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5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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1. Wireless Devices

2. Wireless Internet Access

3. Wireless Web Technology

4. Software Applications for Wireless Devices

5. B2C Applications


Wireless technology turns e
business into
, or mobile business

Current applications

Conduct online transactions

Make purchases

Trade stocks

Send e

Future applications

wireless office
, where computers, phones and other
office equipment are all networked without cables

Wireless development

generation wireless technology was the cellular

Second generation wireless technology, which includes
digital cellular phones, is currently in use worldwide

Third generation, or

technology will enable wireless
devices to send and receive data as much as seven times
faster than a standard 56K modem

Wireless devices

Personal digital assistants (PDAs)

Digital cellular phones

way pagers

Wireless Devices

Outside the United States, mobile phones are the
preferred medium for getting information and
making e
business transactions

Service is not universally available and
relatively expensive

Limited bandwidth restricts the amount of data
that can be sent over the wireless network

Wireless devices have significantly smaller
memory capacity and less powerful processors
than desktop computers

Wireless Devices (cont.)


Business using wireless devices with Internet access

B2C marketplace

Increased conveniences for consumers

Frequent, small transactions

Receiving news, sports scores, e
mail, coupons and

B2B marketplace

Salespeople can access product databases and place orders

Address customer needs immediately

Ordering and billing will be conducted remotely


Code Division Multiple Access


Each transmission is assigned a specific channel, giving
the transmission the benefit of the entire bandwidth
within that channel and reducing the possibility that a
connection will be broken

Able to assign each transmission on the network a
unique code to ensure security

Global System for Mobile Communications


Uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) which
takes multiple calls and assigns each call to a different
time slot on the same radio frequency

Wireless Internet Access

3G technologies

(Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution)



International Telecommunications Union

Establishes guidelines for 3G

Wireless Internet Access (cont.)

Three technologies are used to provide Web
access to wireless devices

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

Web Clipping

Microsoft’s Pocket Internet Explorer

Wireless Web Technology

Web clipping

Allows users to take relevant pieces of a Web site and
deliver it to a wireless device, eliminating excess content
and graphics

Palm devices use Web clipping

Proxy server

Lies between client (such as a Web browser) and Web

Query is received by a proxy server controlled by the
wireless ISP

Proxy server goes to the Web site and “clips” the
necessary data

The proxy server transmits the data back to your wireless device

If the proxy server does not have the information, it passes the
request to the regular server

Web Clipping

Palm VII wireless handheld computer

Query Application Builder

Web designers build
Palm Query Applications

to be installed on users’ Palm handheld computers

With a PQA for a particular web site installed on the
Palm, the user can view the tailored content for that
web site

Personal Digital Assistants

Personal Digital Assistants (cont.)

Personal Digital Assistants (cont.)

Wireless Application Protocol

Developed by Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, etc.

A set of communication protocols designed to enable
different kinds of wireless devices to communicate and
access the Internet

Designed to standardize development across different
wireless technologies worldwide

Intended primarily for Internet
enabled digital phones,
pagers and other handheld devices

Uses Web sites specifically designed for wireless
handheld devices that have small screens and low
bandwidth constraints


Wireless Markup Language (WML)

The scripting language used to create Web content to be
delivered to wireless handheld devices, based on XML

Removes “unnecessary” content from Web pages

WML tags are used to “mark up” a Web page to specify
how the page should be formatted on a wireless device

WML works with the WAP to deliver the content

Similar to HTML, but it does not require input devices


Designed with limited bandwidth and limited memory

Access the Web via the wireless Internet

WAP and WML (cont.)

How wireless Internet works:

A WAP gateway, which acts as a proxy server, receives the request,
translates it and sends it to the appropriate Internet server

Server responds by sending the requested WML document

The WAP gateway parses this document's WML (i.e., it analyzes
the WML document, checking it for correctness) and sends the
proper text to the digital phone


A WML document


Consists of one user interaction, providing the WML browser with
a small, self
contained document for browsing

WAP and WML (cont.)

WAP and WML (cont.)

No widely accepted standard for wireless development

Developers are often required to develop multiple

Microsoft Pocket Internet Explorer

Reformats complete Web pages as they are downloaded from
the Internet for display on the Pocket PC

Allows Pocket PC users to access most of the content
currently available on the Web and eliminates the need to
tailor Web content for delivery to handheld devices


Specializes in wireless video technology for mobile devices

Software Applications for Wireless Devices

Software Applications for Wireless Devices (cont.)

Software Applications for Wireless Devices (cont.)

Software Applications for Wireless Devices (cont.)

