technology in schools - Ministry of Education

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1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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.......

5

TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOLS

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................................

5

Introduction
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.........

5

SECTION 1
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................................

7

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
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................................
..

7

G
ENERAL BACKGROUND

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...........................

7

CURRICULUM BACKGROUND INFORMATION

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....

9

TECHNOLOGICAL AREAS

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..........................

9

Biotechnology

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................................
.......

9

Electronics and Control Technology

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..............

9

Food Technology

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................................
....

9

Information and Communication Technology

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..

10

Materials Technology

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..............................

10

Production and Process Technology

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.............

10

Structures and Mechanisms Technology

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........

10

Design, Drawing and Graphics
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....................

10

CONSULTATION

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....

10

Principals and Boards of Trustees

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11

Architects

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...........

11

Professional Curriculum Advisers

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................

11

CONSULTATION PROCESS

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........................

11

SPACES

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..............

12

STORAGE
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............

12

STUDENT WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

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.................

12

CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS

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....................

12

LEARNING STYLES

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................................
.

13

GENDER

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.............

13

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN FEATURES

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...........

13

TRAFFIC FLOW LOGISTICS
BETWEEN EXISTI
NG SUPPORTING CLASSROOMS
AND SPECIALIST FACILITIES.

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....................

13

Classroom Environment

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...........................

13

Specialist Considerations

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.........................

13




2

TIMETABLING
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.......

14

DESIGNATION OF AREA
S
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..........................

14

INTERACTIVITY WITHIN A TECHNOLOGY SUITE

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14

ROOM RELATIONSHIP

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.............................

15

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW OR REMODELLED ACCOMMODATION
..

15

Space Alloca
tions

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................................
..

15

COSTS

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...............

15

CURRICULUM IMPACT BRIEF

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.....................

16

SECTION 2
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17

PRIMARY SCHOOLS


YEARS 1
-
6
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.....................

17

INTRODUCTION

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....

17

TECHNOLOGICAL AREAS

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.........................

17

Biotechnology

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................................
......

17

Electronics and Control

................................
...........................

17

Food Technology

................................
................................
...

17

Information and Communications
Technology

................................
.

18

Materials Technology

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..............................

18

Production and Process

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...........................

18

Structures and Mechanisms

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.......................

18

Graphics and Design

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...............................

19

DESIGNING NEW OR REMODELLING EXISTING PRIMARY SCHOOL FACILITIES
SPACE ALLOCATIONS

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.............................

20

SPACE ALLOCATIONS (See also
Space Allocation

and
Costs

in Section 1)

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................................
.......................

20

EXISTING FACILITIES: TRADITIONAL SCH
OOL DESIGN

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20

REMODELLING EXISTING SCHOOL FACILITIES

................................
.

21

EXISTING CLASSROOMS

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...........................

22

Equipment to be Provided for in Existing Classrooms

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22

Techno
logy Area

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................................
...

22

NEW FACILITIES: FUTURE SCHOOL DESIGN

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...

22

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR TECHNOLOGY
................................
...

25

PRIMARY SCHOOLS


YEARS 1


6

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..................

25




3

NEW CLASSROOMS

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................................

25

NEW TECHNOLOGY AREAS

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.......................

26

CASE STUDY 1


REMODELLING AN EXISTING BUILDING

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28

CASE STUDY 2


REMODELLING AN EXISTING BUILDING

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30

FULL PRIMARY

SCHOOL


YEARS 1
-
8

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............

31

DESCRIPTION

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.......

31

FULL PRIMARY SCHOOL


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31

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW TECHNOLOGY FACILITIES
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31

APPENDIX 1

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33

CHECK LIST

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33

APPENDIX 2

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37

CURRICULUM IMPACT BRIEF

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.....................

37

Useful References

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39




5


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


TECHNOLOGY IN SCHO
OLS


Introduction


The introduction of the new technology curriculum in schools represents a significant shift
away from the previous craft based subjects to a new all embracing subjects that all students
will study from Years 1
-
10. It will have a major i
mpact on the way students learn. It
presents a unique challenge for Boards of Trustees, school principals, property managers and
designers to re
-
evaluate the way a number of subjects especially technology related subjects
have been taught and accommodated

in the past, and to reshape the way they will be provided
for in the future.


Primary school students will now require access to facilities such as water and power to a far
greater degree than has been available in existing classrooms. Access will be req
uired to
hygienic areas for food technology. This needs to be separate from other activities such as art
or materials technology. Spaces will need to be provided for practical aspects of the
curriculum


especially technology but also science, the arts,
health and physical education.
In addition possible changes to the delivery of staffing for Year 7 and 8 students may impact
on where these students carry out practical aspects of the curriculum.


The new curriculum offers the opportunity for co
-
operative

teaching to occur and there will
need to be a greater co
-
operation between classroom teachers and teachers in technology
facilities, or centres.


Students from Years 1
-
3 will now have to work in at least four of the seven technological
areas specified in

the curriculum. Students from Years 3
-
5 five technological areas and
students from Years 7
-
10 six of the technological areas of the curriculum. This will require
increased access to facilities that were only partially used by students at this level in the

past.
Single sex schools will now have to offer a full range of options for technology whereas
previously this was often limited. The nature and direction of the senior secondary school is
changing and this will also have an impact upon the facilities a
ccessible to years 9
-
10.


In particular, the technology curriculum requires a more flexible approach to teaching
materials technology and this suggests rethinking the activities currently carried out in
traditional specialist rooms such as wood/metalwork,
homecraft and clothing rooms. For
other reasons there will be increasing pressure to provide more sophisticated facilities in
secondary schools. This will need to be evaluated against other options such as using
alternative providers for specialised teac
hing.


Apart from single sex secondary schools where limited facilities have been provided in the
past, the new technology curriculum does not require an immediate change to the existing
range of facilities. In most secondary schools the curriculum can be

taught adequately within
the existing facilities. However, when the opportunities arise through age and condition or
roll growth to upgrade or remodel existing facilities, the opportunity should be taken to re
-
evaluate how the current facilities can be r
eshaped to increase the potential of teachers to



6

deliver the new curriculum more

effectively. The following guidelines have been

produced
by a group comprising the Ministry’s curriculum staff, advisers, property managers and
national operations staff to a
ssist schools and property managers in evaluating how facilities
can be reshaped. They are intended only as a guide and will be added to and changed over
time as best practice solutions are evolved.


