Recombinant DNA


6 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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What is


Chapter 1

Learning Outcomes

Describe the science of biotechnology and identify its product

Give examples of careers and job responsibilities associated
with biotechnology

Outline the steps in producing and delivering a product made
through recombinant DNA technology

Describe how scientific methodologies are used to conduct
experiments and develop products

Apply the strategy for values clarification to bioethical issues

1.1 Defining Biotechnology

Biotechnology is defined as the study and
manipulation of living things or their
component molecules, cells, tissues, or organs.



a protein that facilitates the uptake of sugar into cells from the blood


abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double
stranded helical molecule that
stores genetic information for the production of all of an organism’s proteins

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology

cutting and recombining DNA molecules

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

a technique that involves copying short pieces of
DNA and then making millions of copies in a short time


method of asexual reproduction that produces identical organisms


a process by which, in an oxygen
deprived environment, a cell converts
sugar into lactic acid or ethanol to create energy


a disorder affecting the uptake of sugar by cells, due to inadequate insulin
production or ineffective use of insulin


proteins whose function is to break down other proteins


proteins developed by the immune system that recognize specific
molecules (antigens)


relating to drugs developed for medical use

Biotechnology Workers and the Biotechnology Workplace

Biotechnology Companies

goal is to produce and sell commercial
profit” products

Universities and Government Labs

conduct “pure science” research,

Growth in the Biotechnology Industry

Domains of Biotechnology
. The major domains of biotechnology include 1) industrial
and environmental; 2) medical/pharmaceutical; 3) agricultural; and 4) diagnostic/research

Looking Ahead

Science and Business of Biotechnology

Basic Biology and Chemistry Concepts

Recombinant Protein Product

Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Pharmaceuticals

Recent Advances in Biotechnology


Research and development (R&D)

refers to the early stages in product development
that include discovery of the structure and function of a potential product and initial small
scale production

Pure science

scientific research whose main purpose is to enrich the scientific
knowledge base


a particle containing a protein coat and genetic materials (either DNA or RNA) that
is not living and requires a host to replicate

Applied science

the practice of utilizing scientific knowledge for practical purposes,
including the manufacture of a product


abbreviation for National Institutes of Health; the federal agency that funds and
conducts biomedical research


abbreviation for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; national research
center for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health,
and health promotion and education activities to improve public health

DNA fingerprinting

an experimental technique that is commonly used to identify
individuals by distinguishing their unique DNA code

1.1 Review Questions

What is biotechnology?

Name a biotechnology product that has a medical use.

Besides biotechnology companies, where can biotechnologists

Biotechnology companies are grouped into four categories based
on the products they make and sell. Name the four categories of

1.2 The Increasing Variety of Biotechnology Products

In the past 100 years, scientists have increased the pace of
searching for products that improve the quality of life.


Industrial products such as rubber, turpentine, and maple syrup

Bioengineered Products

As the methods of manipulating living things have
become more sophisticated, the number and
variety of biological products have increased at an
incredible rate.

Genetically modified organisms

organisms that contain DNA from another organism
and produce new proteins encoded on the acquired DNA

Gene Engineered Plant
. Scientists have learned how to genes that code for certain traits
and transfer them from one species to another. The organism that gets the new genes will
then have the potential to express the new traits coded in the newly acquired genes.

Producing Genetically
Engineered t
. Humans
make only a small amount of
human tissue plasminogen
activator (t
PA) naturally. By
genetically modifying Chinese
hamster ovary (CHO) cells,
scientists can make large amounts
of t
PA for therapeutic purposes,
such as to clear blood vessels in
the event of a heart attack or

The Human Genome Project

Determining the human DNA sequence

Understanding the function of the human genetic code

Identifying all of the genes

Determining their functions

Understanding how and when genes are turned on and off
throughout the lifetime of an individual



molecular agents derived from fungi and/or bacteria that impede the
growth and survival of some other microorganisms

Restriction enzyme

enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence

DNA ligase

an enzyme that binds together disconnected strands of a DNA molecule

Recombinant DNA

DNA created by combining DNA from two or more sources

Genetically modified organisms

organisms that contain DNA from another
organism and produce new proteins encoded on the acquired DNA

E. coli

a rod
shaped bacterium native to the intestines of mammals; commonly used
in genetics and biotechnology

1.2 Review Questions

Name two antibiotics used as medicines.

The use of what kind of enzymes allows scientists to cut and paste
pieces of DNA together to form recombinant DNA?

Explain how making human tissue plasminogen activator (t
PA) in
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is an example of genetic

1.3 How Companies Select Products to Manufacture

Each biotechnology company usually specializes in a group of similar

Plant products

Fermentation equipment

Viral therapies

DNA sequencers for research

Enzymes for food processing

Developing Ideas for New Products

Ideas come from many sources:

Discussions lead to new ideas

Reading literature reviews can lead to new ideas

Sometimes even daydreaming can lead to new ideas

Research and Development



chemical used in an experiment


the ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to

scale production

the manufacture of large volumes of a product

Clinical trials

a strict series of tests that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a medical
treatment in humans


abbreviation for the Food and Drug Administration; the federal agency that regulates the use
and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, and medical devices

Cystic fibrosis (CF)

genetic disorder that clogs the respiratory and digestive systems with mucus


an agent that is used to treat diseases or disorders


abbreviation for the Environmental Protection Agency; the federal agency that enforces
environmental laws including the use and production of microorganisms, herbicides, pesticides, and
genetically modified microorganisms


abbreviation for United States Department of Agriculture; the federal agency that regulates
the use and production of plants, plant products, plant tests, veterinary supplies and medications,
and genetically modified plants and animals

A Product Development Plan

Product Development Plan usually includes the following criteria:

Does the product meet a critical need? Who will use the product?

