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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Definition: Changing the
hereditary characteristics of
organisms by adjusting the
genetic material


example: Making it possible for bacteria to
produce human insulin







By Ruba Safieddine


Some forms of genetic manipulation are:




-
Selection




-
Recombinant DNA




-
Crossing




-
Cell Fusion




-
Cloning






-
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)




-
Sequencing of DNA bases




-
Gel Electrophoresis




-
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism









Selective breading of an organism that has a
favourable trait with another so that the favourable
trait is passed down to the next generation
(Geilen &
Neggers, 1991).



E.g. A mule is the result of the crossing of a horse
and a donkey


+


=


Substituting a gene from one organism to another by
hybridization


DNA from one organism is cut up and the pieces are annealed to
pieces from new DNA



Combining different desirable traits from to different
organisms to form one new organism


One cell is formed by combining two cells


This will allow a tomato cell and a potato cell to form a new plant


All points from (Geilen & Neggers, 1991)



A process in which identical cells are formed from a single cell by
asexual reproduction

Example: Dolly the sheep

Article:
http://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical/timeline/Dolly

Video:
http://videos.howstuffworks.com/tlc/29324
-
understanding
-
cloning
-
a
-
cow
-
video.htm




2 Methods:



-
create a cell from the cell of another






cells are divided into segments



which are inserted in a different




surrogate mother




-
fertilized ovum is split into a number of cells which are

separated






the nucleus is removed and the nucleus of another



organism replaces it


(Geilen & Neggers, 1991)





Cloning the best plants produces healthier plants


Increasing the amount of milk a cow produces by 10%
by using the hormone bovine somatotrophin (BST)


(Di Giuseppe, Vavitsas, Ritter, and Fraser, 2003).

Pro’s:

-
Could also give animals
better protection against
disease

-
Cloning of almost extinct
animals

-
Cloning of bacteria that
prevent pollution


Con’s:

-
Increasing the number of a
species can result in
imbalance in ecosystem

-
Animals that do not
economically benefit society
may disappear


Production of human growth hormone for
dwarfism
(
Microbial Genomics: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology , 2000)
.



Endorphin (Painkiller)


derived from bacteria



(
Microbial Genomics, 2000).



Gene Therapy



-
used to correct a mutated gene that could cause
a genetic disorder





mutated gene may be replaced by a normal
gene or by reverse mutation


(Di Giuseppe, et al., 2003)

Di Giuseppe, Maurice, Vavitsas, Angela, Ritter, Dr. Bob, & Fraser, Douglas (2003).
Biology 12
. Canada: Thomson Nelson.


Gielen, Jeroen and Neggers (1991). Genetic Manipulation. Retrieved March 28, 2009,
from ThinkQuest Web site: http://library.thinkquest.org/17498/I3.htm


Microbial Genomics: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (2000).
Microbial
Genomics
. Human Genome Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved
April 15, 2009, from
<http://microbialgenomics.energy.gov/primer/science_biotech.shtml>.