While innovative property solutions and good design can

encourage and enhance changes in
teaching practices this cannot be successfully achieved without the full co
-
operation of the
teachers involved. It is essential therefore that before any projects are undertaken that all
schools review how they wish to de
liver the curriculum. This may impact on school class
structures and timetabling for secondary students. In the future both timetable and class
structures may be very different from the current arrangements. As junior students become
more involved in th
e curriculum and progress through the various levels of education it is
expected that their demands for technology at the intermediate, secondary and senior school
levels will change and will become more sophisticated.


In terms of school design we are ent
ering a period where the reshaping of the curriculum will
change the nature of the facilities that have been traditionally provided in schools, although it
may take some time for this to become apparent.


The very nature of the pace of change of technology

in the market place will also impact
upon the design of facilities. This all points to the need of greater flexibility in the design of
specialist areas so that they can be easily adapted as both changes in teaching methods,
curriculum and technology wil
l have further impact upon school programmes in the future.


The brief produced by the Ministry does not profess to provide all the solutions that may
ultimately be adopted but rather sets out a challenge to schools and designers to provide
solutions that
are innovative and achievable within the resources available.





Paul Burke

Elizabeth Eppel

Group Manager Property

Group Manager







7

SECTION 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

GENERAL BACKGROUND


Technology Education will have one of the biggest impacts on the stud
ents which has
ever been experienced in the learning environment.


"The technology curriculum aims to develop technological literacy through three
integrated learning strands to enable students to participate fully in the technological
society and economy
in which they will live and work. This curriculum seeks to enable
and empower students with the know
-
how they will need to make informed choices
about technology, and to be the technological innovators of the future."

page 5
Technology in the New Zealand C
urriculum.


The three strands
-

technological knowledge and understanding, technological
capability and technology and society are inter
-
related and there is no particular
emphasis on any one strand. Most of the practical work carried out is related to Str
and
B
-

technological capability linking to knowledge aspects in Strand A but most
technology activities/units involve objectives from all 3 strands.


Through the technology curriculum students work towards developing knowledge and
skills in the areas of b
iotechnology, electronics and control, food technology,
information and communications technology, materials technology, productions and
processes technology, structures and mechanisms. These technological areas have
been selected as being particularly rel
evant to the New Zealand setting. They will also
develop knowledge and skills in design and graphics.
"Whichever technological area
is selected, design, including the processes of specification and development and
testing of prototypes, is an essential com
ponent of the activity."

Page 12 Technology
in the New Zealand Curriculum.


What do teachers and students do when learning in technology education? Whichever
technological area teachers choose/select they are expected to take a similar approach.
They are t
he facilitators of student's learning and the pertinent questioner. They still
teach aspects (knowledge and skills) as required and when necessary but may only
teach one group at a time. Some teaching may be with a whole class in a 'normal'
classroom. Othe
r practical work will be diverse and take place in specialist facilities.
There is no required approach and each school and the teachers within it will
determine the most effective way of teaching the technology curriculum for their
students. The arrangeme
nt and layout of the specialist facilities will also greatly
influence how students and teachers operate.


Students and teachers work through a technological process. This could start with
identifying a need or opportunity relevant to the situation or surv
eying a group or a
class visit to a business. Whatever the starting point it must be authentic to the student
and relevant to their capabilities. Usually it emphasises one of the technological areas
but more than one technological area will often be involv
ed. Students work towards
developing the most appropriate solution for the need or opportunity. In the process



8

they acquire or use knowledge and consider the social implications. The outcome may
be a product, a system, or an environment.


An individual can

be involved in the whole process or groups may take on different
aspects of the process. They may research through the internet or books or by talking
to experts background information on the history of what they are developing and
how different cultures
approach it. They may also build up a knowledge base at this
stage so that they can develop ideas that are workable. They could then brainstorm a
number of ideas and jot these down as notes, sketches or diagrams. They consider
their ideas in relation to
the people or situation. So, for instance, such things as
ergonomics would be considered, people's culture, and the group that is being
targeted, the cost of developing the product, individual or multiple production,
marketing etc...


They select the most
appropriate solution, design it with more exact measurements,
which may involve paper or computer programmes and make up mock
-
ups of this. It
may become the pattern for the final prototype. This mock up may be in paper,
cardboard or plastic. Sometimes the
exercise will stop at the design stage or the
prototype stage.


The mock up is critiqued evaluated and modified if the makers feel it is not the best
solution. This part of the process could happen a number of times and in a variety of
ways. Ideas and modi
fications are often jotted down. There isn't one fixed "design
-

make
-

appraise" sequence that all projects will conform to. Students could then make
a prototype to size using the actual materials. Again this may be a product, system or
environment.


The
student takes ownership of the learning process. They are required to be reflective
practitioners and in doing so they are able to transfer their learning to other situations.
The acquisition of technological knowledge is as important as the development of

technological skills.


Technology is a new learning area
-

one of seven essential learning areas specified in
the New Zealand Curriculum, and is having an impact on the structure of school's
programmes. Primary schools are teaching a subject that they hav
e not previously
taught. Intermediate schools are organising programmes where classroom and
specialist teachers are working together rather than separately as in the old 'manual
training' curriculum.


The purpose of this booklet is to provide guidance for
property managers, boards of
trustees, school principals and teachers on the design requirements for new and
remodelled facilities required to implement the technology curriculum. It sets out a
suggested approach for the development of technology facilitie
s. It will be
supplemented with other good examples as these are developed in the future.


The basic structure of the curriculum statement follows. It's implementation and
policy approach must allow for flexibility within the school's approach. There is no

'one
-
size
-
fits
-
all' way of implementing it. The idea is to encourage innovation,
diversity and responsiveness.




9


CURRICULUM BACKGROUND INFORMATION


The Aim of Technology Education.

“Learning in Technology implies becoming confident in using a variety of me
ans to
address needs and opportunities and solve practical problems within society.


It focuses on know
-
how as well as knowledge itself, gathering information from
diverse sources.


It encourages risk taking, lateral and divergent thinking, the development

of multiple
solutions to problems, trial and error, teamwork, and the management of resources
effectively and efficiently.


Technology education explores choice and the factors that influence choice, including
culture and society, costs and benefits, aest
hetics, and fitness for purposes.


It seeks to empower students to make informed choices in the use of technology and in
their responses to technological change.


The aim of technology education is to enable students to achieve technological
literacy throu
gh the development of:


Technological knowledge and understanding;

Technological capability;

Understanding and awareness of the relationship between technology and society.”

