Attitude and Self
Efficacy Change: English Language Learning in Virtual Environments
University of Connecticut
Jeong Hee Seo
Paper prepared fo
r the 2006 annual meeting of the American Educational
Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
Please direct the
Neag School of
, Department of
University of Connecticut
249 Glenbrook Road U
Storrs, CT 06269
This paper explores affective factors in learning English as a foreign/second
language in a 3D game
user virtual envir
onment on the
. Through communication tools (e.g., chat, bulletin board, telegrams
, 3D avatar,
and 2D web page navigation tools in virtual space,
solved with native English speak
group rated themselves higher than the control
group in self
efficacy toward advanced use of English
attitude toward English
efficacy toward E
suggest that virtual
provide a space for English Language Learners (ELLs) in the
and other countries to increase confidence and comfort, and overcome cultural
barriers for learning English.
data collected during a large
affective factors in
learning English as a foreign
environment on the
, Quest Atlantic
uantitative research methods were
measure differences between
1) Attitude and
toward English language learning
, 2) English achievement test scores, and 3) English
cent release of
Research Points by AERA on English Language Learners:
oosting Academic Achievement
reported that in the United States 3.4 million children
17 do not speak English or do not speak it well
. The majority
in “linguistically isolated households
pointed out that most English
language learners (ELLs) lag behind classmates in academic English including the ability
to read, write, and engage in substantial conversation about math, science, history, a
other school subjects. With rapid globalization and a shift toward an increasingly
driven economy, China also sees the need to cultivate a labor force with a
creative intelligence that can com
global business. The coun
now is redesigning its traditionally “drill
kill” schooling systems to foster innovation
and creativity. English is a required subject from elementary school on for most Mainland
Chinese students in Mainland China do not have
they have a tendency for low self
efficacy and attitude
toward English language learning in general
User Virtual Environments
speakers and pick up language usage
in naturalistic contexts,
a less stressful and more fun environment to use English
anticipate that students’ attit
ude and self
language learning may change
their experience in
Quest Atlantis (QA).
Background of the Study
Gardner (1985) reviewed studies
conducted by Desrochers
Cziko and Lambert (
d in Gardner,
interaction with members of the
high contact group expressed significantly more
French and significantly less use
y than the control group
Cziko and Lambert
showed no significant changes for either the high
or the control group. Gardner (1985)
that this phenomenon probably
completing a lengthy attitude
battery for a second time in
post research design. Gardner further pointed out that under these conditions those
experiencing the frequent and presumably pleasant contact express
the relatively more
favorable attitudes indicating the positive eff
ects of inner
ethnic contact in the context of
The relationship between self
efficacy and task performance relates to confidence
in accomplishing specific tasks. Soc
ial learning theorists see self
efficacy as influencing
persistence, learning and achievement. (Bandura, 1977, 1982, 1989; Schunk,
1989a & b; Zimmerman, Bandura, & Martinez
Bandura (1986) defined
efficacy as people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute
action required to attain designated types of performances. It is not concerned
with the skills one has but with judgments of what one can do with whatever skills one
Bandura (1977; 1982; 1989
a & b
posited that experience results in a
eral “anticipation” by learners in the area of cause and effect. An individual’s
specific beliefs about his/her capabilities
specific to situation
Strong positive self
efficacy beliefs are pro
active, in that they “make things ha
High student self efficacy (academic efficacy) should lead to greater success. This is
supported by research (Chapman, et. al., 1989; Pintrich and DeGroot, 1990, Pintrich, et.
al, 1994; Schunck, 1989a; Skinner, 1985)
Schunk (1984, 1989) applied sel
an academic construct in efforts to connect self
efficacy with academic performance. He
used instructional interventions designed to raise learners’ perceptions of efficacy and
corresponding performance on tasks. The research presented in th
e present paper used
like MUVEs to engage NNES’ in language use, communicating with native
speakers, and writing quest responses in English.
