Cross-Cultural Relations Between Civilian and Military ... - CDMHA

muterollΚινητά – Ασύρματες Τεχνολογίες

10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

51 εμφανίσεις

Cross
-
Cultural
Relations Between
Civilian and Military

Organizations


Melinda Hofstetter

Center for Disaster Management
and Humanitarian Assistance

Tulane University

Washington, D.C.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS DURING
DISASTERS and COMPLEX EMERGENCIES
“The Fog of Relief”
UN
Coord
and
Agencies
UNICEF
WFP
UNDP
NGO
UNHCR
NGO
NGO
USG
Red Cross
ICRC
Affected Country
Requirements
NGO
Donor
Other
Donors
NGO
Donor
NGO
NGO

PERCEPTIONS NGOs HAVE
OF

THE MILITARY :

PERCEPTIONS NGOs HAVE OF

MILITARY ACTIONS


KILL, WOUND AND MAIM NON
-
COMBATANTS
.


DESTROY HOMES, CROPS, AND LIVESTOCK
.


DESTROY ESSENTIAL CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE.


DISPLACE MASSIVE NUMBERS OF NON
-
COMBATANTS
.


THREATEN OR PERPETRATE RAPE, TORTURE,
GENOCIDE AND OTHER GROSS VIOLATIONS OF
HUMAN RIGHTS.


LEAVE BEHIND QUANTITIES OF BOMBLETS, OTHER
UXO, MINES, AND DEPLETED URANIUM WHICH
CONTINUE TO KILL AND MAIM NON
-
COMBATANTS
LONG AFTERTHE CONFLICT HAS ENDED.



S. ARCHER/ 9/2000

PERCEPTIONS NGOs HAVE OF

MILITARY ACTIONS


MILITARY HAVE GREATER CAPABILITIES IN

SECURITY, LOGISTICS, TRANSPORT, HEAVY

EQUIPMENT, AND COMMUNICATIONS THAN DO

MOST IOs AND/OR NGOs


ARRIVAL OF EXTERNAL MILITARY UNITS IN A

COMPLEX EMERGENCY RESULTS IN INCREASED

WORLDWIDE MEDIA COVERAGE


INCREASED MEDIA COVERAGE MEANS

INCREASED VISIBILITY AND INCREASED

FUNDING

S.ARCHER : 9/2000

PERCEPTIONS THE MILITARY
HAVE OF NGOs


PERCEPTIONS THE MILITARY HAS OF

NGO ACTIONS



WILL NOT TAKE ORDERS FROM MILITARY EVEN IF
THEIR PERSONAL SECURITY IS AT STAKE.


WILL BE RESISTENT TO THE CHANGES THE
MILITARY’S ARRIVAL BRINGS.


WILL NOT BE WILLING TO
COLLABORATE
WITH
THE MILITARY.


CONSTANTLY ASK MILITARY FOR HELP WHEN
THEY CANNOT COPE ALONE WITH SECURITY,
LOGISTICS, TRANSPORT, COMMUNICATIONS NEEDS.

S. ARCHER 9/2000




CAN YOU TELL THE
DIFFERENCE ?

(AKA: other reasons for “cultural antagonism”)


CAN THEY ?

90328
-
1
-
29
SOLDIERS DRESSED LIKE THIS
BRUTALIZED AND KILLED THEIR
FAMILIES, FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS.


THE FUTURE IS HERE !



“The U.S. military/NGO relationship is a
fundamental trait of our present and the era into
which we are entering.”






THE FUTURE IS HERE !



Both are mission driven.

Both are synergistic.

They shouldn’t be antagonistic.

But attitudes can cause them to be so.

It’s the
perception
!!!



LTC M.M. Smith, USA





Cooperation: “Unity of Effort”

Military

Efforts

IO/NGO

Activities


NGO Culture Contrasted With
Military Culture


Independent


Decentralized
Authority


On
-
The
-
Job
Training


Few Field Manuals


Long
-
term
Perspective


Field Experience


Highly Disciplined


Hierarchical
Command


Extensive Branch
Training


Doctrinal
Publications


“End
-
State”
Approach


Combat Experience







NGO/IO

MILITARY





C3A
C3I


COOPERATION



COMMAND


COORDINATION


CONTROL


CONSENSUS






COMMUNICATIONS




ASSESSMENT



INTELLIGENCE













“Cultural” Problems



Perceptions


Lack of Compatible Doctrine


Lack of Common Interests



Lack of Communication



Lack of Prior Joint Experience





NGO Pluses




Ability to single focus


Synergistic relationship to other NGOs


Experience and size for quick action


Impartiality (often problematic)