Page 8, Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum.


TECHNOLOGICAL AREAS


Biotechno
logy

Biotechnology involves the use of living systems, organisms, or parts of organisms to
manipulate natural processes in order to develop products, systems, or environments to
benefit people. These may be products, such as foods, pharmaceuticals or comp
ost; systems,
such as waste management or water purification; or environments, such as hydroponics.
Biotechnology also includes genetics or biomedical engineering
.


Electronics and Control Technology

Electronics and Control Technology includes knowledge a
nd use of electrical and electronic
systems and devices, as well as their design, construction, and production. These may be
simple electrical circuits or complex integrated electronic circuits, or Robotics. Control
technologies may be electronic, pneumati
c, hydraulic, or manual.


Food Technology

Food Technology includes understanding and using safe and reliable processes for producing,
preparing, presenting, and storing food and the development, packaging, and marketing of
foods.





10


Information and Communic
ation Technology

Information and Communication technology includes systems that enable the collection,
structuring, manipulation, retrieval, and communication of information in various forms.
This includes audio and graphical communications, the use of el
ectronic networks, and
interactive multimedia.


Materials Technology

Materials technology includes the investigation, use, and development of materials to achieve
a desired result. It involves knowledge of the qualities and suitability of different types
of
materials, including wood, textiles, composites, metals, plastics, and synthetics, and fuels, as
well as the processing, preservation, and recycling of materials. Materials technology
contributes to many other areas, especially structures and mechanism
s
.


Production and Process Technology

Production and Process Technology includes both the manufacture and assembly of products
from individual components in, for instance, a furniture or appliance factory or a motor
vehicle assembly line; and the processin
g of fluid
-
bulk raw materials/gases, fluids, and
fluidised solids/into products such as paints, fertilisers, and petrochemicals through a
continuous process. This area also includes large
-
scale primary production of agricultural
and forest products.


Stru
ctures and Mechanisms Technology

Structures and Mechanisms includes a wide variety of technologies, from simple structures,
such as a monument, or mechanical devices, such as a mousetrap, to large, complex
structures such as a high
-
rise office block, or me
chanical devices such as a motor car.


Page 12, Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum


The curriculum states on page 29:

“To achieve a balanced approach to technology students will be required to experience a
range of technological areas.”


Years 1
-
3: f
our technological areas

Years 4
-
6: five technological areas

Years 7
-
8: six technological areas

Years 9
-
10: six technological areas.


Design, Drawing and Graphics

Whichever technological area is selected,
design
, including the processes of specification and

development and testing of prototypes, is an essential component of the activity.
Drawing
and graphics
, including freehand and technical drawing and the use of computer graphics
packages, are also essential in technological practice to depict and clarify

ideas and proposed
solutions.


CONSULTATION


Before any decisions are made on property issues consultation should include:




11

Principals and Boards of Trustees

Property Managers

Architects

Professional Curriculum Advisers approved by the Ministry of Educatio
n.


Principals and Boards of Trustees

Administrators and teachers must have a complete understanding of the educational
philosophies and methodologies of the Technology Curriculum. The teaching environment
must reflect the need to respond to changes in tec
hnological development and learning
approaches, and promote and nurture the process of facilitating new skill demands.


Teachers will have to look at strategies such as team teaching within integrated
facilities. Teachers using these facilities will need t
o plan together and determine how
the students are going to operate to make the best use of the space.


The nature of the team will reflect the nature of the activity being undertaken
.


Architects

Architects have a responsibility to provide creative and ex
pert professional service to schools
which represents the style, layout, construction, furnishing, and decoration of such
environments for technology education to take place. The environment must reflect the
curriculum e.g. variety of building materials, i
ts consideration with regard to the whole
school environment. They are responsible to ensure costs are kept within budget and the
gross and net areas do not exceed the Board of Trustees requirements.


Professional Curriculum Advisers

It is important that
schools carefully consider the impact of the new curriculum on their
existing facilities. This will require adequate support and direction from experienced people.
They will need to have an understanding of the Technology Curriculum and suitable
expertise

to advise on the technology curriculum itself, building design, and space utilisation.
They will also have team management skills to work effectively with the school advisory
service, specialist equipment understanding and guidance, change management ex
perience,
LAN computer network skills, and the ability to communicate appropriately with schools
and architects.


CONSULTATION PROCESS


This should involve:


-
co
-
operative and collaborative planning

-
managing change effectively

-
support for school adminis
tration to help them to make informed judgements.



The planning of any new or upgraded buildings to meet the technology curriculum will need
to involve a collaborative group of people from various departments of the school (including
management and curric
ulum staff), property management, advisers and architects to ensure



12

everyone’s views are taken into consideration when first sketches of the area emerge. Careful
facilitation of this meeting will be an essential task and will include;




chairing the meeti
ng



access to information about technology education



facilitate free discussion to encourage full participation



provide change management assistance/techniques



provide on
-
going support for equipment consideration/advice



assistance to help budget f
or maximum use of available finances



initiate introduction to possible suppliers of specialist services.


SPACES


The spaces are to be designed so that they can be subsequently modified to suit the needs of
an evolving technology education. Many schools
may not be ready to fully develop spaces to
intended uses but may have a timeline of change, which may see several steps of
technological sophistication. This adaptation must be a consideration when establishing the
requirements of built
-
in furnishings to
minimise the use of fixed joinery.


Spaces need to be flexible and this could be created by using mediums such as movable walls
or screens depending on the activities involved.


STORAGE


Storage is a critical issue. It will need careful and innovative pla
nning and design. The
maximum amount of space possible will need to be allocated. Technology will naturally
accrue project work of many forms. Consideration could be given to wall spaces, ceiling
cavities or mezzanine spaces.


STUDENT WITH SPECIAL NEEDS


Consideration must be given in the design of facilities for the needs of disabled students.
There needs to be access to all technology areas including working surfaces.


CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS


With our growing diverse culture mix it is important to deve
lop an environment that meets
the cultural needs of the students and its community. For Maori students, technology
education will be enhanced through the medium of te reo Maori and by including
technological activities based on Maori developments and appli
cations. A curriculum
statement ‘Hangarau’ is being developed for Maori medium learning in parallel with
“Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum.”





13


LEARNING STYLES


Programmes provided need to cater for the different learning styles of students
-

e.g.

kinaesthetic, global learners. The facility needs to reflect the nature of collaborative and co
-
operative learning.