may constitute a more relaxed
free atmosphere than a classroom. The low level of inhibition and social
anxiety, in particular, could be advantageous
in foreign language learning, as it might
result in increased language production. In
across the context of socialization in
the virtual environment of
room, Mainland Chinese immigrants who
speak English as a second language exhib
ited an increased sense of comfort, confidence
nd fluency in spoken English as a result of socialization (Lam, 2004
(an interaction between a native speaker and non
native speaker) environments
and attitude change
an exolingual learning community for the children who live in
as well as children
who study English
countries, such as
MUVEs afford users
a unique opportunity to interact with others through
(Dede, 2004; Maher & Corbit, 2002)
, while still maintaining the
capabilities of older technologies
based chats and Webpages
gaming environments estab
lish complex situations
English communication tools,
manipulating tools, and
embedded. Kulikowich and Young (2001)
suggested that such complex learning environments can be educative by affording
multiple opportunities to form
intentions and pick up information in service to those
intentions through collaboration.
test only quasi
randomly selected from a
pool of 100 volunteers
classes at the
in a typical middle school
in Mainland China
. The two classes were taught
by the same teachers. Volunteers
randomly assigned to either the QA group or a
control group. Each condition contained students from bo
attended their regular classroom English instruction during the study
Quest Atlantis, an educational 3D MUVE for children aged 9
environment for this study.
QA, an ActiveWorlds™ avatar
e, allows users
to travel to virtual lands where they select educational activities (quests), talk with other
users and mentors through chat, telegrams and emails, and build virtual personae
Thomas, Dodge, Carteaux, & Tuzun, 2005)
. QA is different from other 3D v
in that it is designed with game
like activities for children, such as a mythological
backstory, a point rewarding system and rich graphic object
oriented worlds, themes of
social responsibility (shard flower)
as well as embedded educational
instructional affordances for teachers to give just
(see Figure 1)
Educational quests are usually composed of
parts: a scenario based on QA
(see Appendix A)
goals and resources (see Appendix B for a
Avatars/ Questers in Quest Atlantis 3D World
The Monkey King Middle School (MKMS), a pseudonym, was typical of
50 public middle level schools in Changchun, China. The school held about 2000
students from one of the four districts, Chaoyang District, which is considered the
“educational district” by Changchun citizens. A few landmarks in the Chaoyang District
such as two highly
ranked universities in China, Northeast Normal University and Ji
University, two of the largest computer technology development and shopping areas, and
Jilin Provincial Hospital, are indicative of the cultural, educational and technological
development of this area of China. Of these 2000 middle school students from
grade students, half female and half male were randomly selected
from a pool
classrooms, each of which had more than 50
students. Volunteers were randomly assigned to QA
or control group
The classrooms in MKMS were all the same size and rectangular shaped. During
the training period of implementation, the first author observed English classes. The first
students behind des
ks, row after row. In front of the
rows of chairs and desks were the teacher’s podium, platform and a blackboard. A
computer and a TV monitor were in the front corner across from the doorway. Cleaning
tools, buckets, brooms, etc. were stocked at the back
of the classroom right behind the
last row of students.
tudents watching QA Legend Movie on Their First Day of QA
was the English teacher for both classes. She was one of the two English
teachers at the scho
ol who has a bachelor
degree in English. Most of the teachers have
junior college diplomas. Ms.
taught 45 minutes for each of the two classes every
morning. On the first day of my observation, she came into the classroom with her orange
jacket and pu
t her textbook on the podium and her audiotape in the tape recorder. Then
class began with reviews, questioning student’s knowledge learned in the previous day,
having them read a vocabulary list, checking their recitation of the text. She turned on the
ssette player and had students listening to text with books closed. She then asked
questions regarding the text. Three to five students had their hands up and
the answer. Most of students sat there with their eyes staring at the text. She th
the cassette again and ask
more questions. Students then read together in a group of
with the goal of picking up the new and important phrases to learn and memorize.
rarely used the chalkboard to aid instruction. Most communication
There were 60 desktop PC’s in the lab where QA took place in MKMS. Lab
settings were the same as classrooms, row after row of computer
as shown in Figure 2
The control center allowed teachers to take over students’ screen
for demonstration and
modeling. Once students were settled in the lab, it was hard to move except for those who
sat on the
isle. There was only one
isle in the lab.
and Data Collection
participated in QA once a week
, 60 minutes on average
during the 2004
2005 academic year.