Is the market large enough to produce enough sales? How many customers are

Do preliminary data support that the product will work? Will the product do what
the company claims?

Can patent protection be secured? Can the company prevent other companies
from producing it?

Can the company make a profit on the product? How much will it cost to make it?
How much can it be sold for?

Before going into research and development, company officials must
determine whether or not it is worth the investment of company resources.

Situations That End Product Development

Product development is stopped if testing shows the product is not effective.

When this happens, companies can lose millions of dollars and years of
research and development time.

Regulations Governing Product Development

New Biotech Drug
Even with
all the government
regulations, the
number of new drugs
approved for market
increased nearly seven
times in the 10 years
between 1990 and

1.3 Review Questions

What group of potential products must be tested in clinical trials
before it can be marketed?

A drug discovery process can take nearly 15 years. Explain why
it takes so long to bring a new drug to market.

Which questions must be answered to the satisfaction of
company officials before a product goes into research and then
into development?

Does every product in research and development make it to
market? Yes or no? Why?

1.4 Doing Biotechnology: Scientific
Methodology in a Research Facility

Students are often taught that there is a “scientific method.”

Conducting an Experiment Using Scientific Methodologies

State a testable scientific question or problem based on some information
or observation.

Develop a testable hypothesis.

Plan a valid experiment.

Conduct the outlined experiment and collect and organize the data into
tables, charts, graphs, or graphics.

Formulate a conclusion based on experimental data and error analysis.

Develop a testable hypothesis

Diluting Bleach Hypothesis
Higher concentrations of bleach
should cause more color fading.

Data Table and Graph
. Observations
and measurements are reported in data
table. Individual trials (replications) as
well as averages are shown. Numerical
data are shown in picture form using

Sharing Experimental Results with the Scientific Community

Once an experiment is complete, the work is reported to others through:



Annual conferences



information gathered from experimentation


an educated guess to answer scientific question; should be testable


anything that can vary in an experiment; the independent variable is tested in an
experiment to see its effect on dependent variables


experimental trial added to an experiment to ensure that the experiment was run
properly; see
positive control

negative control

Positive control

a group of data that will give predictable positive results

Negative control

a group of data that will give predictable negative results


the amount of a substance as a proportion of another substance; usually
how much mass in some amount of volume


scientific periodicals or magazines in which scientists publish their experimental
work, findings, or conclusions

1.4 Review Questions

Scientific methods used by scientists vary from lab to lab and
situation to situation. One approach to scientific studies is to follow
a five
step process in which a question is asked and answered.
Outline these five steps.

Why do valid experiments contain many trials repeating the same
version of an experiment?

In a conclusion, evidence for statements must be given. Describe
the kind if evidence that is given in a conclusion statement.

Name two ways that scientists share their experimental results with
other scientists.

One of the fastest growing commercial industries

Career opportunities in:





Applied chemistry


Computer science

Industry will be studying DNA sequence for most of the


1.5 Careers in the Biotechnology Industry

Educational Requirements

Bachelor of Science Degree


Molecular biology


year college degree

High school specialization

More advanced degrees

Master of Science

Master of Arts

Doctor of Philosophy

Postdoctoral research experience

Nonscientific Positions and
Educational Requirements

Employees in nonscientific positions must have
an interest in and understanding of the science
of biotechnology.






Human resources

Administrative staff

Categories of Biotechnology Jobs

Scientific Positions

Research and Development

Manufacturing and Production

Clinical Research

Quality Control

Nonscientific Positions

Information Systems

Marketing and Sales

Regulatory Affairs

Administration/Legal Affairs



one entire set of an organism’s genetic material (from a single cell)


the study of the chemical reactions occurring in living things

Molecular biology

the study of molecules that are found in cells


the study of genes and how they are inherited and expressed

1.5 Review Questions

For which types of biotechnology employees is there currently a large
demand? What are the educational requirements for these types of

Scientific positions in most biotechnology companies fall into one of
four categories. List them.

Why might having laboratory experience be a benefit for a
nonscientific employee at a biotechnology company?

1.6 Biotechnology with a Conscience


How do we learn what is right and wrong behavior?

As new situations arise in your life, how do you decide
what is acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable?

How do you decide what is fair and just?

Moral Standards

Being able to distinguish between right and wrong and to make
decisions based on that knowledge is considered “having good

The study of moral standards and how they affect conduct is called

New technologies generate ethical questions that cannot be
answered using scientific methods.

Products are regulated by FDA, USDA, and EPA.

Strategy for Values Clarification

Identify and understand the problem or issue. Learn as much as possible
about the issue.

List all possible solutions to the issue.

Identify the pros and cons of adopting each solution. Examine the
consequences of adopting one solution (or position) as opposed to
another. Consider legal, financial, medical, personal, social, and
environmental aspects.

Based on the pros and cons for each solution, rank all solutions from best
to worst.

Decide if the problem is important enough to take a position. If it is,
decide what your position is and be prepared to describe and defend it.

1.6 Review Questions

Define the term “bioethics.”

Give an example of an event that might lead a lab employee to be
faced with an ethical issue.

Describe how the Strategy for Values Clarification can be used to
solve a problem such as the use of embryonic stem cells for basic

Questions and Comments?