GENDER


Consideration needs to be given to the fact that both boys and girls will be using the facility,
as well as students of different
heights and physical abilities. Facilities must appeal to both
boys and girls and create a learning environment that is user friendly and ergonomically
designed for the variety of groups mentioned.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN FEATURES


-

Natural light and ventil
ation needs to be in as many areas as possible e.g. skylights may
need to be included in large areas.

-

Acoustics need to be the optimum for effective communication to happen. Walls, floors and
ceilings need to be of maximum efficiency to control reverbera
tion and sound transmission.

-

Separate noise controlled areas are important with a more open plan design where noisy
machinery or activities occur.

-

Services
-

include sound systems, cabling for short circuit TV, computer network systems,
telecommunica
tions, security as well as plumbing in all areas.

-

Health and safety issues, e.g.: machinery, heat/dust.

-

Room reflects the curriculum. The look and feel of the space needs to reflect the innovative
character of the technology curriculum.

-

Visual super
vision capabilities
-

the teacher needs to be able to supervise students through a
variety of tasks related to an activity which could take place in any part of the building.


TRAFFIC FLOW LOGISTICS
BETWEEN EXISTING SUPPORTING CLASSROOMS AND
SPECIALIST FAC
ILITIES.


With a collaborative approach to the designing and siting of technology buildings, the
logistics of traffic flow between existing classrooms and technology areas can be minimised
and benefit both curriculum interactivity and school design. Archit
ects need to consider the
possibility of designing technology buildings to connect by means of innovative new ideas,
the schools fragmented structure. For example links need to be made between Biotechnology,
Food Technology and Science laboratories; Materi
als Technology, Structures and
Mechanisms and Art; Textiles Technology, Materials Technology and Information and
Communications Technology.


Classroom Environment

Informal settings allow creativity to flourish. Ideas such as curved walls, unsquare
whiteboa
rds, and effective use of colours, carpet, and settees, are a few examples.


Specialist Considerations

Food Technology
-

needs to be separated from other areas because of hygiene requirements.




14

Furniture
-

needs to be ergonomically functional for the studen
ts of different ages.

Computers
-

must be in a space with minimum dust.

Finishing areas
-

need to be in an area where fumes can be extracted

Welding
-

needs to be in a fire resistant area with fume extraction capabilities.

Heavy machinery
-

Far less number
s but more variety of heavy machinery is likely to be
used. These need a space capable of performing the following functions:




dust extraction



noise control



swarf removal


TIMETABLING


Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum is compulsory to year 10. Al
l students up to
Year 10 will require access to specialist technology areas at times.


Design space is an interconnecting place for all the other work areas and should not be
timetabled as an extra space when workspaces are being used.


Students should be
allowed to access all other workspaces to solve specific problems and
needs.


Teachers will need to consider collaborative and team teaching strategies and be timetabled
into work areas at the same time.


DESIGNATION OF AREAS


Areas need to be allowed for
these specific tasks:



Making, construction, experimenting, evaluating, storage



Information gathering, researching, processing



Communication of ideas, collaboration, interactive conversation, planning



Presentation, marketing, managing.


INTERACTIVITY WITHIN

A TECHNOLOGY SUITE


Teachers need to be able to see students working in a variety of areas at the same time. This
can take place with a variety of medium and types of materials and construction techniques
now available to architecture professional e.g. vi
sual linking of spaces through glass walls,
opening windows into courtyard effect, close proximity of building layout (e.g. not in one
line but half circle or ‘U’ shaped etc.), central atrium for cross interaction via glazed panels
etc.


For students. Anot
her way of inspiring interactivity is to provide covered courtyard facilities which
promote general communal areas for gathering during class activity. These could range from sail
design covered extensions to fully enclosed inner congregation zones but wou
ld need to be blended in
the existing physical surroundings and promote unity/connectivity.





15

ROOM RELATIONSHIP


Room relationship within the technology facility will need to enhance student’s ability to be
able to work across mediums, materials, processes
and expertise. The facility will need to
offer inviting spaces and provide a way of opening up for through flow or closing off to allow
for a variety of activities to be undertaken. Architects will need to consider ways of
facilitating this such as:

-

glas
s walls

-

moving partitions

-

communal shape of the building


Students and/or teachers will be working in co
-
operative and collaborative methods with this
curriculum. The facility must provide opportunities for groups to comfortably operate within
the envi
ronment.


Primary, Intermediate and Secondary schools teach the curriculum in different ways. The
sophistication level increases as students move through the levels in the curriculum. (The
curriculum is specified through 8 progressive levels of achievemen
t).



DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW OR REMODELLED ACCOMMODATION


Space Allocations


The Ministry’s new resource standards require a new approach to interpreting space
allocations compared to previous codes. Schools will now be provided with a total gross ar
ea
allocation for all activities related to their roll. They will then determine how best this space
allocation will be used. Area guidelines are included throughout this document suggesting
various room sizes. They are not prescriptive and can be varie
d by a school if it wishes to use
its space allocation in a different way. The area allocated for various activities can also be
supplemented by a school from its own resources.


The area allocations used throughout the document have been determined by th
e activities
that are intended to be undertaken in each room and the numbers of students that are likely to
be found there at any one time. They also take into account various aspects of health and
safety related to machinery etc.


When designing new tech
nology areas the brief given to the architect is to clearly state how
much area has been agreed with the school and the Ministry to be included in the project and
what will be allocated for all practical activities. This space allocation cannot be exceede
d as
a cost to the Ministry. Designers are expected to provide innovative and resource efficient
solutions within the total area and the cost parameters included in the brief.


COSTS


A cost control figure will be for each project based on the total amoun
t of square metres of
space that the school wishes to dedicate to technology from within their total school square
metre entitlement. A specific amount will be included for unique site characteristics. These
cost parameters must not be exceeded.

The Min
istry will not be responsible for any
discussions or agreement schools may make with designers which exceed either the space or



16

cost allocations on individual projects. Further details on the Ministry’s cost control
parameters can be obtained from the Min
istry’s district property office.


CURRICULUM IMPACT BRIEF


It is important that any investment in new or remodelled technology facilities reinforces the
philosophy of the new curriculum. It should not be seen as a way of simply replicating
existing facil
ities or raising expectations beyond what can reasonably be resourced.