Half of them were male and half of them
explored QA worlds
Table 1 shows the status of quest completion in which
most students completed
single questing, Quest Atlantis Mission, Who Am I, and All about Friends (1a).
Becoming an E
pal was the quest in which Monkey Middle School students in China and
Middle School in Australia collaborated. There
pairs of questers
engaged in the
questing as a result of mundane logistics to arrange collaboration. The
school schedules in China and Australia w
dramatically different, which created
participants into QA space to co
asynchronous tools, such as email, telegrams, and
Chinese participants communicated with Australians
about themselves and g
eneral life in
their countries. The product of this asynchronous collaborat
ion was PowerPoint (PPT)
slides that described their counterparts’ hobbies, interests and why the
buddies. The PPT
were provided to
questers and the content about
their buddies was completed by using the information they co
The Council members
acknowledged the logistics problems and tried their best
to come to QA themselves
and Singaporean students to
come to QA from home to
at the time when Chinese students
were having QA class,
in virtual space
. As a result
with native English speakers across nations
and the United States)
and council members (teachers in the ro
2005, after a year
s intervention, all participants filled out an online
Attitude and Self
Efficacy toward English Language Learning
which consisted of
, a Likert
type scale of 1 to 5
strongly disagree to strongly
, and qualitative feedback
(See Appendix D
Quests and C
quests that QA group completed
All about Friends (1a)
Becoming an E
Fish Kill (Q1): What's the Cause?
Mega Mapping Fun!
Quest Atlantis Mission
Sharing The Taiga (Q1)
What A Novel Idea!
What is a Proverb?
Who Am I
Participants’ standardized English achievement test scores were also collected:
final exam Spring 2004 semester (before QA intervention), final exam Spring 2005
QA intervention), and English essays from final
exam Spring 2005.
English essay is one of the test items within a standard achievement test administered to
all students in the school twice each semester, the writing prompt of which for the final
exam of Spring 2005 was “My Favorite Pet”.
Data analyses were conducted in three parts. In part 1,
and reliability test were conducted to establish the constructs and construct reliability. In
reliability test was conducted on a
Grade Level scores
calculated on English essay scores.
conducted on the
factors, pre and post English
Achievement Test total scores
Kincaid Grade Level scor
nalysis and Reliability Test on the Survey Scale
fter checking missing values and normality
in the survey data
on the 1
cal Software for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 12)
solution, evaluated with eigenvalues
greater than 1.0,
and scree plot. Items with loadings of more than .
0 were considered representative of
The results of the
solution were interpreted and items were selected based
on the strength of their unique contribution to extracted factors. The sets of items
representing each extracted factor were treated as subscales and tested for their int
he three factors
19. I feel comfortable speaking English to Native
English speakers e.g.
Americans, Australians, etc.
22. I feel comfortable reading an Englis
h newspaper, e.g. China Daily.
31. I feel I am able to chat fluently in an English online chat room.
32. I feel I can speak English fluently.
36. I feel I can creatively express opinions in English.
ttitude toward English (fun)
24. I feel comfortable in expressing opinions in English.
25. I feel learning English is easy.
26. I am willing to communicate in English.
27. I feel learning English is fun.
28. I feel chatting in English is fun.
efficacy toward E
18. I feel comfortable chatting online in English
20. I feel comfortable writing an email in English
21. I feel comfortable reading an email in English.
Standardized English Achievement Test
Achievement tests, which are issued b
y the Changchun Bureau of Education,
data source for
A sample of 58 students’ standardized tests (Final
xam of Fall 2003 issued by the Changchun Bureau of Education, China) was randomly
selected. A subset of eighty
items from the test
used to calculate
the reliability. The results revealed .93 using Kuder
Richardson 20 technique.
on My Favorite Pet
were transcribed in Word (by the first author)
and readability statistics including
rade Level scores were calculated in
Each readability score bases its rating on the average number of syllables per word
and words per sentence.
