Globalization of Corporate R&D - a conceptual framework

mutebabiesΒιοτεχνολογία

6 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

167 εμφανίσεις

Policies to attract and benefit
from globalization of R&D

Prasada Reddy

Research Policy Institute

Lund University

Sweden

Category of R&D units


Technology transfer units (TTUs)
-

to facilitate transfer of parent’s
technology to affiliate and local technical services;


Indigenous technology units (ITUs)
-

to develop new products for the
local markets, drawing on local technology;


Global technology units (GTUs)
-

to develop new products and
processes for major world markets


Corporate technology units (CTUs)
-

to generate basic technology of a
long term nature for corporate use (Ronstadt, 1977);


Regional technology units (RTU)
-

to develop products for the regional
markets.

Corporate R&D
-

prior to the 1960s

Home Country
-
based R&D



-

need for coordination between manufacturing, R&D,
finance & marketing,


-

R&D scale economies.


-

sophisticated and advanced home markets,


-

technologically advanced home economies.


Evolution of Globalization of R&D
-

1960s

The beginnings of internationalization of R&D
-

first wave
TTUs (adaptation R&D)
-



-

need to tap markets abroad,


-

technology transfer for cost effective production.


-

large local markets,


-

proximity to production facilities.

Category of industries
-

mechanical, electrical, and
engineering, including automobiles.

Evolution of Globalization of R&D
-

1970s

The growth of internationalization of R&D
-

second wave
ITUs


-

to enhance market share in local markets abroad,


-

need to understand sensitivity of local consumer,


-

host country government policies.


-

large and protected markets with unique characteristics,


-

proximity to market and production.

Category of Industries
-

branded packaged consumer goods,
chemicals and allied products.

Evolution of Globalization of R&D
-

1980s
(1)

External forces in the business environment:


-

liberalization of economies worldwide,


-

homogenization of consumer preferences worldwide,


-

emergence of regional markets,


-

science
-
base of new technologies and multidisciplinary
innovations.

Internal forces:


-

rationalization of TNCs’ operations, leading to
specialization of affiliates,


-

world and regional product mandates for affiliates

Evolution of Globalization of R&D
-

1980s
(2)

From internationalization to globalization of R&D
-

third
wave GTUs/RTUs/CTUs


-

need for monitoring and learning the new trends
worldwide,


-

need for multi
-
sourcing of technology inputs.


-

improved information and communication technologies,


-

flexibility of new technologies allows de
-
linking of
manufacturing & R&D,


-

comparative advantages of host countries.

Category of Industries
-

microelectronics, pharmaceuticals,
biotechnology and new materials.

Evolution of Globalization of R&D
-

1990s

Evolving patterns globalization of R&D
-

fourth wave
(location of R&D outside the industrialized world)


-

shortage of R&D personnel in industrialized world,


-

increasing R&D costs.


-

availability of R&D personnel at lower costs in some
developing countries,


-

divisibility of R&D into core and non
-
core activities,


-

changes in policy regimes, including intellectual property
rights in host countries.

Category of Industries
-

microelectronics, pharmaceuticals,
biotechnology and new materials.

National Policies for attracting global R&D 1


General Agreement on Trade in Services
(GATS)
-

R&D as a service (trade affiliate
to parent)


R&D as a Performance Requirement


-

International framework, TRIMs, PTIAs
& BITs


-

Incentives vs. subsidies (SCM Agreement)

National Policies for attracting global R&D 2


Performance requirements
-

implications for type of R&D.


Standards & Regulations (depends on the size of the
market).


-

technology monitoring units

Supply
-
side:

Strengthen national innovation system (domestic R&D, start
-
ups)

Driving force
-

access to skills

Access to national research programs

Regional Policies for global R&D


Availability of human resources (numbers) in
required specializations.


Programs in local universities.


Science Parks (thematic).


Focus on areas of competitive strength


Cluster development


Incubators


Regional Investment Promotion Agency