In future before architects are commissioned by schools to prepare plans schools will be
asked to articulate the technology programme they have developed and how they propose to
delive
r the programme. The will also need to identify the impact on their facilities. This will
enable the Ministry to agree on the scope of the project at an early stage.


To assist schools in this process a checklist of points to be considered is included in

the
appendices to this document.




17


SECTION 2


PRIMARY SCHOOLS


YEARS 1
-
6


INTRODUCTION


Primary teachers teach technology in a number of ways. Some prefer to take the whole class
on a topic at the same time during the day. Students may be working on diff
erent aspects of
the topic but the whole class is engaged at the same time. Others teach technology by having
small groups withdraw at a time from the normal class programme. Some teachers stop their
normal classroom programme and concentrate only on the t
echnology topic that they are
studying. Others may take a morning or afternoon and devote that time to technology.


It is up to each school and the teachers within it to determine how they teach technology. The
spaces need to be adaptable enough to be used

for a number of technological areas and other
curricula with a practical component.


Students are encouraged to display, present and report on their work to the rest of the class. It
may involve multimedia facilities such as video editing and production,
sound production,
and the use of overhead projectors whiteboards and display panels. Space needs to be
provided within the existing classroom.


TECHNOLOGICAL AREAS


Biotechnology

In primary schools students work on such things as, yoghurt, ginger beer, bre
ad making.
These topics have ramifications for health and safety in the classroom as micro
-
organisms are
involved. Other topics such as growing plants, hydroponics, mushroom farming and
composting do not provide the same health hazards and in fact can be
carried out outside the
classroom. It would be preferable if the food related biotechnology topics were taken in an
area that could easily be kept clean. Access to a sink with tempered hot water and a bench is
important.


Electronics and Control

Often stu
dents use manufactured kits sets. As time goes on students, especially Years 5 and 6,
will be starting to use soldering irons and mother boards
-

some are already doing this. A heat
resistant pad will be required when soldering. Electronics can be carried
out in classrooms
-

especially if power points are placed in the ceiling (some classrooms already have this
facility). Alternatively, power points at each corner as well as in the middle of each wall
would be necessary. Computer control work such as Lego a
lso link into this area and will
require storage and computer tables.


Food Technology

Students may be making a fruit drink, milk drink or product, instant food items or
sandwiches, pizzas, biscuits. The range is endless. All have health and safety issues.

If
teachers are taking the whole class for food technology then an area will need access to a sink



18

and bench with hot and cold water. The space should not be shared with other classroom
activities and preferably provided as a separate space adjoining the

classrooms.


Information and Communications Technology

At Years 1 to 6 this involves carrying out activities such as producing invitations, drawing on
a computer graphics software programme, searching on the internet for information linked
with a project,

communicating by fax with students in another town or country. Producing a
class/school play for assembly or parents. Selecting and adapting the appropriate tool that
best solves the problem. Using the phone to collect information. Developing a poem for
photocopying. They will also look at pre
-
electronic information/ communication
technologies, not just modern IT. Information Technology and Communications Technology
are used more and more every day in all aspects of teaching and learning, e.g.: to publi
sh
students writing in English, there the focus is on the technology itself rather than the product
being developed using the technology, i.e.: the piece of writing.


Most schools have computers in their classrooms
-

but usually only one or two. There will

be
occasions when teachers will require more computers in the classrooms. They also need
access to a phone and fax machine close to or in the classroom. Power points (double) in each
corner of the room will go some way towards requirements, electrical soc
kets in the middle
of each wall may also be necessary.


Materials Technology

Students will work with a number of materials
-

wood, plastic, cardboard, textiles, metal, and
ceramics.


At Years 1 to 6 students are selecting materials appropriate to a varie
ty solutions which
could include activities like jewellery making, shoes, cushions, bags, pet houses. Using
simple machinery such as scissors, glue guns, handsaws, hand drills, jigsaws needles to
develop products from materials. e.g. making paper, using ca
rdboard, plastic, wood, textiles
items, natural and waste/off
-
cut/recycled materials.


Space in the classroom is a problem because of the potential noise. Ideally the students
should be working in a separate space within the classroom where the teachers c
an supervise.
It might be possible to use a covered veranda with small/portable workbenches and vices.


Production and Process

This can link in with any of the technological areas. It includes the assembly of products from
individual components and conside
ration of mass production rather than
individual/handmade items.


Years 1 to 6 could develop a production line within the class such as selecting the best
envelope and each student contributing to a different part. Making sandwiches as a
production. Prepar
ing items for a school fair such as making items out of plastic. Aspects that
do not involve food can be carried out in the classroom. Production of food items would need
to take place in a hygienic place.


Structures and Mechanisms

Developing simple struc
tures and mechanical devices
.




19


Years 1 to 6 students are
-

designing models of a school obstacle course or adventure
playground for presentation to the board, making toys with moving parts for a young child,
trolleys for use in the playground, making 3D ga
mes, pop up cards, pet hardware and
accessories. Aspects of this could be taken in the classroom. There needs to be a suitable
space for working with materials (see materials).


Graphics and Design

This can be carried out in existing classrooms. Students
would be drawing, using computer
graphics software making mock ups, designing solutions and modelling when being involved
in graphics and design and this can be carried out in existing classrooms.


To achieve a balanced approach to technology, students wil
l be required to experience a
range of technological areas:


Years 1
-
3: four technological areas over 3 years (not within each year).

Years 4
-
6: five technological areas over 3 years (not within each year).





20

DESIGNING NEW OR REMODELLING EXISTING PRIMARY S
CHOOL FACILITIES
SPACE ALLOCATIONS


SPACE ALLOCATIONS (See also
Space Allocation

and
Costs

in Section 1)


For primary schools there is no specific space allocation for “technology”. The pro
posed
resource standard allows for 3m
2

per student based on the total school roll for all teaching
activities, including classrooms, practical areas (such as technology) and withdrawal spaces.
This area has been determined as follows:



Net Area

Teaching

(65m
2

classrooms)

2.5m
2

Withdrawal

0.2m
2

Practical/Technology

0.3m
2

Total

3.0m
2
/student


+ 1:1.3 for gross area



In addition a further 0.2m
2

is provided for all teaching resources and teacher workspace. The
minimum requirement for new classrooms is

65m
2

per room, although this may be varied
within the total area allocations available to the school. There is no requirement for a school
to set aside a specific area for technology or other practical activities. This space may be
separate, or part of
a large classroom, or a combination of both.


