Plant-based pharmaceuticals are genetically engineered plants, that ...

mutebabiesΒιοτεχνολογία

6 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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New Technologies


Produce human proteins in plants


Plant based pharmaceuticals


Made from or using
rDNA

Purification technologies

Biotechnology and Agriculture


Agriculture


To produce crops that:


Self protected


pest/disease


Withstand drought/extreme conditions


Higher
-
quality of food


Larger quantities (increase yield)


Enhanced crops


Vitamins


Edible vaccines


medications

Biotech Applications


Animal/livestock


Plant food


Fiber crops


Soil science


Forestry


Horticulture


Aquaculture


Biotech Practice


Breeding (roses, lettuce, animal)


Tissue culture (orchids, grasses)


Genetic engineering (corn, soy, cotton)



How are plant
-
based
pharmaceuticals related to
genetically engineered organisms?



Plant
-
based pharmaceuticals are
genetically engineered plants, that is,
engineered to produce human
pharmaceuticals. Plant
-
based
pharmaceuticals have altered genetic
codes to produce human proteins for
harvest from the transformed plants.


Which is larger, genomic DNA(gDNA)or
plasmidDNA(pDNA),and by how much?


Answer: Genomic DNA is much larger than
plasmid DNA with base pairs in the billions.
Plasmid DNA may have up to several thousand
base pairs in the strand.


Plant DNA is difficult to extract from plant
cells. List a few

tricks


that biotechnologists
use to isolate plant DNA.


Answer: Answers will vary, but a few

tricks


that biotechnologists use to isolate plant DNA
include freezing plant tissue with liquid
nitrogen, using a chloroform/isoamyl alcohol
mixture, or using commercially developed
plant DNA isolation kits.


Why is the bacterium,
Agrobacterium
tumefaciens
,of interest to biotechnologists?
Answer: Agrobacterium is a naturally
occurring bacterium that will transfer plasmids
into plant cells.


Why is Ti plasmid of interest to
biotechnologists?


Answer: Ti plasmid is the naturally occurring
plasmid in Agrobacterium that is transferred
during plant genetic engineering. Scientists
can cut and paste genes of interest into the Ti
plasmid and use the recombinant Ti plasmid
to carry genes of interest into cells.



What are the names of the naturally occurring
bacterium and the plasmid that can infect
plants and transfer DNA molecules?


Answer: The bacterium that can infect plants
and transfer DNA molecules is called
Agrobacterium, and the plasmid is the Ti
plasmid.


Name at least two selection genes that are
used to confirm that Ti plasmid
transformation has occurred.


Answer: Answers may vary, but selection
genes that may be used to confirm that Ti
plasmid transformation has occurred could
include any of the following: neomycin
phosphotransferase (NPT II), GUS, or GFP.


How does GUS act as a selection gene?


Answer: The GUS gene produces β
-
glucuronidase, which breaks down X
-
Gluc
from a colorless to a blue product. A blue
precipitate forms in colonies that are
transformed with the GUS gene and that are
responsible for the glucuronidase reaction.


Why are so many plant genetic
-
engineering
experiments conducted with Arabidopsis, even
though it has little, if any, economic value?


Answer: Many plant genetic
-
engineering
experiments are conducted with Arabidopsis
because it is hoped that once mechanisms of
genetic engineering are understood in
Arabidopsis, the technology can be transferred to
other plants of economic or ecological
importance.


Besides using the Ti plasmid, name another
way that foreign genes might be transferred to
plant cells.


Answer: Answers will vary, but two
possibilities are, 1) using a virus as a vector; or
2) using a

gene gun


to inject DNA into
protoplasts.


Suggest a method for creating a recombinant soybean
plant that contains and expresses a human insulin
gene.


Answers may vary. One approach could be that a
recombinant Ti plasmid could be constructed with an
inserted human insulin gene. The new plasmid could
be inserted into Agrobacterium and Agrobacterium
used to inoculate soybean tissue with the recombinant
Ti plasmid. If the Ti plasmid transforms the soybean
tissue, and the tissue is cultured on plant tissue culture
media, transformed plantlets may arise.


What might be the value and application of
plants such as the one discussed in question
No.7?


Answer: The plant parts (soybeans) could be
given or fed to diabetic persons as medicine,
or the plants could be ground up and the
insulin purified for use as a pharmaceutical.