What is Social Computing?

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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What is Social Computing?



Adapted from a deck

by Dr. Bonnie MacKay

Before We Begin…


Start the computer nearest to you


Boot into Mac OS X






We will use the computers later in the lecture

Today
'
s

Questions


Why study social computing?


What
technological

components constitute social
computing?


What
sociological

components constitute social
computing?


What are some
types

of social computing apps?


What is

social computing?

Why Study Social Computing?



Because we take cues from communities and
individuals instead of organizations


E.g., viral marketing, reviews, opinions, etc.



Around 120,000 hits on Google in just four days (~30,000 references
per day, without much or any traditional media expenditure)


Why Study Social Computing?



Because we can collaborate to solve large
problems or build large systems


E.g., open source, penetration of closed regimes



Because we can access lots of social data


E.g., data mining of Facebook



Because we can build socially compelling and
important systems


E.g., government transparency, Wikipedia

Technological Components of
Social Computing


Computers (1 or more)


Network


Software that facilitates


Interaction


Networking (social)


Collaboration


Publication


Immersion and interaction


E.g., Second Life

Sociological Components of

Social Computing


People with access to the technology


E.g., computers, cell phones



Focus, task, goal, or purpose


E.g., building software, political protest,

keeping touch with friends, entertainment

Sociological Components

of Social Computing


Model of the interactions and behaviours


E.g., small world networks, critical mass
,

Zipf
(heavy tail) distributions


E.g. Bookmarking


Often derived
post
-
facto

Social Computing Applications


Characterised
by:


The software that implements a particular functionality


E.g., Social Networking (Facebook), Micro
-
blogging (Twitter),
Media Distribution (YouTube
)




How the
software is used


E.g., Political organization, digital journalism, advertisement

Characterizations of

Social Computing Applications


Are
based on common uses


Can overlap (many apps are multipurpose)


E.g., Second Life (virtual world, classes, sales, etc.)


Are

independent of technology


Can depend on the audience of the app

Types of Social Computing

Category of Social Comp. App.

Example

Blogging and Micro Blogging

Twitter

Social Networking

Facebook

Professional Networking

LinkedIn

Media Exchange

YouTube

Bookmarking and Tagging

Delicious

Collaboration

Wiki

Knowledge Exchange

StackOverflow

Informational

Wikipedia

Recommender and Reputation

E
-
bay

Gaming and Virtual Reality

Second Life

Physical (local) Device Interaction

Microsoft Surface

Class Activity


Get in groups, find a computer (you can use a laptop if
you wish), log in



Each group will be assigned one of the categories from
the table



You have
12 minutes

to find (using the Web)
5 different
SCAs

that fit into the same category



List a couple reasons why you believe these SCAs are
all the same type



You will have
3 minutes
to present your list to the class

Questions to Ask

Category of Social Comp. App.

Example

Blogging and Micro Blogging

Twitter

Social Networking

Facebook

Professional Networking

LinkedIn

Media Exchange

YouTube

Bookmarking and Tagging

Delicious

Collaboration

Wiki

Knowledge Exchange

StackOverflow

Informational

Wikipedia

Recommender and Reputation

E
-
bay

Gaming and Virtual Reality

Second Life

Physical (local) Device Interaction

Microsoft Surface


What are the SCAs used for?


Are there many purposes?


What are the common
features?


What are the common uses?


Who is their audience?


What differentiates the
SCAs?


Which is the preferred SCA?

By Whom?

Why?

Observations on Social Computing


Comprises technological & sociological
components



Requires technology but is independent of
technology



Characterized by the software and how it is used



Social Computing Applications


Typically have a large and diverse user bases


Rely on interactions between people to be of use


Rely on network effects (the actions of one user are of
benefit others, e.g., reviews, blogs)

What is Social Computing?


Can we combine these observations into a
definition

of Social Computing?



Do all the apps we considered fit the definition?



Are there applications that are not social
computing applications but fall under the
definition?



Is Social Computing the same as Web 2.0?

Some Definitions of

Social Computing



…any type of computing application in which software
serves as an intermediary or a focus for a social relation



D. Schuler,

S
ocial Computing

,
CACM
, 37(1) 1994.




A social structure in which technology puts power in
individuals and communities, not institutions



C. Charron, J. Favier, and C. Li,

Social Computing: How Networks Erode Institutional
Power, and What to Do about It

, Forrester Customer Report, 2006.




Computational facilitation of social studies and human
social dynamics as well as the design and use of
information and communication technologies that
consider social context



F.
-
Y. Wang, D. Zeng, K. Carley, W. Mao,

Social Computing: From Social Informatics
to Social Intelligence

, IEEE Intelligent Systems, 2, 2007.