Unit 12 – The Internet

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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UNIT
12

The Internet

1

INTRODUCTION

2

Introduction


The

Internet

(commonly

called

the

Net)

is

a

global

system

of

interconnected

computer

networks

that

use

the

standard

Internet

Protocol

Suite

(TCP/IP)

to

serve

billions

of

users

worldwide
.



Internet Services

Different

services

are

made

available

on

the

Internet

including
:


1.
Email

(electronic

mail)
:

for

sending

and

receiving

messages
.


2.

Usenet

(User

Network)

:

an

internet

service

that

allows

users

to

communicate

by

means

of

newsgroups
.


Groups

of

users

who

send

and

read

messages

on

a

particular

topic
.


Internet Services

3
.
IRC

(Internet relay chat):

Chatting

to

other

users

using

text

messages

in

real
-
time

(immediately,

while

users

are

logged

on

to

the

system)



4
.
FTP

(file transfer protocol):

Copying files between computers on a network.



Downloading





Uploading

Copying

files

from

a

server

computer

to

a

client

computer

Copying

files

from

a

client

computer

to

a

server

computer

Internet Services

5
.

Telnet

(teletype

network)
:

Logging

on

to

your

local

server

across

a

network

communications

system

at

a

distance

e
.
g
.

from

another

country
.




Connecting to a network system account,
normally using a password

6
.

MOO
s

(Multi
-
user

domain

that

is

Object
-
Oriented)
:




MOOs

are

network

accessible,

multi
-
user,

programmable

,

interactive

systems

well
-
suited

to

the

construction

of

text
-
based

adventure

games,

conferencing

systems,

and

other

collaborative

software
.





Is

a

text
-
based

online

virtual

reality

system

to

which

multiple

users

(players)

are

connected

at

the

same

time
.





Taking

part

in

simulations

in

a

shared

environment
.

Each

person

assumes

a

person

and

communicates

using

text

messages
.




7
.

WWW

(the

World

Wide

Web)
:



Commonly

referred

to

as

the

Web
.


Contains

interlinked

documents

called

webpages
.



A

website

is

a

set

of

related

webpages

stored

together

on

a

server

computer
.



Browsing

means

moving

from

one

webpage

to

another
.

8
.

Social

Networks
:



A

social

network

service

is

an

online

service,

platform,

or

site

that

focuses

on

building

and

reflecting

of

social

networks

or

social

relations

among

people,

e
.
g
.
,

who

share

interests

and/or

activities
.

E
.
g
.

Facebook,

MySpace

and

Twitter,



A

social

network

service

essentially

consists

of

a

representation

of

each

user

(often

a

profile),

his/her

social

links,

and

a

variety

of

additional

services
.




Social

network

services

make

it

possible

to

connect

people

who

share

interests

and

activities

across

political,

economic,

and

geographic

borders
.



Facebook

launched

in

2004
,

has

since

become

the

largest

social

networking

site

in

the

world
.



Twitter

set

the

trend

for

"real

time"

services,

where

users

can

broadcast

to

the

world

what

they

are

doing,

or

what

is

on

their

minds

within

a

140

character

limit
.


Computer
-
mediated communication (CMC)




A term used to describe systems that allow users to
communicate using a computer network.


Asynchronous

Synchronous

Participants

are

not

on
-
line

at

the

same

time

and

there

are

delays

between

messages
.

Participants

are

on
-
line

at

the

same

time
.

There

may

be

a

few

seconds

delay

but

the

communication

is

closer

to

face
-
to
-
face

interaction
.

Computer
-
mediated communication (CMC)


Examples of
asynchronous

communication:


Mobile phone text messages.


Emails.


Bulletin boards.


newsgroups/discussion lists.


Examples of
synchronous

communication:


Chat rooms.


MOOs.


Audio and videoconferencing.




Computer
-
mediated communication (CMC)


Videoconferencing
:


a

form

of

communication

over

a

network

that

uses

video

cameras

so

that

the

people

taking

part

can

see

and

hear

each

other
.


Computer
-
mediated communication (CMC)


With

the

exception

of

videoconferencing,

there

is

no

way

to

show

facial

expressions

and

emotions

in

text
-
based

CMC

systems
.



To

compensate,

users

have

developed

a

number

of

strategies

including
:



Abbreviations

and

acronyms
.

E
.
g
.

LOL,

BRB
.


Simplified

syntax
.

E
.
g
.

C

U

L
8
R
.


Symbols

and

exclamation

marks
.

E
.
g

Yeeeees
!!


Emoticons
:

symbols

indicating

emotions
.

E
.
g
.

:
-
(

Computer
-
mediated communication (CMC)


Most

users

connect

to

the

internet

using

a

modem
.




Modem

(modulator
-
demodulator)

is

an

electronic

device

that

converts

signals

to

enable

a

computer

to

be

connected

to

an

ordinary

telephone

line

thru

a

server

and

a

router

owned

by

an

ISP

(Internet

service

provider)
.



ISP

is

a

company

that

offers

its

customers

access

to

the

Internet
.



ISPs

employ

a

range

of

data

transmission

technologies

to

enable

customers

to

connect

to

the

internet,

such

as

dial
-
up,

DSL,

cable

modem,

satellite

Internet

access,

fiber

to

the

home

(FTTH)
.