Where existing accommodation is being remodelled, or larger rooms exist, the total gross
space allocation for a school cannot be exceeded.


EXISTING FACILITIES: TRADITIONAL SCHOOL DESIGN


Most primary schools c
onsist of separate classrooms in rows or blocks with specialist
activities such as library and resource rooms elsewhere.


To accommodate technology in existing schools may require adaptations or extensions to
existing facilities to provide for activities a
nd resources that are not compatible with
classroom activities.




21


“There will be a move in education towards more individual and small group work, and more
co
-
operative work between students. This will lead to a breaking down of the conventional
class orga
nisations in schools, with consequent implications for the provision of learning
spaces and, equally significantly, for the way in which school time is organised.”


Ref. OECD. “New Technology and its impact on Educational Buildings” Learning
Environment Te
chnology. Australia 1994.


REMODELLING EXISTING SCHOOL FACILITIES


The diagram below indicates the options for re
-
modelling schools to provide “practical areas”
that would include technology.




Remodelling of existing school buildings will be determined

by many factors including size
of school, age of buildings, site and planning constraints and flexibility for alterations. For
small schools, extensions to existing classrooms or cloak bays could provide sufficient space
for technology activities. In la
rger schools, remodelling may involve extensions to serve a
number of classrooms and could involve expanding cloak bays or corridors. Alternatively,
where sufficient space entitlements can be generated, an existing classroom can be converted
to teach the
practical areas of the curriculum including technology or a new technology space
added to an existing classroom block.





22

EXISTING CLASSROOMS


Equipment to be Provided for in Existing Classrooms

Examples of equipment most likely to be required when remodelli
ng is undertaken:

Wet area

Presentation area

Bench at least 800
-
900 wide and sink


it can be used as a display area

Tempered hot and cold water

Electrical plugs around walls

Portable workbench with equipment that can be folded away e.g. vices, handsaws,
hand or
battery drills

Storage for equipment e.g. soldering irons, glue guns

Deck or covered area for working on work benches

Phone/fax facility and data cabling for up to 3 dual outlets

Access to a photocopier and laminator

Storage space for up to 36 stud
ent projects

Wall display area

Whiteboard


Technology Area

Examples of equipment most likely to be required:

In a separate classroom/kitchen hall/technology space

Wet area

Portable elements

Microwaves

Ovens

Sink bench units with tempered hot and cold water

800mm wide work tables

Fridge

Data cabling for computers

Portable construction benches


Equipment such as ovens should be easily closed away or isolated from power supply to
avoid unsupervised access.


NEW FACILITIES: FUTURE SCHOOL DESIGN




Flexible class
spaces with variety of activities and resources shared between 3 or 4 “class
groups”.



Flexible movement of students as individuals or teams within wider age groupings.



Teacher support with variety of skills for co
-
operative team teaching.


“Whilst it is po
ssible for an isolated individual, through the new technologies, to obtain
information and even knowledge, true education requires an element of social contact.”

Ref. OECD. “New Technology and its impact on Educational Buildings” Learning
Environment Techn
ology. Australia 1994.


New classrooms provide the opportunity to incorporate technology within a group of
classrooms, enabling the sharing of resources and skills. The relationships between



23

classrooms and technology areas can be illustrated by the diagr
ams below with up to four
classrooms sharing one technology area.


The technology space would contain facilities for food, biotechnology, materials and
information and communication. Classrooms and technology areas would have access to a
resource store wi
th mobile trolleys and mobile shelving.


Locker bays provide additional space that can be incorporated into technology areas if a
ventilated lobby can be created between toilets and food areas.




24






25



DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR TECHNOLOGY


PRIMARY SCHOOLS


Y
EARS 1


6


NEW CLASSROOMS


Floor area

65m
2



Student Capacity

26 to 35



Associated spaces

Technology Area

Resource Room

Withdrawal Space

Toilets



Room proportions

1:1, 1:1.3



Floor covering

Carpet/vinyl to wet area



Lighting

Natural

Artificial
200 Lux



Ventilation

Natural cross
-
ventilation, 4 air changes/hour

Solar gains to classrooms to be controlled
with verandas



Heating

18
o
C



Acoustics

Use of pinboards, carpet and acoustic tiles to
assist room acoustics



Electricity

8 double power p
oints

Cable trunking in one corner






26

Water

Tempered hot and cold to sink bench



Data Cabling

Network cabling to three dual outlets

Phone/Fax facility



Furniture and Equipment may
include:

Student Benches

800
-
900 wide wall bench with trolley storage
un
derneath along one wall

Sink bench for art, against wall or peninsular

Storage cupboards for teacher resources

Storage cupboard for student projects

Sliding whiteboard

Track around walls for hanging shelving and
resources, e.g. Penda strip or Boyd Visuals

Pinboards to all walls

Mobile trolleys

Portable work bench

Sewing machine



Detailed Design

An adjoining withdrawal space with stackable
tiered seating shared between two classrooms
provides an option for quiet work or
presentations

Storage area for up to

36 student projects




NEW TECHNOLOGY AREAS


Floor area

(entitlement practical work)

0.3m
2
/student roll for all practical activities for the
curriculum including science, technology and health
education.



Student capacity

Dependent on the size of the
school



Associated spaces

Classrooms

Resource/store

Locker/cloak bays



Rooms proportions

Subject to design



Floor coverings

Flotex nylon carpet or vinyl




27

Suggestions

Vinyl area around sink and bench



Lighting

Natural

Artificial 300 Lux



Ventilatio
n

Natural



Heating

18
o
C



Acoustic

Noise control between technology area and
classrooms

Use of good sound absorbent tiles to ceilings



Water

Hot and cold to sink unit and dishwasher (hot water
to sink tempered)

Wash hand basin



Data cabling

Computer

outlets off cable trunking

Phone/fax outlet



Furniture and equipment
(possible)

Perimeter bench 800mm wide mobile work benches
800mm wide that can be folded up and stored

Mobile screens

Trolleys for tools and materials

Trolleys for cooking equipment

Si
nks

Fridge

Stove

Dishwasher

Boiling zip

Portable microwaves

Portable elements

Sewing machines



Detailed requirements

-

Locating entrances and locker bays at the corners
of the technology area, enable these spaces to be
used for technology

-

Kitchen f
acilities, especially ovens, could be
closed off by sliding/folding doors to prevent
unsupervised use

-

Technology space to be flexible with services



28

and data cabling around perimeter walls, loose
adapter, modular furniture and equipment and
mobile troll
eys

-

Resource room with mobile storage shelving and
workbench will enable storage for bulky items and
storage trolleys






YEARS 1
-
6


CASE STUDY 1


REMODELLING AN EXISTING BUILDING


The plan below illustrates a typical classroom block in some region
s. The closing in of the
space between toilets and cloak bays provides a 45m
2

area for technology activities that may
not be accommodated in classrooms.


