Engineering Majors - Tom Rebold

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Engineering Disciplines and Majors

Notes from Brockman, Ch1

Oakes, Ch2

Tom
Rebold

MPC

Questions from Last Class


What is the role of Engineering in Society?




What is the Engineering Method?

Agenda


Engineering Disciplines and Majors


Engineering Technology Majors


Engineering Roles and Functions


Industries that employ Engineers


Scavenger Hunt Activity




Engineering is Inherently
Multidisciplinary


We saw in last lecture how technology forms a
web of related areas that interact with each
other:

Systems Theory Again


We also saw how we can group related items
into subsystems to help clarify the role of
different parts.

Engineering Discipline Formation


As Engineering developed into different areas,
new disciplines split off and solidified into
distinct fields.


Timeline: Civil


Mechanical


Electrical , etc.


Like automobile systems, we don’t and CAN’T
understand everything about these fields


Just need to know their general functions


We will need to specialize in one discipline


We will often work with people from many disciplines



New Disciplines are Emerging


Keep an eye out for these:


Sustainable Energy


Robotics


Genetic Engineering


Nanotechnology


Mechatronics


Smart Building Technology


“Hot” areas that may grow into separate disciplines


For now they are subfields of existing disciplines


You can take upper division classes in some of these

How important is your choice of
Engineering Discipline?


20
-
25 years after graduation


Most have switched fields more than once


Few are working in their major area, or what they thought
they’d be working on


IMPORTANT: Choose to study engineering!!


and develop a foundation that you can build on


much more important than the choice of which field in
engineering to major in.


Society
needs engineers of all disciplines in order to face
the challenges ahead.


Society also needs more people in business and public
policy who see the world from an engineer's perspective.

A Matrix of Choices


In developing your career you will eventually
have to decide:


What discipline of
engineering to pursue

(choose a major, 1 of 10 or so)


What specific engineering job function to perform
(1 of several)


What industry to work in (1 of ten or more)


10x10x10 = thousands of possibilities!!!


Copyright © 2012 by Oxford
University Press, Inc.

Engineering Your Future:

A Brief Introduction to Engineering, 4/e

Figure 2.1
Engineering positions. [Grace and Daniels]

Choice 1: Engineering Disciplines/Majors


We start with a brief overview of the branches
of engineering available at many (but not all)
universities


12

Chapter 2:
Engineering
Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Aerospace

Agricultural

Architectural

Biomedical

Chemical

Civil

Computer


Electrical

Environmental

Industrial

Marine / Ocean

Materials

Mechanical





Mining

Nuclear

Petroleum

+ others




13

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Aerospace



Involves flight within our atmosphere (aero
-
) and flight
outside our atmosphere (space)

Studies aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, control
systems, orbital mechanics.



Agricultural

Involved with processing/production of agricultural
products

Studies harvesting methods, food processes, soil/water
resources, electrical/information technology,
bioengineering





14

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Architectural



Different from, but complementary to, the field of
Architecture

Four main divisions: (1) Structural, (2) Electrical and
Lighting, (3) Mechanical systems, and (4) Construction
Engineering and Management



Biomedical

Grew out of Mechanical Engineering, now encompasses
several other fields, including the life sciences

Relatively new major, may cover Bioengineering, medical
engineering, and clinical engineering






15

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Chemical



Large emphasis on chemistry: different from other
majors

Most common employment: design, development and
operation of
large
-
scale chemical production facilities.

May be employed by pharmaceutical, petroleum or food
-
producing companies.



Civil

One of the oldest of all majors, dates to prehistoric times

Subsets include structural, architectural, environmental,
transportation, traffic, water resources, surveying, urban
planning, and construction.






16

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Computer



Often combined with EE in university engineering
depts

Focus on computer
hardware

(
Computer Science
focuses
mainly on computer software)

Involved with operating systems, computer architecture,
printers, other peripherals



Electrical

The most populated of all engineering majors

Studies communication technologies, electronics, electrical
circuits, digital controls, instrumentation, signal processing,
and power.






17

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Environmental



Branched off from Civil Engineering major

Has evolved to improve and protect the environment, while
maintaining the rapid pace of industrial activity.

Three main parts: (1) Disposal, (2) Remediation, and

(3) Prevention




Industrial

Defined as the design, improvement and installation of
integrated systems of people, material and energy.

Four main areas: (1) Production, (2) Manufacturing,

(3) Human Factors, and (4) Operations Research







18

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Marine & Ocean Engineering



Marine Engineering
: focus on design, development and
operation of ships and boats

Ocean Engineering
:
focus on everything outside of Marine
Engrg
, including ocean
-
going structures, submersible
vehicles, underwater pipelines, offshore drilling platforms




Materials

Study material structures, properties, processes,
performance

Sub
-
groups include metallurgy, ceramics, polymers,
composites, and semi
-
conductor materials

Biomedical applications include artificial knee/hip joints







19

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Mechanical (ME)




One of the largest and broadest of all engineering majors


Two main divisions:

(1)
Design & Controls
, (2)
Thermal Sciences


MEs design and implement engines, power generation
systems, heating/ ventilation / air conditioning (HVAC)
systems, manufacturing processes, robotics and
applications in biomedical engineering









