ICT for Development

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12 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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1

Presentation at

Short courses on key
international economic issues

Geneva, 14 May 2012


Torbjörn Fredriksson

OIC, Science, Technology and
ICT Branch, UNCTAD


ICT for Development

2

Outline

Why information and communication technologies (ICTs)
matter

Recent trends in the global ICT landscape

UNCTAD’s role



Cécile:

E
-
commerce and cyberlaw harmonization

UNCTAD’s support to the EAC

The case of Mobile Money

Planned projects (ASEAN, Central America)

ICTPRs

3

Why ICTs matter (1)

To enhance progress towards the MDGs

New technology
-
based solutions that did not exist
when the Goals were endorsed can and should be
leveraged to allow for rapid scaling up. The most
important of these technologies involve use of
mobile telephones, broadband Internet, and other
information and communications technologies.





Source:
Report of the Secretary
-
General, 12 February 2010, A/64/665.

4

Why ICTs matter (2)

General
-
purpose technology: can be applied throughout society

ICT4D

E
-
government

E
-
health

E
-
commerce

E
-
agriculture

E
-
business

E
-
education

E
-
environment

E
-
banking

Disaster risk reduction

E
-
governance

ICT Infrastructure

ICT skills

Local content

Legal framework

5

Why ICTs matter (3)

Areas of relevance to UNCTAD

Information Economy

rather than Information Society

The production of ICT goods and services

Value added/composition of ICT sector

Job creation

Trade (ITA; Offshoring; Value chains, etc)

Innovation

The use of ICT goods and services

Digital divides

Enhanced productivity

E
-
government for business

Legal issues

6

Why ICTs matter (4)

ICTs, Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation

7

Why ICTs matter (5)

The case of ICTs and Private Sector Development

8

The Evolving ICT Landscape (1)

Mobiles preferred ICT tool among small businesses

Source: ITU

Mobile subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by country group, 2000
-
2010


9

The Evolving ICT Landscape (2)

New forms of mobile use

Text messaging (SMS)

Mobile money

Expanding especially in Africa

Only 5 systems in the EU

Mobile Internet

Smartphone sales surging

Africa: 84m mobiles already
Internet
-
enabled

China: 12% of Internet users go
on
-
line via the mobile

India: >250m mobile data users

Mobile broadband

Sources: UNCTAD, GSMA, ITU, national data, Gartner, J.M. Ledgard.


Mobile money deployments, 2001
-
2011

(number of deployments)

10

The Evolving ICT Landscape (3)

Broadband divides


Sources: UNCTAD, Ookla, ITU.

Average download speeds, selected economies, 2010 (Mbps)



Penetration gap



< 1m fixed broadband
subscriptions in LDCs



Person in developed
country almost 300 times
more likely to have
access to fixed
broadband than a person
in an LDC



Different speeds


Price differences

11

Mobile Sector Employment, Selected Economies

The Evolving ICT Landscape (4)

New job opportunities in mobile sector

12

Mobile phones and dairy farmers in Bhutan

98 per cent of population (690,000) live in rural areas

Mobiles 2005
-
2010: from 5 to 55 subscriptions/100 people

Now supporting dairy farmers

Access to market and price information

Avoid intermediaries


deal directly with customers

Increased direct sales, less waiting time

Improved communications

Mobiles are affordable

Government launched mobile info system


4 languages

New employment has been created

Support to livelihood of poor farmers

13

Crowd
-
sourcing of Micro
-
work


Source: UNCTAD, World Bank and ODesk.

Case

Amazon Mechanical Turk



In 2008, 76% of micro
-
workers in US, 8% India


In 2010, 47% in US, 34%
in India, remaining 19% in
66 (!) other countries



Hours worked by week via the ODesk platform

The Evolving ICT Landscape (5)

The rise of "crowdsourcing" and "freelancing"

14

Freelancers in Bangladesh

10,000 freelancers active online

Most service clients in US or Europe

Provide a range of services over the web

Software development

Graphic design

Social media marketing, etc

New Central Bank Directive (2011):

Revenue should be treated as export
-
related commercial income
rather than as remittances

Source: UNCTAD, BASIS and ITC.

15

Opportunities and Implications

New ICT landscape opens for more inclusive development

Key areas within ICT sector:

Mobile sector

Software


growing local demand, new export channels

Outsourcing/crowdsourcing


ICT
-
enabled services

It takes more than infrastructure

Need for comprehensive strategies


address the four
facets


to
reap full development benefit from ICTs

Move from supply to demand
-
driven interventions

Leverage partnerships with private sector and civil society

Better data needed


especially in services

16

UNCTAD’s Role (1)

Mandate

Doha Mandate $56q

Accra Accord $
158
-
161

Active in all three pillars

Research and analysis

Information Economy Report, statistics

Technical assistance and capacity
-
building

Measuring the Information Economy

E
-
commerce and law reform

ICT Policy Reviews

Consensus
-
building

17

UN Group on the Information Society (UNGIS)

UNCTAD current chair (until end of 2012)

ITU, UNESCO, UNDP and UNDESA vice chairs

29 members

Co
-
organizer of the annual WSIS Forum

Lead facilitator of Action Line C7 on E
-
business

Secretariat of the (CSTD)

Follow
-
up to the WSIS

Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development

Member of its Steering Committee

12 members

UNCTAD’s Role (2)

Collaboration within UN system

18

Donors Supporting UNCTAD in ICT4D

19

Questions and
Answers