Easier to install and maintain without disrupting
an office

Computers can easily be moved without having to
install a new network connection in each location

Radio Frequency WLANs


Used to network devices at a distance

Infrared and laser WLANs

Do not require approval

Do not have the same interference issues

Can be used only for short distances

Wireless Local Area Networks

Infrared technology

More cost efficient than laser technology

Equipment has a longer lifespan

Technology is less susceptible to weather

Reliable and easy to install

The system is portable


Send the signal between the buildings and are linked to
the network using fiber
optic cable (used with infrared

Wireless Local Area Networks (cont.)


A wireless technology that provides short
range, high
voice and data communication between digital devices

Conceived by Ericsson in 1994

Provides up to 1 Mbps (megabits per second) of data transfer
capability between devices as much as 30 feet apart

Can also be used to create wireless offices

Bluetooth Special Interest Group

Initially comprising Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and Nokia

Developed an open specification for the technology and to
encouraged cross
platform capabilities for the different
wireless devices


The Bluetooth Handset

Wireless communications can be unreliable and slow,
device bandwidth is about one fifth of the
capabilities of a standard dial
up connection

General packet radio services (GPRS)

Enables devices to transmit data at speeds of up to 114 kbps

Universal mobile telecommunications standard

Will offer transfer speeds of up to 2 Mbps for wireless

Smart phones

Mobile phones that send and receive both voice and data

Used to securely send and receive secure mobile

Wireless Communications

Location tracking

Can be used for navigation, such as GPS (Global
Positioning System) devices installed in cars

Can be used by shipping companies to track delivery
trucks, giving customers more accurate tracking
information and expected delivery time

Can also be used for targeted marketing

Location Tracking

Developed by the United States Department of Defense for
military purposes, now used in commercial devices

Standard Positioning Service (SPS)

Precise Positioning Service (PPS)

Uses satellites to track a user’s position (vertical and
horizontal), velocity and the time in their location

Six circular orbits (four satellites per orbit), five ground
stations and three antennas


Three (of four) satellites are used to determine the latitude,
longitude and altitude of the receiver, the fourth satellite is
used to check for errors in the triangulation

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Decreasing cost and size of wireless phones and
mobile devices

Improving technology

Increasing number of devices made wireless

Increased venture capitalist interest in wireless

Future of Wireless Internet

Combination of all features of
a mobile phone,
PDA and two
way pager

Camera for video telephony and photography

Make calls from anywhere in the world

Send and receive e
mail in real
time, without
having to dial into a service provider

Maintain your address book, schedules, to
do lists,

in GPS System

Ultimate Wireless Device

Consumer (B2C) Applications

Mobile devices

News, scores, e

: small transactions

Mobile Micropayments

B2C Applications (cont.)

Wireless micropayment demonstration

Web shopping saves time and money

Web retail models

cart model

Auction model

comparison model

Electronic Retail


Wireless ticket purchases and gate transactions

Bluetooth and Infrared


Concise text
only versions

Daily headlines and section browsing

Latest dot
com developments

Wireless News Services

Wireless gaming

Charged per game or through advertising

Sports teams

Scores and updates

Fantasy games

Downloadable e


Air Travel

Internet sites aggregate airline information, fill seats

tickets lower overhead costs

American Airlines

All travel arrangements in single visit

Offers wireless services on Palm

Navigation on Wireless Devices

Find restaurants, hospitals, police stations

Driving directions, maps

GPS: Global Positioning System


Travel (cont.)

American Airlines wireless home page.

Banking and Financial Services

Investing options

service brokers
: online trading with broker’s advice

Merrill Lynch

Salomon Smith Barney

brokerage service
: investors manage own
accounts and research


Wireless banking and trading


: monitor market and portfolios
on wireless device

National Discount Brokers
: stock alerts, monitor market
and stock management

Online trading considerations

User issues


Knowledge on investing

Service issues

Type of investments

Navigation tools

Customer service

Number of trades and fees

Learning tools

The Motley Fool
: financial information site
: financial strategies

Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

Placing a stock order through NDB’s Mobility.

Viewing your profile via Mobile E*Trade.

Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

Wireless insurance

Progressive Causality Insurance Company
: finding
agents and getting price quotes

Wireless real estate

check additional listings, review amenities and submit
bids while viewing a property with a client

Other Applications

Business & e
Commerce for Managers
, H.M. Deitel, P.J.
Deitel and K. Steinbuhler, Prentice Hall, 2000.

eBusiness Essentials: Technology and Network Requirements
for Mobile and Online Markets
, 2/e, by Mark Norris and
Steve West, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Main References