Kincaid Grade Level score
rates text on a U.S.
school grade level. For example, a score of 8.0
means that an eighth grader can
understand the document.
ost popular magazines and
aim for a score of
approximately 7.0 to 8.0.
was conducted on the Spring 2004 pre
and the results show that there was no statistical difference between QA
and control groups before the treatment began,
, p= 1.32.
with Modified Bonferroni Adjustments for
(e.g., Jaccard & Wan, 1996)
Means and standard
deviations for the
five variables are shown in Table
.The highest mean score among the
statistically significant variables is E
As shown in
, p= .0
ttitude toward English (fun)
, p= .
, p= .0
18, and Post
The statistical significance on the 3 affective variables
in favor of QA
Modified Bonferroni Adjustments as shown in Table 2
owever, the Non
higher scores in
Means (SD) of
Experimental and Control Groups
ttitude toward English (fun)
Kincaid Grade Level
Modified Bonferroni Adjustments
ttitude toward English
, by the end of one year’s intervention,
of 8082 chats, 2862 logins, 137 emails sent and 211 emails
lumins/points gained (from completing quests and engaging in QA games and chats) and
46 quests completed.
These activities distinguished them from the comparison group in
group expressed high confidence in daily language use activities and in chat
room communications. QA participants also developed
positive attitude toward English
language and learning. They perceived English language in QA as fun and interesting in
comparison to learning English in their classroom activities; as many
classroom, learning English is really boring But in QA we can get lots of
interesting English information.
that Mainland Chinese immigrants
exhibited an increased sense of comfort, confidence
nd fluency in spoken English as a result of socialization
in an online
higher than non
QA group in perceptions that learning
easy and fun, chatting in English is
to communicate in English,
comfort in expressing opinions in English. These attitude differences support
with designed educational quests
school students in China
language to communicate through chat
telegrams and emails, as well as completing content
The result that the
significance of the post
English test favors the non
hoped to find
. Ideally no difference would have supported our hope the
QA would enhance students’ attitudes without affecting their achievement on
standardized tests. The disappointing result can be explained by removal of students
from test p
reparation exercises, which were didactic in nature and used the typical “drill
and kill” exercises for memorizing facts. This method is recognized as appropriate for
enhancing performance on achievement assessments up to a point. However, at some
students’ attitudes can cap their willingness to continue their study of English. In
short, measurement of achievement is a reflection of past behavior, while the assessment
efficacy and attitude toward
learning of English indicate QA students migh
achieve more in the long term.
offer is that the QA group might
have become falsely more confident in the test
taking ability, more relaxed and confident
in English, as a result of which they did not spend as much time as their cou
preparing for the test. What the test measured
different from what they learned in QA.
Tracking student study time would clarify this in future studies. It may also be necessary
in future research to administer a more communicative assess
ment as a dependent
It is possible that a blended environment of QA and didactic classroom
instruction can best suit the needs of Chinese children learning English, but the issue of
study time for test preparation remains an issue. Our results pr
term achievement goals for improved self
efficacy to help long
By providing a detailed description
of school and classroom context
s where the
study took place, our
to convey the o
verall picture of
is taught in
Mainland Chinese classroom
. QA represented a substantially different experience added
to such classrooms for this study. QA established a backstory asking participating
students to help the citizens of Atlantis
by providing wisdom to rebuild the arch of
Atlantis, and allowed each child to engage in
based virtual space explorations and
searches for information. This environment was rich with English language usage,
including signs and webpages, bulletin bo
ards, chat channels with other avatars, and
goal directed quest scenarios, QA participants
practiced reading and writing in English in authentic ways
that their advice and
personal stories were read and given feedbac
k by the Council.