ISP

also

provide

help

and

support

services

to

its

customers
.


Internet Service Provider (ISP)

To

attract

users

to

connect

through

their

system,

ISPs

offer

various

options

including
:


1.
Unlimited

number

of

email

addresses

with

filtering

of

email

to

remove

Junk

email

(unwanted

email

normally

advertising

or

trying

to

sell

something)
.


2.

Web
-
based

mail

allows

users

to

access

their

email

form

any

computer

with

Internet

access
.


3.
POP
3

email

requires

a

special

email

program
.

It

is

faster

and

more

efficient
.




Internet Service Provider (ISP)

4
.

Unlimited

Web

space

for

setting

up

your

own

website

and

viruses

checking

facilities

for

checking

your

computer

files

to

detect

programs

written

with

the

purpose

of

causing

damage

or

causing

a

computer

to

behave

in

an

unusual

way
.


Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Web space

file storage space for storing webpage files

Website

a

set

of

related

pages

stored

on

a

server

on

the

world

wide

web
.

Video conferencing


Emoticons


ISP

Internet Service Provider


Social Networks

STARTER

22

1

Starter
1

1.
D

2.
G

3.
B

4.
C

5.
F

6.
A

7.
e

READING

24

2

Reading
2

A

Extract

MOO

Type of CMC

5

Number of participants

-

Virtual Reality game,.

-

N
avigation within the MOO

Topics

Synchronous

Synchronous or asynchronous

-

Emoticons

-

Characters can express themselves

by words, informal punctuations.

Special features of this CMC type

Reading
2

B

Extract

Web chat (forum , or bulletin board)

Type of CMC

3

Number of participants

Movies

Topics

Asynchronous

Synchronous or asynchronous

-

Very informal.

-
Some use of abbreviations, e.g.
lol

-
No opening or closing phrases.

Special features of this CMC type

Reading
2

C

Extract

Newsgroup.

Type of CMC

Message

is addressed to all group
members.

Number of participants

Top ten albums.

Topics

Asynchronous

Synchronous or asynchronous

-

informal.

-
No opening or closing phrases

although
this one is signed.

Special features of this CMC type

LANGUAGE
WORK

28

Language Work: Warnings

Warnings are used to:


Ensure safety.


Prevent damage to equipment and breaches of
security.


Ensure the law is not broken.


Language Work: Warnings

-
1
-

The simplest warning are
basic instructions


NOT to do something:

1.
Don’t do X

2.
Never do X

3.
Avoid Xing

4.
No Xing


For example:

1
-

Never give out your home address or phone number.

2
-

Avoid turning off main power while computer is running.

3
-

No smoking, eating or drinking at the computer lab.

-
2
-

Sometime the warning is
twinned with matching
good practice:

1.
Always do Y; never do X.

2.
Do Y rather than doing X.


For example:

1
-

Use an IC extraction tool rather than a screwdriver.




Language Work: Warnings

Language Work: Warnings

-
3
-

Warning may be
made stronger by using :

1.
must/must not

2.
should/ should not.



For example:

1
-

You must not drink coffee in this lab. If you spill it you
may damage the keyboard.


Language Work: Warnings

-
4
-

If

there

is

any

reason

to

fear

the

warning

may

not

be

understood,

a

reason

for

the

warning

may

be

added
.



For

example
:

1
-

Never

remove

ICs

with

a

screwdriver
.

The

pins

are

very

fragile
.


Where might you see these warning ?

1.
Advice for using IRC.

2.
Chassis of computer (Computer case).

3.
Computer handbook. (Computer Manual).

4.
Data protection Act.

5.
Computer lab notice.

6.
Technician’s handbook.

Language Work: Warnings

LANGUAGE WORK

35

4



1.
Avoid

giving

open

access

to

PCs

because

you

may

get

viruses
.


2.
Never

use

your

own

programs

on

these

machines
.

You

may

introduce

viruses
.


3.
You

must

not

drink

coffee

in

this

lab
.

If

you

spill

it

you

may

damage

the

keyboard
.


4.
Don’t

give

financial

information

in

a

chat

rom
.

Some

one

may

try

to

cheat

you
.


5.
Always

keep

your

password

a

secret
.

Someone

may

hack

in

to

your

system
.


6.
Use

up

to

date

antivirus

software
.

New

viruses

appear

all

the

time
.



7
.

Always

wait

until

a

computer

has

reached

normal

room

temperature

before

using

it

or

you

may

damage

the

hard

disk
.



8
.

Never

remove

cards

from

there

anti
-
static

packing

until

required
.

Otherwise

you

may

damage

them
.



9.
Use

an

IC

extraction

tool

rather

than

a

screwdriver
.

The

pins

are

fragile
.



10
.

You

must

not

work

on

a

computer

with

the

power

on

because

you

may

be

electrocuted
.

PROBLEM SOLVING

38

6

Problem Solving

1.
24
seven.

2.
Broadband
2

3.
Broadband
1

4.
Pay As You Go


SPECIALIST

READING

40


Specialist Reading


Part A

1.
Line
9

2.
Line
12

3.
Line
13

4.
One

5.
Line
28

6.
Line
35

7.
Line
45

8.
Line
52