genetic manipulation.pptx - Bio4uTeacher-s-pets-D - home


14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 8 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Definition: Changing the
hereditary characteristics of
organisms by adjusting the
genetic material

example: Making it possible for bacteria to
produce human insulin

By Ruba Safieddine

Some forms of genetic manipulation are:


Recombinant DNA


Cell Fusion


Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Sequencing of DNA bases

Gel Electrophoresis

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

Selective breading of an organism that has a
favourable trait with another so that the favourable
trait is passed down to the next generation
(Geilen &
Neggers, 1991).

E.g. A mule is the result of the crossing of a horse
and a donkey



Substituting a gene from one organism to another by

DNA from one organism is cut up and the pieces are annealed to
pieces from new DNA

Combining different desirable traits from to different
organisms to form one new organism

One cell is formed by combining two cells

This will allow a tomato cell and a potato cell to form a new plant

All points from (Geilen & Neggers, 1991)

A process in which identical cells are formed from a single cell by
asexual reproduction

Example: Dolly the sheep



2 Methods:

create a cell from the cell of another

cells are divided into segments

which are inserted in a different

surrogate mother

fertilized ovum is split into a number of cells which are


the nucleus is removed and the nucleus of another

organism replaces it

(Geilen & Neggers, 1991)

Cloning the best plants produces healthier plants

Increasing the amount of milk a cow produces by 10%
by using the hormone bovine somatotrophin (BST)

(Di Giuseppe, Vavitsas, Ritter, and Fraser, 2003).


Could also give animals
better protection against

Cloning of almost extinct

Cloning of bacteria that
prevent pollution


Increasing the number of a
species can result in
imbalance in ecosystem

Animals that do not
economically benefit society
may disappear

Production of human growth hormone for
Microbial Genomics: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology , 2000)

Endorphin (Painkiller)

derived from bacteria

Microbial Genomics, 2000).

Gene Therapy

used to correct a mutated gene that could cause
a genetic disorder

mutated gene may be replaced by a normal
gene or by reverse mutation

(Di Giuseppe, et al., 2003)

Di Giuseppe, Maurice, Vavitsas, Angela, Ritter, Dr. Bob, & Fraser, Douglas (2003).
Biology 12
. Canada: Thomson Nelson.

Gielen, Jeroen and Neggers (1991). Genetic Manipulation. Retrieved March 28, 2009,
from ThinkQuest Web site:

Microbial Genomics: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (2000).
. Human Genome Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved
April 15, 2009, from