In this example the number of toilets are more than necessary and one block could be
converted to res
ource space for trolleys storage and mobile shelving. Food technology could
be located in cupboard space with roller shutters and cloak bay areas utilised for overflow
from the technology area.


A ventilated lobby between toilet fixtures and habitable are
as which includes food
preparation and other work areas is required.







29





30

YEARS 1
-
6


CASE STUDY 2


REMODELLING AN EXISTING BUILDING


The plan below illustrates a double classroom block in a small school. The existing cloak
bay is extended providing a sh
ared technology area for the two classrooms and an adjoining
classroom. A cupboard containing sink, oven and fridge is located in the cloak bay with
aluminium roller shutter to prevent unsupervised use.


The extended space contains two workbenches for con
struction and storage cupboards for
resource materials.


The combining of cloak bay and technology areas maximises the available teaching space
where small student roll may make such a space difficult to achieve. A ventilated lobby will
need to be provide
d between toilet fixtures and habitable spaces including food preparation
and work areas.






31



FULL PRIMARY SCHOOL


YEARS 1
-
8


DESCRIPTION


Year 7 and 8 students at full primary schools currently receive their specialist technology
education at technolog
y centres. At present there is no intention to provide additional
facilities at full primary schools for these students. However, should the circumstances
change and full primary schools receive staffing and property resources to enable them to
teach tec
hnology, then the following guidelines should apply. The space allocation for Year
7 and 8 students could be combined with a standard classroom, or there could be a
combination of both.


Full primary schools have significantly fewer numbers of Year 7 and
8 students than
intermediate schools. Therefore, it is not possible to offer the same range facilities as found
in technology centres. However, any solution needs to provide as much as possible similar
opportunities and resources for Year 7 and 8 student
s had they attended a technology centre.


Where there are significant student numbers it may be possible to divide the space with
glazed walls for food and biotechnology to be carried out in a clean and hygienic
environment.


Access to outdoor verandas for

construction work would provide additional workspace.


The space needs to be flexible with a variety of work stations for different technological
areas, including design and planning, information and communication, materials technology,
electronics and co
ntrol and structures and mechanics (refer to Years 7 and 8 guidelines).


Where possible a design and planning space should be provided. For large schools this could
cater for up to 20 students. Tables capable of forming octagonal workstations for student

interaction could be considered. The design space is likely to be the most used area and
should be centrally located and incorporate an area for a temporary stage for presentations.


A large storage resource would be required for the variety of materials

and components
together with the storage of some workstations when not in use, and student’s projects.


Materials would be ordered in appropriate sizes and volumes and a separate machine
preparation area is not envisaged.


FULL PRIMARY SCHOOL



DESIGN RE
QUIREMENTS FOR NEW TECHNOLOGY FACILITIES


Floor area

1m
2

per years 7 and 8 students only [only where
these students are not attending a technology
centre]. This space does not need to be separate
and could be combined with the practical area
for all year
1
-
8 students




32



Student capacity

Dependent on size of school



Associated spaces

Years 7


8 classrooms

Design space

Caretaker’s resource/workshop

Toilets



Room proportions

1:1. 1:1.3

9m minimum dimension



Floor coverings

Covered vinyl to food area a
nd construction
areas

Vinyl or Flotex nylon carpet to Design area



Ventilation

Natural


4 air changes per hour



Heating

18
o
C



Acoustic

Double glazing/sound control between spaces

Noise absorbent materials to ceilings



Services

Electricity

10 amp p
ower outlets around perimeter walls for
computers and other electrical equipment

Low voltage supply with 5V TTL and 9V



Water

Tempered hot water and cold water to:

Sink benches

Wash hand basin

Dishwasher

Washing Machine



Data Cabling

Phone/fax line

Net
work to computer trunking



Furniture and Equipment may
include:

Note: The amount of furniture
Technology Area:



Side benches 800
-
900 mm wide



Stoves




33

and equipment will depend on
student numbers and activities
undertaken



Dishwasher



Mobile wo
rk stations



Work benches



Mobile tool trolleys



Mobile material trolleys



Bench drills



Electronics bench with low voltage supply


with storage for sewing machines



Whiteboard fixed/mobile



Wall display area



Flexible shelf are
a



Design Features



Food and drink making facilities may be


required in the planning and design area


for students sustenance



Sewing machines




APPENDIX 1


CHECK LIST


PLANNING


A building project for design and technology, or for a
ny subject, should be considered in the
context of the schools long term development plan. The following summarises key planning
points.


Planning Principles


Design and technology is taught through a number of different specialist areas. It is useful to

consider the following when planning new or adapting existing accommodation:


If specialist spaces are grouped together equipment and resources are more easily shared.


There are practical advantages in locating support spaces, both teaching and non
-
teach
ing, in
a way that embraces them to serve a number of spaces.


The position of other departments, where there may be cross
-
curricular links.


TIMETABLED TEACHING SPACES


It is important to have a strategy when organising the furniture and equipment layout
of a
specialist space, in order to ensure safety and comfort of the users. Some key points to
consider are:





34

Design and technology involves a broad range of designing and making activities, which may
be happening concurrently.


Allowances should be made a
nd benches should enable students to work safely.


Distances around machines and benches should enable students to work safely.


Restricting fixed furniture and equipment to the perimeter of the space leaves the centre free
for possible rearrangement.


If
coats and bags are brought into the teaching space they should be appropriately stored
safely away from circulation routes.


The type and quantity of equipment and furniture should be appropriate for the size of the
space.


SIZE OF A TEACHING SPACE


The fo
llowing may have implications for the size of a space:


The range of activities likely to take place.


The scale and quantity of equipment to be used.


Maximum group sizes.


The level of storage to be provided in the teaching space.


Whether senior student
s will share the spaces.


Support spaces.


Teaching and non
-
teaching support spaces may include:


Areas for the preparation and storage of materials and for keeping students work in progress.


A staff base.


A design/resource area.


A project room, particu
larly for senior students.


An external project area.


