3D Animations for Games

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3D Animations for
Games


CT5008







Paul O’Brien

CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire






3D Animations for Games

CT5008

August 20
1
2


Large print copies of this booklet can be provided on request. We ca
n also
arrange production of braille or audio versions.

University of Gloucestershire 20
1
2

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted

in any form or by any means, including


but not limited to


photocopy,

recording, or any

information storage and retrieval system, without the specific prior written permission of

Univer
sity of Gloucestershire
.



© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire



Table of Contents


Introduction
................................
................................
................................
......................

1

PDP statement
................................
................................
................................
................

1

Resources

................................
................................
................................
.......................

1

Teachi ng & learning approach

................................
................................
.....................

2

Assessment 1

................................
................................
................................
.................

4

Assessment 2

................................
................................
................................
.................

7

CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

1



Introduction


The module affords the opportunity to further the computer games work
under
taken in IG
D
1
3
0 with techniques for building 3D environments and
evaluating a variety of tools.


St
udents will be shown a variety of tools and techniques for developing 3D Game
environments. These will include: 3D modelling, texture mapping, modifying
game
s and interactivity.


By the end of the module, students should be able to:

1.

evaluate a variety of techniques for building 3D models and animations
using Harvard references to establish relevant criteria,

2.

design and apply appropriate textures to models,

3.

demonstrate knowledge of various rendering techniques,

4.

evaluate the issues relating to the design and rigging of a 3D character,

5.

work in a team to produce a 3D animation for a game from a client brief,

6.

comprehend the importance of effective technical docum
entation for 3D
animations and demonstrate this in a practical context.

To help meet these aims the following software will be featured in this module:
3DS Max 20
1
3
, Unity

and

Ado
be Photos
hop.


PDP statement


Students will, by the end of the
module
, achi
eve a high level of understanding of
use of 3D applications

and be confident in the application of a range of tools and
techniques. In addition students will have a
variety

of material suitable for
inclusion in a Personal Development Portfolio. This will b
e useful when applying
for placement posi
tions after the end of level 5.


Resources


Essential Text

Steen, J. (2011)
Rendering with mental ray & 3DS Max
, Boston MA: Focal Press

Supplementary Reading

Ahearn, L. (2006)
3D game textures: create professional
game art using
Photoshop.

Oxford: Focal Press

Clinton, Y. (2008)
Game character modeling and animation with 3ds Max
.

Boston: Focal Press

CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

2



Daniele, T. (2008)
Poly
-
Modeling with 3ds Max: Thinking Outside of the Box
.
Boston MA: Focal Press

Gahan, A. (2009
) 3d
s Max modeling for games

insider’s guide to game
character, vehicle, and environment modelling
. Boston MA: Focal Press

Gerhard, M. (2010)
Mastering Autodesk 3ds max design 2011
, Chichester: Wiley

Pardew, L. (2006).
Beginning game art 3Ds 8.

Premier Press.

Ward, A. (2008)
Game Character Development
, Boston, MA: Course Technology

Weimer, J. (2008)
3DS Max Modeling Bots, Mechs, and Droids
, Texas:
Worldware Publishing


The module will be supported by a
Moodle
web site
.

This site contains tutorial
information,
lecture notes, reading list and showcase material. In addition there
are countless online
tutorials

available to help with specific software and
techniques
.


Teaching
&

learning approach

1 hour lecture followed by a 2 hour lab session. You are required to
undertake at
least
8

hours of
independent study

per week.
Note that
completing the

set
independent study
tasks will

develop your understanding

and will

more
likely
result in a much higher overall mark

at the end of the module.


There are two assessments f
or this module weighted at 50% each. Students
need to attain an average of 40% across both assessments to pass the module.

The tutors will provide help and support
on the assignments
during the
timetabled lab sessions.


All students are entitled to both fo
rmative and summative feedback during the
module. Formative feedback is designed to enable you to improve your
work/performance and takes many forms. Students will have several
opportunities to receive feedback on their progress, e.g. during lab sessions,
tutorials or seminars; as part of general feedback in lectures; and where
appropriate, one to one sessions with their Academic Review Tutors. Summative
feedback is received when your submitted coursework has been marked. As a
minimum this will comprise con
structive comments from the tutor and a final
grade.


This module

requires a multi
-
disciplinary approach using complex software tha
t is
time consuming to learn. You are advised not to leave assignments to the last
minute.

CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

3



Scheme

of work

Semester 1

Wk

Topi
c

Suggested practical work

1

Narrative Design

Introduction to 3DS Max

2

Basic Modelling Techniques

Space planes

3

Using vertices, introduction to materials


Object creation

4

Texture Maps

Displacement maps

5

Landscapes

Underwater scene

6

Assignment w
orkshop

Demonstrate progress

7

Designing vehicles

Smooth objects

8

Character Design

Create a polygon character

9

Character Rigging

Use biped to rig character

10

Introduction to realistic r
endering

Setting up a realistic render

11

Lighting a realisti
c r
endering


Lighting a scene

12

Assignment Hints & Tips

Formative
Presentations


Semester 2

Wk

Topic

Suggested practical work

17

Promotional
trailers

for games

Forming a team

18

Animation Principles

Key frame animations

19

Biped

Animation controllers

Animation with paths

20

Particle Systems

Water particles

21

Advanced PFlow

Using Blob Mesh

2
2

Mass FX dynamics

Setting up a
dynamics

reaction

2
3

Lighting & environment effects

Assignment work

24

Cameras & morph targets

Assignment work

25

Introducti
on to Unity

Assignment work

26

Adding interactions to Unity

Assignment work

30

Preparing for exhibitions

Assignment work

31

Formative Team Presentations 22
nd

April 2013

32

Demonstrate products at COMX 2
nd

May 2013

CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

4



Assessment 1



Assessment Specifica
tion


1. Module code and title

CT5008

3D Animations for Games

2. Module tutor

Paul O’Brien

3. Tutor with responsibility
for this Assessment

Paul O’Brien


This is your first point of contact.

4. Assignment

001:
5
0% Coursework:
individual
video
portfo
lio of
3d designs
,

presentation
, evaluation

(
2
0
00 words or
equivalent)
.
You will be penalised according to the
Academic Regulations for Taught Provision

if
you exceed the size limit.

5. Submission deadline

Your attention is drawn to the
penalties for lat
e submission;
see Undergraduate Modular
Handbook.

Monday

1
0
th

December

201
2

Your attention is drawn to the penalties for late
submission;
see
Academic Regulations for
Taught Provision.

6. Arrangements for
submission

Park Assignment Room

7. Date and loca
tion for
return of work

Written feedback and provisional mark will be
within 20 working days of submission

(14/1/13)

8. Students with
Disabilities

Alternative assessment arrangements may be
made, where appropriate, for students with
disabilities. Howev
er, these will only be
implemented upon the advice of the Disability
Advisor. Students wishing to be considered for
alternative assessment arrangements must give
notification of the disability (with evidence) to the
Disability Advisor by the published dea
dlines.

9. University Regulations
for Assessment

All assessments are subject to the
Academic
Regulations for Taught Provision
. These include
regulations relating to Errors of Attribution and
Assessment Offences. In exercising their
judgement, Examiners

may penalise any work
where the standard of English, numeracy or
presentation adversely affects the quality of the
work, or where the work submitted exceeds the
published size or time limits, or where the work fails
to follow normal academic conventions f
or
acknowledging sources.

CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

5



10.
The requirements for assessment

1

Video portfolio of 3D designs

Using techniques covered in semester 1
use 3DS to create the
following
items

using a theme of your choice
:




Maximum poly
-
count

1:

Laser gun turret


2000

2:

Bridge

3
5
00

3:

Decrepit house

5000

4:

Terrain & underground environment

15,000

5
:

Rocket propelled
personal flyer

1500

6
:

Rigged character based upon yourself

8
000


Render an image (
including wire, clay and texture mapped
) of each item and
create
12
0s
econd
video portfolio of the items using
a suitable video editor
.
Include
appropriate

titles
,
credits
and

copyright free
music.


Material and objects used in the production of the
items

must be self
-
created
using the standard creation tools within 3DS Max

and Photoshop
. Credit will be
given for the use of more advanced modelling techniques and for further
exploring topics covered in lectures.

All content must be produced to a high
standard and be copyright free.
You must submit your original 3DS files.


In
addition to the portfolio items, you must include sample renders

in PNG format

of the lab exercises completed during
week 1
-
5 in
semester 1.


