Genetic Engineering and genetic technology - Holdensclass.com

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering and
Genetic Technology


Genetic Engineering
-

The process of making
changes in the DNA code
of living organisms.



Selective breeding
-

method of improving a
species by allowing only
those individual
organisms with desired
characteristics to produce
the next generation

Genetic technology terms


Recombinant DNA
-

DNA produced by
combining DNA from
different sources

Genetic technology terms


Vectors
-

In DNA
cloning, the plasmid
or chromosome used
to carry the cloned
DNA segment to a
desired location.
(Frequently a virus or a
liposome is used)


Genetic technology terms


Restriction enzymes
-

enzyme that cuts DNA at
a specific sequence of nucleotides


Genetic technology terms


Gel Electrophoresis
-

procedure used to separate and
analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA
fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying
electrical voltage to the gel


Genetic technology terms


PCR (polymerase
chain reaction)
-

a
technique that allows
molecular biologists
to make many copies
of a particular gene.


Genetic technology terms


Plasmids
-

circular DNA molecule found in
bacteria



Genetic technology terms


bacterial transformation
-

process in which
one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or
genes from another strain of bacteria.

Genetic technology terms


Cloning
-

Making a
genetically identical
organism


Genetic technology terms


Transgenic Organisms
-

an organism that
contains genes from another organism


Human Genome Project


Genetic Disease
-

caused by abnormalities
in an individual’s genetic material
(genome).


Genetic (gene) therapy
-

When a gene is
inserted in a cell to replace a defective or
missing gene


Human Genome Project


Genetic Fingerprinting
-

A technique used to
distinguish between
individuals of the same
species using only
samples of their DNA.



Two humans will have the vast
majority of their DNA sequence in
common. Genetic fingerprinting
exploits highly variable repeating
sequences. Two unrelated
humans will be likely to have
different numbers of repeating
segments at a given locus.

Human Technologies


Sonogram


Amniocentesis


Karyotypes


Fetoscopy


Blood/Urine Tests



Sonograms or
ultrasound
-

An
image, as of an
unborn fetus or an
internal body organ,
produced by
ultrasonography


Amniocentesis
-

A
procedure in which a
small sample of
amniotic fluid is
drawn out of the
uterus through a
needle inserted in
the abdomen.

Figure 14.17 Testing a fetus for genetic disorders


Fetoscopy
-
A flexible fiberoptic device used
to view a fetus in utero