20

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Nuclear



Concerned with use/control of energy from nuclear sources

Involves electricity production (fission reactors), propulsion
systems (e.g., submarine), waste disposal and radiation
applications (e.g., medicine)





Mining

Study material structures, properties, processes,
performance

Sub
-
groups include metallurgy, ceramics, polymers,
composites, and semi
-
conductor materials

Biomedical applications include artificial knee/hip joints







Petroleum



Maintain the flow of petroleum and natural gas
in a safe and reliable manner


Involved in


Exploration for crude oil deposits


Works with geologists and geophysicists to
identify potential reserves


Removal of oil


Transporting/Refining oil








21

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3
-

Engineering Majors

22

Chapter 2:
Engineering Majors

Section 2.3


Engineering Majors

Other Engineering Fields:





Automotive

Acoustical

Applied Math

Bioengineering

Engineering Science

Engineering Management

Excavation Engineering

Fire Engineering

Forest Engineering

General Engineering

Genetic Engineering

Geological Engineering

Inventive Design

Manufacturing Engineering

Packaging Engineering

Pharmaceutical Engineering

Plastics Engineering

Power Engineering

Systems Engineering

Theatre Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Welding Engineering

What about Engineering Technology?


Engineering technology is the profession in which a
knowledge of mathematics and natural sciences gained
by higher education, experience, and practice is
devoted primarily to the
implementation and extension
of existing technology
for the benefit of humanity.


Engineering technology education focuses primarily on
the applied aspects of science and engineering aimed
at preparing graduates for practice in that portion of
the technological spectrum closest to product
improvement, manufacturing, construction, and
engineering operational functions.


Engineering Technology

Broadens Your Choices

People with scientific or technical ambitions can


Choose to major in the Sciences:


Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.


For people pursuing higher degrees, laboratory research,
or careers in education


Choose to major in Engineering


Civil engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering, etc.


Requires highly developed analytical skills


Prepares for careers conceptualizing and designing
technical devices/systems


Engineering Technology

Broadens Your Choices

People with scientific or technical ambitions can


Not attend college


Enroll in a technical or vocational school


For people interested in the trades


For careers in physically building, operating, or repairing
machinery


Choose to major in Engineering Technology


Help meet growing need for college
-
educated problem solvers


Who support the engineering process


Can be a 2 year or 4 year degree


Degree holders are called “Technologists”


Engineering Technology Disciplines


Aeronautical Engineering Technology


Air Conditioning Engineering Technology


Architectural Engineering Technology


Automotive Engineering Technology


Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering Technology


Civil Engineering Technology


Computer Engineering Technology


Construction Engineering Technology


Drafting and Design Engineering Technology


Electrical Engineering Technology


Electromechanical Engineering Technology


Engineering Technology (General)


Environmental Engineering Technology


Industrial Engineering Technology


Instrumentation and Control Systems Engineering Technology


Manufacturing Engineering Technology


Marine Engineering Technology


Mechanical Engineering Technology


Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Technology


Surveying and
Geomatics

Engineering Technology


Telecommunications Engineering Technology


Other Fields in Engineering Technology



Copyright © 2012 by Oxford
University Press, Inc.

Engineering Your Future:

A Brief Introduction to Engineering, 4/e

Figure 2.1
Engineering positions. [Grace and Daniels]









28

Choice 2:
Engineering
Functions

A Function describes what an engineer might do
in a job environment.


Functions include:


Research and Development (“R and D”)


Test


Design


Teaching


Sales









Engineering
Functions




Research

-

explore, discover and apply new
principles


Development

-

transform ideas or concepts into
production processes


Design

-

link the generation of ideas and the
production

Engineering Functions


Production and testing

-

manufacture and assemble
components or products, verify quality


Marketing/Sales



match client needs with
recommended parts/services


Operations

-

maintain equipment and facilities


Field



Maintain and test product on location


Quality



Ensure product performance


Safety

Ensure safety of workers and community

Engineering Functions


Management

-

optimize the use of resources
(equipment, labor, finances)


Education

-

teach engineering principles in university
and industrial settings


Consulting

-

provide specialized engineering services
to clients. May work alone or in partnership other
engineers.


OTHER

many engineers go into sciences, law,
medicine, business, finance, politics, arts, etc.



Journey
to the
Top



Copyright © 2012 by Oxford
University Press, Inc.

Engineering Your Future:

A Brief Introduction to Engineering, 4/e

Figure 2.1
Engineering positions. [Grace and Daniels]

Choice 3: Industry


Each branch and job function can operate in most
of the following industries, or sectors of the
economy:


Transportation


Consumer Products


Entertainment


Communication


Energy


Agriculture


Construction


Medical


Other



Consider the possibilities of


A mechanical engineer (ME) who works in
design moving across the following job
sectors



Aerospace



Biomedical



Power



Consumer Products



Computer


Consider the possibilities of


A mechanical engineer (ME) who works in
design moving across the following job
sectors



Aerospace

Design an aircraft engine


Biomedical

Design an artificial leg



Power

Design a heat recovery system


Consumer Products

Design a pump for
toothpaste


Computer

Design a new inkjet nozzle

Scavenger Hunt type
questions


What problem or application would span all
two or three of the following disciplines?


Industrial, Chemical and Electrical


Materials and
Biomedical