PowerPoint Presentation - Genetic Engineering

neighgreasycornerΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

214 εμφανίσεις

Genetic Engineering


Move genes from one species and
insert into an entirely new species



Ex. Human insulin gene in bacdteria


Ex. Hep. B vaccine (gene from virus
--
>
bacteria)


Ex. Human growth hormone gene in
bacteria

Recombinant DNA


When DNA from 2 different organisms
is combined this DNA is called
recombinant DNA



Genetic engineering makees
recombinant DNA

How do you create
recombinant DNA?


A. First pick and isolate a gene


B. Isolate means to cut it out of
genome. Use special biology scissors
called restriction enzymes


C. Restriction enzymes cut DNA at
certain place


D. When cut DNA with restriction
enzyme it makes sticky ends

How do you move DNA?


A. After been cut out, put in vector


B. A vector is a way to get one
organisms DNA into another organism


C. Vectors can be plasmids or viruses


D. Plasmid is a circular piece of DNA
found in bacteria


Once plasmid enters bacteria, bacteria
divide by mitosis (clone)

Why bother?


In bacteria, human gene is used to
make human protein


This protein is harvested and sold to
people who can’t make protein or who
can’t make enough protein


Companies can make lots of money

Making recombinant DNA: If
start with DNA

1.
Identify DNA

2.
Isolate gene (separate from chromosome)
by cutting with restriction enzyme

3.
Cut plasmid with same restriction enzyme
and insert gene into plasmid

4.
Allow bacteria to reproduce (clone)

5.
Bacteria population increases and so does
the amount of protein they are making

Making recombinant DNA: If
start with RNA


1, Isolate/extract mRNA from cell


2. Make ssDNA from RNA (reverse
transcriptase enzyme)


3. Make dsDNA (DNA polymerase)


4. Start at #1 on previous slide