STORAGE


Storage for Design and Technology is best provided in the form of walk
-
in stores which are
accessible from the main classroom space and deep enough to accommodate trolleys in
between shelving.

When calculating storage need it is useful to consider the following:




35


Materials and items under construction will be in variety of shapes and sizes and storage
methods will need to reflect this.


Certain materials such as inflammable liquids must be sto
red in accordance with the relevant
regulations.


Fresh food must be kept in a ventilated area at an appropriate temperature.


Some pieces of equipment and/or student records may need secure storage.


Construction materials should be stored separately from

the teaching area.


FURNITURE


The range of furniture should be sufficiently flexible to allow for variety in room layout and
the possibility of furniture being moved between spaces. The following points are worth
consideration:


The specialist tables th
at are provided for Design and Technology work should be usable for
general design work wherever possible.


Perimeter benching is most useful at a minimum width of 600mm and a standing height of
850mm.


Fixed cupboards below multi
-
benches can reduce flexib
ility and make the bench less
comfortable to sit at.


Mobile storage units have the advantage of allowing resources to be moved between spaces.
The trays contained by such units can be part of a standardised system, which includes
trolleys.


Long lengths o
f metal, timber or plastic must be safely stored in appropriate racks.


Chairs should be easy to move around the room. Adjustable chairs are desirable for use with
computers.


EQUIPMENT


All machines and serviced items of equipment must be installed accor
ding to the relevant
health and safety regulations. The following points are worth considering:


When positioning a machine in the workshop it is important to take into account the way it
will be used.


There must be sufficient space for a student to move

away from a machine in the even of an
accident.


All machines should have appropriate guarding and other safety features.




36


Bench mounted machines should be at a height which allows younger students to use them.


Certain machines can only be used by a qual
ified person.


It is preferable to house the preparation machines (circular saw, planer and hacksaw) in a
separate area.


It is desirable to locate hot metal equipment in a separate supervised area.


It is generally advisable to position CNC machines in cl
eaner areas.


SERVICES


All service installations must comply with current regulations. Below are some of the key
points to note
.


Electricity


Each work area should have an emergency stop system controlling everything except hazard
removing equipment and

possibly computers.


All fixed equipment must have an isolation switch and emergency stop button.


Residual current devices provide additional pr9otection to socket outlet circuits.


There are specific requirements relating to electrical systems in furnit
ure.


Ventilation and Extraction


Certain workshop processes that produce fumes should be carried out in a well ventilated
space, and may require mechanical extract.


Fume extraction must be provided to heat treatment machines.


Dust extraction is necessar
y from woodworking machines, fine wood dust must be separate
from wood flakes.


Lighting and Acoustics


Local task lighting is usually provided on pedestal machines.


Emergency lighting is necessary wherever potentially dangerous machines are used.


Consid
eration should be given to the noise produced by machines when planning a suite of
spaces.


Finishes can be used to affect the acoustic quality of the room.





37

Reference:

Design and Technology Accommodation


Secondary Schools


A Design Guide


Building Bul
letin 81
-

1996


Department for Education and Employment London
HMSO



APPENDIX 2



CURRICULUM IMPACT BRIEF


CURRICULUM AND RESOURCE NEEDS


1.

It is strongly recommended that school prepare an analysis of their needs to meet the
new technology curriculu
m. This should be a statement on their programme and how
the technological areas will be delivered. It will need to explain how this impact on
their existing facilities. This must be done before design consultants are employed to
come up with building so
lutions.


2.

Include an outline of the Year 7
-
8 Programme and/or Year 9
-
13 Programme in
Technology.


3.

Provide a school timetable showing the number of teachers and class sizes or
total students for each line or block of the timetable.


To do this school
s will have to carry out the following steps:




Identify the topics/units in each programme.



For each topic identify the main technological areas to be covered.



For each topic identify the:

-

Space

-

Materials

-

Equipment likely to be used withi
n the unit.



How the programme is going to be delivered?

-

Stand
-
alone

-

Integrated

-

Combination



Identify the number of students and teachers likely to be experiencing technology
education within each block line of the timetable.


4.

There should

be documentary evidence of the timetable, class sizes and numbers
of teachers operating in any one line or band
.




Identify the number and types of rooms required to deliver the identified programme,
e.g.: this may include existing laboratories, art, mus
ic, drama rooms.



Identify how you see the technology spaces differing in content/equipment/layout

from the current ;layouts of say wood/metal/clothing/home economics rooms that the
school has.




38



Match up the identified requirements with the existing spa
ces, remembering that the
allocations for technology must fit into the overall resource allowance.


5.

The development of the curriculum does not necessarily require more or
additional space per room to be provided by the school. The same number of
studen
ts may now be taking a different mix of subjects. There may be existing
rooms that are no longer being used to capacity. Fewer classes may free up
spaces for reallocation or consolidation. If extra rooms are to be proposed these
must be justified against

reductions elsewhere if roll growth is not included.







39




USEFUL REFERENCES


Burns, J., ed. Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum: Perspectives on Practice.

Palmerston North: The Dunmore Press, 1997.


Career Services. Growing Partnerships: Pract
ical Examples of School
-
industry Partnerships.

Wellington: Career Services rapuara. 1996


Cross, A. and B. McCormack, eds. Technology in Schools. United Kingdom: Milton
Keynes Open University Press, 1986.


Education Review Office. School
-
Business Link
s: Education Evaluation Report No. 2.

Wellington: Education Review Office, 1996.


Jones, A. and M. Carr. Towards Technology Education, Hamilton: Centre for Science,
Mathematics, and Technology Education Research, University of Waikato, 1993.


Jones, A.
, V. Mather, and M. Carr. Issues in the Practice of Technology Education.

Hamilton: Centre for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education Research, University
of Waikato, 1995.


Ministry of Education. The New Zealand Curriculum Framework. Wellingto
n: Learning
Media, 1993.




40


Ministry of Education. Working Together: Building Partnerships Between Schools and
Enterprises.

Wellington: Learning Media, 1993. (Note: a revised edition will be published in late 1998).


Ministry of Education: Assessment:

Policy to Practice. Wellington: Learning Media, 1994.


Ministry of Education: Know How! Wellington: Kotuku Productions, 1994.


Ministry of Education. Technology Updates. Wellington: Learning Media, 1994
-
.


Ministry of Education. Technology in the

New Zealand Curriculum. Wellington: Learning
Media, 1995.


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