Genetic Engineering and genetic technology -


14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering and
Genetic Technology

Genetic Engineering

The process of making
changes in the DNA code
of living organisms.

Selective breeding

method of improving a
species by allowing only
those individual
organisms with desired
characteristics to produce
the next generation

Genetic technology terms

Recombinant DNA

DNA produced by
combining DNA from
different sources

Genetic technology terms


cloning, the plasmid
or chromosome used
to carry the cloned
DNA segment to a
desired location.
(Frequently a virus or a
liposome is used)

Genetic technology terms

Restriction enzymes

enzyme that cuts DNA at
a specific sequence of nucleotides

Genetic technology terms

Gel Electrophoresis

procedure used to separate and
analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA
fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying
electrical voltage to the gel

Genetic technology terms

PCR (polymerase
chain reaction)

technique that allows
molecular biologists
to make many copies
of a particular gene.

Genetic technology terms


circular DNA molecule found in

Genetic technology terms

bacterial transformation

process in which
one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or
genes from another strain of bacteria.

Genetic technology terms


Making a
genetically identical

Genetic technology terms

Transgenic Organisms

an organism that
contains genes from another organism

Human Genome Project

Genetic Disease

caused by abnormalities
in an individual’s genetic material

Genetic (gene) therapy

When a gene is
inserted in a cell to replace a defective or
missing gene

Human Genome Project

Genetic Fingerprinting

A technique used to
distinguish between
individuals of the same
species using only
samples of their DNA.

Two humans will have the vast
majority of their DNA sequence in
common. Genetic fingerprinting
exploits highly variable repeating
sequences. Two unrelated
humans will be likely to have
different numbers of repeating
segments at a given locus.

Human Technologies





Blood/Urine Tests

Sonograms or

image, as of an
unborn fetus or an
internal body organ,
produced by


procedure in which a
small sample of
amniotic fluid is
drawn out of the
uterus through a
needle inserted in
the abdomen.

Figure 14.17 Testing a fetus for genetic disorders

A flexible fiberoptic device used
to view a fetus in utero