courses

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Learning task 1
-

observe learning targets

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Pillar with dragon statue

Only the goods for the
emperor can have
dragons with five claws on
them.

Learning task 2
-

read the ancient records on
the learning targets

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Learning task 3
-

Search for supplementary
materials on the Internet

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Ancient decorations in the
temple

Learning task 4
-

touch and feel the
material of the learning targets

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Stone Drum

U
-
learning for nursing courses


Develop several u
-
learning systems for clinical
nursing courses .

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Number of participants per year

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

The on
-
going project

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Learning activities conducted in Chi
-
Gu

ecology park in southern Taiwan

In this area, there are Mangroves, Black
-
Face Spoonbills
and Fiddler Crabs.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

The students are equipped with a
smartphone (or PDA), a telescope
and a set of probe devices to
collect data in the ecology park.

Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Conclusions


The popularity of
mobile, wireless
communication and sensing

technologies
has brought us
some new aspects for
perceiving education
.


Some issues can be investigated


Design new learning activities


Analyze the real
-
world learning behaviors


Develop new learning strategies or tools


The cooperation of researchers with
different backgrounds is needed


Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

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Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

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Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

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Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., & Tseng, Judy C. R. (2010). A two
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-
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-
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Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

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Thank you