The informal chatting with
and the Native English Speakers they met in the QA space also play
an important role to differentiate
QA group from the none
QA group in E
Even though the logistics
and the research team had to handle for
coordinating collaboration at student, teacher and technology coordinator levels
in the MKMS and All
, were difficult
worth the effort
English language learning students from M
ainland China increased their attitude
efficacy in English.
QA participants realized the meaning of learning English
and set themselves realistic goals to become better at communication in English.
Speaking English very
e speaker of English and can use it very well.
want to study better. I hope I can communicate with native speakers
and I can use it like the native speakers in my life.
The QA experience brought Chinese students opportunities to
make friends, express their opinions,
share their life interests with real
people they met.
'In class we only talk
to our classmates and English teacher,
but in QA we
can talk to the real foreigners from
and so on.
it can help me make more friends and even I can know
about the world. It has games, I like QA better.
hope that the students’ attitude change is transparent in their regular
English classroom, where they can speak English all the time. However, as students said
Our English teacher alw
ays speak Chinese, because some of the students
can't really understand it. But i
n QA, we always chat in English.” Computer
significant value in this situation,
the intervention and this
in helping us understand
the potential roles of
in changing self
efficacy and attitude in language learning. Such attitudes are
associated with future behaviors and students with better attitudes today are more likely
rsist and engage in English language learning in the future. By looking at the effect
of these affective
can gain insight into developing computer mediated
communication environments for ELLs
the affective factors
resulting from partaking in the virtual
considering the current need
to meet national and local testing requirements. The potential of MUVEs on the World
Wide Web to make ELLs more confident should be explored
tend to reduce
for language learners
and bridge them in the target language
community, thus affecting their self
efficacy and attitude toward English learning
may be able to help
hose 2.7 million American children who
to interact in exolingual virtual
that increase their confidence and comfort and overcome cultural barriers
to learning English.
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Appendix A: QA Back Story
Legend and Mission
1. QA Legend
You may have he
ard of the mythical Atlantis a paradise, a perfect city, sunk beneath the
ocean, now but a legend. Yet, this Atlantis is not a legend to me
it is very real; it is my
home. I am Alim, an Atlantian, a citizen of the planet Atlantis, in a solar system much
ke your own, yet millions of light years away.
Thousands of years ago, we came to your planet and created an outpost of sorts, a colony
the city of Atlantis, as you call it. For reasons long forgotten in our history, we
abandoned this outpost and laws wer
e passed forbidding us to visit the Earth again. Yet
the memory of your planet lives on, and we have wondered about your fate. Just as what
you know of Atlantis is based on myth, rather than fact
our knowledge of your planet has
also been lost.
death of our Emperor Buta has opened many Atlantian's eyes to the idea that
perhaps Atlantis is not the perfect society we thought it was. We felt that Atlantis made
wondrous advances and progress under Buta's rule. We enjoyed the comfort and profits
hat we could produce, yet now we see that all of it has come with a cost. We have
created problems in our environment and gaps between the rich and poor of Atlantis. We
have citizens who seek to help themselves, not others. We suffer from ignorance and
Buta's children, Mara and Nakal, have taken his place as leaders of Atlantis yet they are
just as blind, if not more so than Buta was to the problems caused by greed and
ignorance. In their effort to push progress at any cost, they destroyed the
Ancient Arch of
Wisdom for fear that "old ideas" would impede their technological progress.
This great arch, which held the six keystones of wisdom, served as the gateway to the
Sacred Gardens, the hallowed ground where the Elders of Atlantis would anoin
who had demonstrated their wisdom. Together, the six keystones contained the essence of
Atlantis and the people's reverence for identity, community, and wisdom.