Experience in function or region



NGO Challenges



Synergism is not always automatic to
other NGOs


Narrow perspective and agenda


Minimum operational staff


Fiercely independent


Need for external support



Military Culture




Highly structured and disciplined


Firm chains of command


Extensive specialty training


Policy and guidance are internal
and external



Mission Statement and Guidelines



Principles of Participants



Application of Peacekeeping Principles




Military Considerations:



Military Challenges



Mandate


Force Structure


Rules of Engagement


National and
International Law


Non
-
NATO Partners

Russia


Ukraine

UAE


Jordan

Lithuania

Sweden

Finland


Austria

Azerbaijan Argentina

Morocco


Slovakia

Switzerland Georgia

NATO Partners

United States

UK

Germany

France

Italy



Denmark

Spain



Poland



Greece


Canada

Norway


Hungary

Belgium


Turkey

The Netherlands

Portugal

KFOR Structure

43,000 Troops in Kosovo

7,000 Troops in FYROM

5,800 U.S Troops

IOs and NGOs

UN


OSCE

EU


UNHCR

ICTY


UNICEF

UNMIK
-
P IMC

MSF WFP

OXFAM CARE

IRC


ICRC

Aid Architecture

United Nations

Security Council

OCHA

Affected Nation

Donor Nations

& Organizations

U.N.

Agencies &

Programs

NGOs

IOs

U.N.

Military



Coordination Tools




Interpreters


Communications Compatibility


Common Boundaries


Functional Meetings


Co
-
location of “Headquarters”





CIMIC and CMO



CIMIC = Civil Military Cooperation


CMO = Civil Military Operations





CIMIC/CMO is:




Cooperation with the local population


Cooperation with International Agencies


Cooperation with relief groups/NGOs





CIMIC/CMO is
Not
:



Giving up military authority



Having IO/NGOs in charge at
the tactical level

THE CIVIL DIMENSION ASSUMES A
PRIMARY ROLE IN HUMANITARIAN
ASSISTANCE OPERATIONS



CMO ASSUMES A PRIMARY ROLE FOR
PEACE
AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE
OPERATIONS
.

CIVIL MILITARY
OPERATIONS

UN MISSION

UNHCR

ICRC

CARE

IOM

UN CIVPOL

UN WFP

MSF

UN WHO

COMMUNITY GROUPS

RELIGIOUS GROUPS



CIMIC/CMO Tasks



Liaison With Civil Sector


Identification of Resources


Protocol


Information Exchange


Support Interoperability


Unity and Economy of Effort



CIMIC/CMO Tasks



Foster Dialog


Ensure policies and operating procedures are
understood (multiple levels)


Coordinate Requests


Military support (logistics; security)


Integrate efforts


Numerous contributing (competing?) organizations
and groups

MILITARY OPERATIONS

CIVILIAN TASKS AND REQUIREMENTS

CIVIL
DIMENSION

PEACE

WAR

A Civil Dimension exists in
all military operations

UN/IOs

Religion

Business

Host

Nation

USG

NGOs

Zone of Collaboration/Coordination

MOD

CMOC

Military:

U.S. + ?

NGO

IO

PVO

ICRC

US Gov’t

Agencies

UN

Agencies

HN/Local

Populace


Alphabet Soup

FORCE


COMMANDER

POPULATION

NONGOVERNMENT

ORGANIZATIONS

INTERNATIONAL

ORGANIZATIONS

CIVILIAN

AUTHORITIES

NATIONAL MILITARIES

PARAMILITARY GROUPS

POLITICAL

MILITARY
-

MILITARY

NATIONAL

CIVIL
-

MILITARY

RELATIONS

CMOC



Information Sharing



Open Source Information


Information versus Intelligence


Methods of acquiring:


Is this “collection”?


Analysis


Exchange


Dissemination


CIMIC/CMO Challenges


Clash of cultures; goals; vocabulary


Lack of knowledge about each other


Lack of mutual respect


Lack of comparable doctrine & practice


Asymmetry


Military has power but is in support


Civilians “in charge” but not “in control”

Perceptions!!!

42