Power Point Lecture

muterollΚινητά – Ασύρματες Τεχνολογίες

10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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International Organization

Lecture 10

The Formal Organization
of International Politics

Largely a 20
th

Century
Phenomenon

In 1900, about 37
International Governmental
Organizations (IGOs)


Mostly concerned with
technical matters

In 1997, about 260 IGOs


War, peace, and security


Economic development


Environment

NGOs Not Counted in This
Total


What Do IGOs DO?

UN Membership
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
1945
1955
1965
1975
1985
1995
Security Cooperation


UN


NATO


Organization for Security
and Cooperation in Europe

Economic Cooperation


International Monetary Fund


World Bank


World Trade Organization
(WTO)


Org. for Economic
Cooperation and
Development

Health, Environmental, and
Humanitarian Cooperation

The United Nations

The “Legislature”


Security Council


The General Assembly

The “Executive”


The General Secretary
and Agencies

The “Judiciary”


International Court of
Justice

How Big?


Staff of less than 10,000


Annual budget of $2.5
billion

The Structure of UN
Agencies


IOs and Liberalism

UN Reduces the Severity
of the Security Dilemma.


Governments Must Provide
Own Security.

Producing More Weapons
Makes Neighboring States
Less Secure.

Neighbor States Build More
Weapons.

None Are Any More Secure
After Than Before the Build
Up.

Can’t Not Build Weapons,
One’s Security Might
Diminish.

UN Provides Framework
for Collective Security.

Article 2
:

All Members must
“refrain. . . from the threat or
use of force against the
territorial integrity or political
independent of any state.”

Only Exception is Self
Defense (Article 51).

Security Council Can Impose
Non
-
Military Sanctions, and
Call for Military Response

All Members are Obliged to
“Accept and Carry Out.”

Measures Should Reduce
Security Dilemma.

Economic IGOs

Economic IGOs Promote Economic Interdependence.

Trade

The International Trade Organization, The General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), The UN Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) (in 1964). Now the WTO.

Oriented Toward Creation of Open, Market
-
Based, Non
-
Discriminatory International Trade System.


Finance: The Bretton Woods System

The International Monetary Fund, The World Bank

The IMF
: Provides Balance of Payments Financing and
Facilitates International Financial Cooperation.

The World Bank
: Provides Long
-
Term Loans for Economic
Development.

Together Would Create Stable International Economy To
Promote Interdependence and Prosperity.


Promoting Democracy?

UN Role Limited Because of Sovereignty

No Right to
Intervene in a Member Country’s Domestic Political Affairs.


Article 2: “The Organization is Based on the Principle of the
Sovereign Equality of All its Members.”

UN Emphasis Between 1945 and 1970 Was on De
-
Colonization
(Self
-
Determination Rather than Democratization).

General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) of December 14,
1960


Alien Domination Contrary to UN Charter


All Peoples Have the Right To Self Determination


Inadequacy of Political, Economic and Social Conditions Not
Legitimate Excuse for Refusing Independence


All Powers of Government Should Be Immediately Transferred to
Indigenous Peoples


Disruption of the National Unity or Territorial Integrity of a Country
is Contrary to UN Charter.

The UN and Liberalism

UN as Planned Addressed Each of the Three
Strands of Liberalism:

Collective Security in an Attempt to Mitigate
the Security Dilemma: The “Four Policemen”

Economic Cooperation to Promote Economic
Interdependence and Prosperity.

De
-
Colonization, with Pressure for
Democratization in the Newly Independent
Countries

UN During the Cold War

Soviet
-
American Conflict
Rendered Security Council
Ineffective

De
-
colonization saw UN
membership increase from
51 states in 1945 to about
150 by mid
-
1970s

Increased focus on North
-
South Issues and Economic
Development

Growing American
Disenchantment with UN as
Developing Countries Hostile
to American Objectives
Dominate the General
Assembly


Votes With the Majority in the UN
General Assembly, 1946
-
1990

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Percent
1946-50
1951-55
1956-60
1961-65
1966-70
1971-75
1976-80
1981-85
1986-90
US
Soviet Union
Source: Lawrence Ziring et al. 2002.
The United Nations: International Organization and World Politics
.

(New York: Harcourt Brace), page 99.

UN in Post Cold War
World

No Longer the Block to
Security Council Action

Chance for Greater UN
Role in Security affairs

Two Purposes of UN
Peacekeeping


Monitoring


Transformation