Evaluation

Produce a screen grab of each portfolio item and use Word to identify the
key
techniques that you used
to create it.
With reference to real world examples
critically evaluate
the effectiveness of
your models using the following criteria:
polygon count, textures

and

realism
.

You must include a list of references.


Formative
Presentation

During
the timetable
session for
week 12 of semester 1
, 10
th

December,
you
must

present your video portfolio
to the tutors
prior to submission

for formative
feedback.


11.
Special instructions

The following technical constraints must be adhered to

for the video portfolio
:

Reso
lution

:

1280
x
720

@ 25 fps

Video bit rate

:

At least 4096k
bps

Audio bit rate


320
k
bps

File type

:

MP4

Delivery method

:

USB,
DVD or CDROM

Length

:

1
2
0 seconds (±10%)






CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

6




12.
Assessment 1 criteria

The grade table
below

is a guide to the level of p
ractical content required for the
assignment.
Please note that it is the quality of each technique utilised that is
measured when assessing the marks.
You need to achieve at least 40% to pass
this assessment.


Assesses learning outcomes (
1
)
(2) (3)
and (
4
)

Grade

Content

To achieve <30

Copyright violation, e.g. video files, models or animations
downloaded from the Web. No evaluation or list of software
techniques used.

No references used.

Original
3DS
MAX
files not submitted.

Poor quality video compression
.

Distorted
or pixellated
renders.

To achieve <40

Deliverables partially complete, e.g.
u
n
-
certificated

non
-
attendance at presentation

session
, not all portfolio items
complete
d
. Poor quality models and textures.
Models

not
rendered correctly.
Excessive p
olygon counts for models.
Limited evaluation of the product.

References used
incorrectly in the written work.


To achieve 40+

Appropriate
3D
models

&
renders
. Some attempt at
all
portfolio items
. Used polygon modelling
techniques
to create
objects. Applie
d basic texture techniques.
Video has s
uitable
titles and credits. Basic
evaluation

that

describe
s

the
features
used
.
Complies with technical constraints
, including polygon
counts
.

To achieve 50+

Explored a variety of modelling techniques
.

Efficiently
mod
elled portfolio items.
Use of appropriate texture maps,
e.g. UVW mapping
,

unwrapping
.

Evaluations

indicate
features utilised
and include

some limited analysis.

Complete
character designs with
some attempt at
rigging
.

To achieve 60+

Character fully rigged

with biped based bones.
H
igh quality
renders
including wire, clay and
texture

map
ped

for each
portfolio item
. Further exploration of software demonstrated
in lectures.
E
valuations

clearly identify

strengths and
weaknesses of
p
ortfolio items
.


To achieve
70+

Aesthetically pleasing submission with a consistent look &
feel. Excellent interpretation of a chosen theme. Explored
software techniques other than
those

covered in lectures.
Evidence of critical awareness in evaluations.

Note that the overall grade
will be determined by the application of the
Computing & Technology
Assessment Criteria

Grid.

CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

7



Assessment 2

Assessment Specification


1. Module code and title

CT5008

3D Animations for Games

2. Module tutor

Paul O’Brien

3. Tutor with responsibility
for

this Assessment

Paul O’Brien


This is your first point of contact.

4. Assignment

00
2
:
5
0% Group
work:
3D animated film for a
game,

3D level, COMX

(
2
0
00 words or equivalent)
.

You will be penalised according to the
Academic
Regulations for Taught Provisio
n

if you exceed
the size limit.

5. Submission deadline

Your attention is drawn to the
penalties for late submission;
see Undergraduate Modular
Handbook.

1
st

May

201
3

Your attention is drawn to the penalties for late
submission;
see
Academic Regulations f
or
Taught Provision.

6. Arrangements for
submission

Park Assignment Room

7. Date and location for
return of work

Written feedback and provisional mark will be
within 20 working days of submission

(28/5/13)

8. Students with
Disabilities

Alternative ass
essment arrangements may be
made, where appropriate, for students with
disabilities. However, these will only be
implemented upon the advice of the Disability
Advisor. Students wishing to be considered for
alternative assessment arrangements must give
n
otification of the disability (with evidence) to the
Disability Advisor by the published deadlines.

9. University Regulations
for Assessment

All assessments are subject to the
Academic
Regulations for Taught Provision
. These
include regulations relating

to Errors of Attribution
and Assessment Offences. In exercising their
judgement, Examiners may penalise any work
where the standard of English, numeracy or
presentation adversely affects the quality of the
work, or where the work submitted exceeds the
pu
blished size or time limits, or where the work
fails to follow normal academic conventions for
acknowledging sources.

CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

8



10.
The requirements for assessment 2


3D Animated film for a game

In a
self
-
selected

team
(max 6 students)
create a

high quality

animate
d
film for
a
unique game
scenario
lasting approximately 1
0
0 seconds. The animation could
be designed as a
n extended

trailer for a proposed game, an introductory full
motion video or an end of level cut
-
scene.
At least one fully rigged character
,

as
well as

vehicles and multiple levels
,

should appear in the finished film.


Material and objects used in the production of the animation must be self
-
created
using the standard creation tools within 3DS Max

and Photoshop
. Credit will be
given for the use of more
advanced modelling techniques and for further
exploring topics covered in lectures. Suitable titles and credits should be used to
clearly identify
team member roles and responsibilities.


All content must be produced to a high standard and be copyright fr
ee. Distorted
or pixellated images
will be

unacceptable. You are permitted to use
copyright
free audio

to enhance the animation where appropriate.


3D
Level

Using Unity create a 3D
level

containing the best elements of the 3D models
created for the film.


Documentation

It is expected that
the team

thoroughly plan
the production
by using suitable

storyboard techniques

such as camera paths, scene views and light plans
.

In
addition to the prac
tical work, you should submit high quality storyboards of key
scene
s, a project Gantt chart, an itemised list of 3D assets, indicating author and
creation date, a texture list for all elements indicating where they used.



Presentation

During week
31

of semester 2 each team
must

present their animation to the
class
. Addit
ionally
each team will demonstrate
the Unity environment and
animation at COMX1
3

on
2
nd

May

201
3
.

Note that stands will be setup on 1
st

May.


11.
Special instructions

The following technical constraints must be adhered to:

Resolution

:

1280
x
720

@ 25 fps

Video bit rate

:

At l
east 4096k
bps

Audio bit rate

:

320
k
bps

File type

:

MP4

Copyright

:

All source material must be copyright free

Delivery method

:

USB,
DVD or CDROM

Length

:

1
0
0 seconds (±10%)


CT5008

3D Anim
ations for Games

© Paul O’Brien, University of Gloucestershire

9



Submit
film, original 3DS
& Unity
files

and documenta
tion
on
USB,
DVD
or
CD
ROM
.


12.
Assessment 2 criteria

The following grade table is a guide to the level of practical content required for
the assignments.


Assesses learning outcomes

(3)
(
5
) and (
6
)

Grade

Content

To achieve <30

Very limited response to
the brief. Copyright violation.

Uncooperative behaviour within the team.

No
supporting
documentation
.

Un
-
certificated
non
-
attendance
at COMX.

To achieve <40

Deliverables partially complete, e.g. no articulate
d
characters, no
Unity level
.

Incomplete

docum
entation.

Limited use of p
lanning techniques
, e.g.
rough

hand drawn

storyboards, no Gantt chart
.

3DS files not submitted.

To achieve 40+

Functional practical work. Basic character designs and
modelling techniques. Limited attempt at character
animation
.
3
DS
files submitted.

Basic informational
film

with
limited narrative
.

Some evidence of
appropriate
p
lanning
techniques.
Clear environment designs.

Some attempt at
creating a Unity level.

Appropriate modelling techniques.

To achieve 50+

Environment
textured

appropriately and
contains interesting
artefacts.
Film

successfully summarises main features of
proposed

game.

Range of animation techniques used, e.g.
particle systems, key frame or path controllers.

Interesting
narrative.

Key models integrated into a Un
ity level.

To achieve 60+

Appropriate 3D design techniques utilised
.
Integrated design
between characters, artefacts and the environment.

Film

features high quality rendered visuals.

Efficient models.

Evidence of thorough planning.

Film includes more adv
anced
animation techniques such as PFlow

or

MassFX
.

Engaging
narrative.

Interactive Unity level.

To achieve 70+

Aesthetically pleasing with a consistent look & feel. Wide
range of 3D techniques utilised.
Exciting

or compelling

film

narrative
.
Explored sof
tware techniques other than
those

covered in lectures.

Integrated approach to all aspects of the
project.


Note that the overall grade will be determined by t
he application of the
Computing & Technology
Assessment Criteria

Grid
.