+ Reasons to Vaccinate

neighgreasycornerΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

127 εμφανίσεις

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Childhood Immunizations

Project Completed By:

Phylicia Boone, Reilly Butler, Carrie Campbell, Rebecca Hannah,
Rebekah Pruett



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Vaccination Basics

Below are links to various sections of the CDC’s website that
provide basic information about vaccination.


Basic Vaccine Information and Preventable Diseases


Vaccination Safety and Possible Side Effects


Current CDC Recommendations for Vaccinations

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)



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Reasons to Vaccinate



Vaccines prevent 14 million cases of disease annually (U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services (HHS), 2012)


“Disease prevention is the key to public health” (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC), 2009)


Vaccines save lives (CDC, 2009)


Vaccinating children protects the child from the disease by creating
immunity through the creation of “memory cells” (CDC, 2009)


Vaccinating children also protects the community from disease by
protecting those who are unable to be vaccinated (CDC, 2009)


Immunization also helps to prevent outbreaks of disease (CDC, 2009)


Vaccination decreases healthcare costs related to doctor’s visits,
hospitalizations, and premature deaths (CDC, 2009)


Vaccinations reduce direct health care cost by $9.9 billion and indirect
costs by $33.4 billion (HHS, 2012)


Vaccines control diseases that used to be common in the United States
such as polio, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, rubella, mumps, tetanus,
and
Haemophilus influenzae

type b (CDC, 2009)



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Reasons Not to Vaccinate



In 2006, the belief that vaccines caused autism increased. This led many parents
to the decision of not vaccinating their child. (Herbert, Koulouglioti,2010)


Parents feel that the diseases vaccines cover are no longer prevalent and
therefore their child does not need to be vaccinated. However, children in the
United States are still succumbing to vaccine
-
preventable diseases. Example: In
2008 there was an outbreak of 131 documented cases of measles, 91% of them
were unvaccinated. (Smith, 2010)


Parents receiving misleading information about vaccines from non
-
credible
resources such as internet blogs and forums. 64% of US adults report going
online for health information. (Smith, 2010)



The issue of trust. Parents do not trust vaccine study results because they are
sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. Parents believe they are attempting to
make study results look good in order to make themselves more money. However,
vaccines are not profitable for pharmaceutical companies. (Smith, 2010)



Parents believe that vaccines may cause their child chronic illnesses such as
diabetes and MS (multiple sclerosis). (Smith, 2010)


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Future of Immunizations


Education
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“In the face of rising development costs, increasing prices, and
demands from parents and providers for exacting studies of vaccine safety,
the future use of childhood vaccines depends critically on establishing and
communicating effectively their value” (Pollard , 2007).


A continuing challenge for the future will be educating and convincing
parents about the safety, effectiveness, and importance of giving
immunizations to children (Pollard , 2007).


Research
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New vaccines may be produced due to continued research and
the better understanding of how diseases work (Fisher, 2006).


Technology
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The future may allow for not only the use of vaccines to prevent
infectious disease but chronic disease, autoimmune diseases, and cancers as
well (Pollard , 2007).


Currently genetic engineering and other technological advances that are in
progress could eliminate diseases like AIDS and malaria (Fisher, 2006)



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Pain Management Studies for Children
receiving vaccinations:



A clinical practice guideline was devised
using systematic reviews of pain and
distress management among children
undergoing vaccine injections.


In total, 71 studies were evaluated that
included 8050 children. The information in
the
guideline

is generalizable to healthy
children undergoing injection of vaccines
worldwide (Taddio et al., 2010).


Vaccine injections are a substantial source of
distress


Untreated pain can have long term
consequences including pre
-
procedural
anxiety, hyperalgesia, needle fears, and
avoidance of health care


Simple, cost
-
effective, evidence
-
based pain
relieving strategies are available


Recommendations in the developed
guideline are based on a “3
-
P”
(pharmacologic, physical, and
psychological) approach, involving both
providers and parents (Taddio et al., 2010)

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References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, March 12). Vaccines & immunizations. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009). How vaccines prevent disease. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac
-
gen/howvpd.htm#why

Fisher, M. (2006). Immunizations & infectious diseases. Elk Grove Village: American Academy of Pediatrics.

Hebert, E., & Koulouglioti, C. (2010). Parental beliefs about cause and course of their child's autism and
outcomes of their beliefs: a review of the literature. Issues In Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 33(3), 149
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163. doi:10.3109/01460862.2010.498331

Pollard , A. (2007). Childhood immunization: what is the future?. Disease in Childhood, 92(5), 426
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433. doi:

10.1136/adc.2006.095760

Smith, M. (2010). Parental vaccine refusal. Contemporary Pediatrics, 27(2), 36

Taddio, A., Appleton, M., Bortolussi, R., Chambers, C., Dubey, V., Halperin, S.,…Shah, V. (2010). Reducing
the pain of childhood vaccination: An evidence
-
based clinical practice guideline. Canadian Medical
Association Journal, 182(18), E843
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E855. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.101720

Taddio, A., Appleton, M., Bortolussi, R., Chambers, C., Dubey, V., Halperin, S.,…Shah, V. (2010). Reducing
the pain of childhood vaccination: An evidence
-
based clinical practice guideline. Appendix 2. Canadian
Medical Association Journal, 182(18), E843
-
E855.CMAJ 2010. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.101720

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (2012, February 8). Immunizations and infectious
diseases. Retrieved from
http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicId=23