All that is now left of the Arch are its inscribed pieces. The knowledge of what each
means and how they fit together is lost. Without this knowledge, Atlantis is doomed and
our future is bleak. Clearly, something must be done.
I am part of a group of Atlantians who secretly met at the ancient temple in the Gunung
mountains to form the Co
uncil. The mission of this newly formed Council is to seek out
new solutions to our planet's problems, to gain greater understanding of other cultures
including your own, in the hopes that we might better ourselves in the process.
Although Mara and Nakal
have forbidden it, our crisis has again inspired a renewed
interest in Earth. We want to know how has your planet changed in the past three
thousand years? How similar are we to each other? How different? How have you
survived? How can you help us deal wi
th our problems? Mara and Nakal still enforce the
old laws forbidding us from visiting Earth so we have established the OTAK, a virtual
environment, a matrix, that serves as a technological portal through which we can
communicate with you, the people of Ea
The OTAK holds a series of challenges called quests, designed to help restore the
wisdom of Atlantis. By completing these quests, you can help us rebuild the Arch of
Wisdom. Each member of the Council has been put in charge of a virtual world in the
OTAK. Each world is devoted to different elements of Atlantian wisdom. If Mara and
Nakal knew of our plans, they would surely destroy OTAK.
We challenge you to access the OTAK and join us in our quest. Hurry Questers, the
wisdom you share with Atlantis h
elps us help ourselves. We cannot do this alone. Please
work with the Council to save Atlantis and avoid what may be our common fate!
2. QA Mission: The Social Commitments and Shardflower
The mission of Quest Atlantis is to support children in develop
ing their own sense of
purpose as individuals, as members of their communities, and as knowledgeable citizens
of the world. We care about supporting the development of healthy people, healthy
communities, and a healthy world with the goal of making the wor
ld a better place. The
QA project will foster an awareness of seven critical dimensions in order to actualize
them in the lives of children:
"I Have Voice"
"We Can Make a
"Live, Love, Grow"
The Shardflower gives Questers the chance to see their progress relative t
. Made from broken shards of the Arch, the Council discovered that
this Shardflower will illuminate differently based on the work and commitments of its
holder. Therefore, the Council has linked the Shardflower to the OTAK in
order to share
its powers with those whose work is helping them on Atlantis. Unlike the earning of
currency or simple points, the accumulation of lumins represents a Quester’s
advancement on a social commitment.
At threshold points in a Quester’s developm
ent and gaining of lumins, they will be asked
to counsel the Council through polls inspired by specific, urgent dilemmas on Atlantis.
This process of directly contributing to the work of the Council punctuates the process of
“lumination” and is represented
by the illumination of a shard on the Shardflower. The
interior petalshards represent the first degree of lumination on a social commitment. The
exterior leafshards represent a second degree, as Questers explore and work even further
on a commitment. As p
ictured here, the Shardflower is representing a Quester who has
luminated twice on Diversity Affirmation and once on Healthy Communities,
Compassionate Wisdom, and Creative Expression. The circular, red “seeds” in the
petalshards hold iconic representation
s of the social commitments. Clicking on these will
link Questers to the social commitment pages compiled by the Council and the QA Team.
Who Am I
All About Us Village
While we are all Atlantians, we are each special in our own way. Some of us like chess,
sports or music, and some like all of these.
We want to know more about what makes people on Earth Special. We want you to tell
us who you are by writing a poem. Lots of people on Atlantis like to write poems. In this
poem you have one rule: each line mu
st start with "I am ..." You can include lines about
your hobbies, movies, favorite food, etc...
See the sample poem below.
Brainstorm about your favorite things.
Write a poem about youself in which you start each line with "I am ..."
Be certain to include those favorite things that, in your poem, become part of
who you are (see Sample).
Submit your poem to the Council through the OTAK.
