Bioterrorism

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 8 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Bioterrorism


Medieval Sieges
-

14
th

and 15
th

century dead
bodies were
catapulted over
the walls of
castles


Or they were put
in the water
source to
contaminate it


http://www.pbs.o
rg/wgbh/nova/bio
terror/history.html


British military
deliberately infected
the Continental Army
with smallpox


1763 Fort Pitt
Pennsylvania…Jeffrey
Amherst ordered
blankets and
handkerchiefs
infected with small
pox to be given to the
Delaware Indians at a
peace
-
making parley


Germ theory of disease well established


Target= contaminated livestock shipped to
the allies (glanders and anthrax)


Geneva Protocol (1925)
-

prohibited the use
of chemical and biological agents, but not
research and development of these agents


U.S. signed, but took 50 years
for U.S.
Senate to ratify; Japan also refused to ratify
agreement


Japanese Govt
directed tests
against China in a
division of the
Imperial army called
Unit 731


Exposed civilians to
anthrax, cholera,
typhoid, plague


U.S. brokered
deals

immunity to
war crimes if Japan
turned over their
research to the U.S.


Soviets were
developing the
largest biochemical
factory in the world


1969 U.S. tested a bioterrorist attack on a fleet
of ships and caged animals (called the Wargame)


Little did the U.S. know, but soviet spies were in
the nearby waters collecting samples


At the end of 1969, Richard Nixon terminated
the offensive biological warfare program and
ordered all weapons to be destroyed…U.S.
researchers switched to developing defensive
measures


1972 100 nations signed the Biological and Toxin
Weapons Convention, first treaty banning an
entire class of weapons


Soviets disregarded treaty and developed new
weapons…1979 anthrax outbreak killed 70 people
in Sverdlovsk


1989 Vladimir Pasechnik defected to Britain and
gave evidence of the creation of “superbugs,”
antibiotic resistant anthrax, hybrid viruses; and
long
-
range missiles to spread the diseases
(Project Bonfire and the Hunter Program)


This research was later confirmed by 2
defectors: Ken Alibek and Sergei Popov


The Fall of the Soviet Union became a dangerous
prospect


By 1992, Iraq had managed to weaponize
anthrax, botulinum toxin, and aflatoxin, and
had several other agents in development


Inspectors from UNSCOM (UN special
commission) found scud missiles created to
deliver the toxins


1980s Iraq used biochemical weapons against
the Kurds in Northern Iraq


The existence of stockpiles of weapons are
still in question


1984 Followers of
the Indian Guru
Bagwan Shree
Rajneesh living in a
compound in Oregon
poisoned people
with Salmonella in
order to win an
election (> 750
cases of food
poisoning)


1995 Religious sect of Aum Shinrikyo released
sarin gas in a Tokyo subway killing 12 and
injuring thousands


It was discovered that the cult has enlisted
Ph.D. Scientists to launch the weapons


Refining of particle size for delivery became
a concern


2001 Anthrax
attacks…spores
were mailed in
letters to Tom
Brokaw at NBC and
Senator Tom
Daschle


18 people were
infected and five
people died


1776
-
English physician Edward Jenner developed an
inoculation against smallpox


Armed with the knowledge that milkmaids who had
been exposed to cowpox, Jenner intentionally
infected an eight
-
year
-
old boy with cowpox


Two months later he infected the boy again, this time
with smallpox.


As Jenner expected, the child didn't come down with
the disease

he was immune.


Although Jenner's experiment was highly unethical,
especially by today's standards, it did lead to
widespread inoculations against the feared disease.
He called his new procedure vaccination, after
vacca,

which is Latin for cow.



A vaccine works by generating an immune
response in the body against some kind of
pathogen

a virus or bacteria or some other
agent that causes disease.


Types of Vaccines:

Live Attenuated (altered
pathogen); Killed (inactivated pathogens);
Toxoid (toxins/poisons made by pathogen);
Component (contain whole parts of
pathogen); Naked DNA


Making Vaccines Flash:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bioterror/v
acc_flash.html


Use of Genetic Engineering techniques


Behavior Modification warfare


Incapacity Warfare


DARPA Budget over $250 million


Dark Winter


Global Guide to
Bioweapons



Video and
Project


http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/archive/biow
arfare/index.html