My Personal "I Am From" Poem
I am basketball on a snowy driveway. I am fish
cut frozen french fries and
frozen mixed vegetables. I am primarily white, upper
middle class neighborhoods and
racially diverse schools. I am Donkey Kong, Ms. Pac Man, Atari 2600 and sports video
games. I am football on Thanksgiving and N
ew Year's Day. I am "unity in diversity" and
"speaking from your own experience." I am diversity, multicultural education, identity,
reflection, and social action. I am Daffy Duck, Mr. Magoo, Hong
Kong Phooey, Foghorn Leghorn, and other
cartoons. I am Tae Kwon Do, basketball, the
batting cages, a soccer family, and the gym. I am a wonderful family, close and loving
and incredibly supportive. I am films based on true stories and documentaries I am the
History Channel, CNN, ESPN, BRAVO, an
d Home Team Sports. I am a passion for
educating and facilitating, personal development and making connections.
Appendix C: PowerPoint Slides Template Sample for the Becoming E
: Survey of Attitude and Self
Efficacy toward English Langu
Top of Form
Survey of Attitude and Self
Efficacy toward English Language Learning
Directions: All responses to the following items will be kept confidential. Please answer freely and
Please read each of the foll
owing statements carefully. Then choose an appropriate answer.
Note this is
not a test
and there is
no right or wrong answer
. Please choose the one that best
1. I am a
2. I am in grade
3. My first name is
My last name is
4. My nationality is:
5. My favorite subjects are (Check all that apply.):
Art (Painting, drawing)
P.E. (Physical Education)
Other (please specify)
6. I use computers at school:
7. I use computers at home :
8. When I am working on the computer, I usually (Check all that apply.):
Surf on the Internet.
Send and receive email.
Search for information for my projects.
Play games, Please specify the name of the games:
Do my homework using word processing software.
Watch DVD (movies/TV shows).
Chat with my friends using instant messenger.
Other, Please specify:
9. I use Engish outside of school (Check all that apply.)
at English corners.
chool English classes.
in online chat rooms.
sending and receiving email.
in Instant Messenger.
other places, (please specify)
10. Besides homework, I speak English
outside of school, e.g. at English corners,
after school English classes, or somewhere else.
11. Besides homework, I read in English outside of school
12. Besides homework, I write in English outside of school
13. I chat in online English chat rooms
17. I attend English classes outside of my school
II. Please read each of the following statements carefully. Then choose whether you:
1 = strongly disagree with the statement
2 = disagree with the statement
3 = are not certain or undecided about the statement
4 = agree with the statement
5 = strongly agree with the statement
18. I feel comforta
ble chatting online in English.
潭f潲table s灥a歩ng English t漠Native
English s灥a步rs e⸠AmericansⰠAustraliansⰠetc.
20. I feel comfortable writing an email in English.
㈱⸠2eel c潭f潲table rea摩ng an email in English⸠
㈲⸠2eel c潭f潲table rea摩ng an English news灡灥rⰠ
23. I feel comfortable writing an essay in English.
㈴⸠2eel c潭f潲table in ex灲essi湧 潰oni潮s in
㈵⸠2eel learni湧 English is easy⸠
㈶⸠2m willi湧 t漠c潭mu湩cate in English.
㈷⸠2eel learni湧 English is fun⸠
28. I feel chatting in English is fun.
find it easy to write an English essay.
㌰⸠3eel I can write arammatically c潲rect es
㌱⸠3eel I am a扬e t漠ohat f
luently in an English
潮line chat r潯o⸠
32. I feel I can speak English fluently.
eel that I am a扬e t漠ose English in sch潯o.
Ieel I can use English 潵tsi摥 潦 sch潯o⸠
35. I feel I can express myself in English freely
㌶⸠3eel I can creatively ex灲ess 潰oni潮s in
In this section, please share with us, as much as you can, your ideas about the following questions. if you
do not feel you can fully express yourself in Engli
sh, please feel free to use Chinese.
39. Do you think QA will help you learn
English? If so, how?
40. How could you help your classmates
become more comfortable using English?
41. What goals have you set fo
r yourself in
42. How is QA different from your classroom
for learning English?