Saint Leo University VIDEO TEACHING & TRAINING STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

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Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

1



Saint Leo University

VIDEO TEACHING & TRAINING

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES


Revision: February 7, 2011





Office of University Technology Services

Mail Code: 2066

33701 State Road 52

PO Box 6665

Saint Leo FL 33574
-
6665






Table of Contents


INTRODUCTION

................................
................................
................................
..................
2

TAB A

VTT PROGRAM POINTS O
F CONTACT

................................
..............................
3

TAB B

ITEACH VTT SITE RESP
ONSIB
ILITIES

................................
..............................
5

TAB C


PERSONNEL RESPONSIBI
LITIES

................................
................................
.......
6

TAB D

DAILY OPERATIONS

................................
................................
..........................
8

TAB E

SCHEDULING PROCEDURE
S

................................
................................
...........

10

TAB F

VTT COURSE DEVELOPME
NT GUIDELINES

................................
..................

12

TAB G

GUIDELINES FOR TEACH
ING WITH VTT
................................
........................

14

TAB H

FACILITATOR GUIDE

................................
................................
.......................

16

TAB I


VIDEO CONFERENCING E
TTIQUETTE

................................
............................

18

TAB J


REPORTING
REQUIREMENTS

................................
................................
..........

20

TAB K


NEW SITE IMPLEMENTAT
ION CRITERIA

................................
.......................

21

TAB L

GLOSSARY

................................
................................
................................
........

22

TAB M

INCLEMENT WEATHER AN
D CENTER CLOSURE PRO
CEDURES

.................

52

TAB N

APPENDICES

................................
................................
................................
.....

53

VIDEO CONFERENCE

CRITIQUE
................................
................................
..................

54

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

2

Introduction


This documentation is modeled after the standard operating procedures of the United States Navy
video conferencing network and augmented with original materials developed by Saint Leo
University Office of Information Technolog
y. Its purpose is to communicate the standards and
procedures used to deliver instructional and conferencing content via the video conferencing
systems operated by Saint Leo University. Questions regarding this documentation should be
forwarded to:


VTT
Project Manager

Office of University Technology Services


ITEACH

The Saint Leo University VTT system is known as
ITEACH
-

Interactive Teleconferencing
Education and Conferencing Halls
. ITEACH is a network of video conferencing and
multimedia classrooms l
ocated at the University campus and University Centers throughout the
United States. ITEACH utilizes state
-
of
-
the art videoconferencing technology to provide
educational services to Saint Leo students, faculty and staff.


Online Resources

Many resources,

including this documentation and the Conference Scheduling Request Form are
available on the VTT web site at
http://www.sai ntleo.edu/vtt

.

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

3


TAB A

VTT PROGRAM POINTS O
F CONTACT


Chief Information Officer

Overall
Operational Responsibility


Les Lloyd

Mail Code: 2066

Phone: 352
-
588
-
8415

FAX: (352) 588
-
8505

Email:
les.lloyd@saintleo.edu


VP of Continuing Education

Responsible for Academic Program and Schedule Administrat
ion


Dr. Edward Dadez

Mail Code: MC 2277

Phone: (352) 588
-
8206

FAX: (352) 588
-
8207

Email:
ed.dadez@saintleo.edu



Associate Chief Information Officer and Chief Security Officer

Responsible for VTT contracts,

technology, and staff


Steven Carroll

Mail Code: 2066

Phone: 352
-
588
-
7551

FAX: (352) 588
-
8505

Email:
steven.carroll@saintleo.edu


Project Manager for VTT

Responsible for scheduling of VTT courses and co
ordinating technology training courses and
basic training for use of VTT facilities.




Gertrude Jean Pierre

Mail Code: 2066

Phone: 352
-
588
-
7444

FAX: (352) 588
-
8505

Email:
gertrude.pierre@saintleo.edu


Technology Manager for VTT

Responsible for VTT operations, bridge management, codec updates and other technical matters
concerning the operation of the ITEACH system.




Patrick Mark McCartney

Mail Code: 2066

Phone: 352
-
588
-
8208

FAX: (352) 588
-
6425

Emai
l:
mark.mccartney@saintleo.edu


Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

4

Instructional Designer for VTT

Responsible for VTT pedagogical and methods training and working with faculty to design
courses for VTT delivery.


Claudia Ruiz

Mail Code:
MC 2066

Phone: 352
-
588
-
7542

FAX: (352) 588
-
7378

Email:
claudia.ruiz@saintleo.edu



Network Manager

Responsible for network management and reporting. Establishing network connectivity at new
sites.


Howar
d Berg

Mail Code: 2066

Phone: (352) 588
-
7576

FAX: (352) 588
-
8505

Phone: (352) 588
-
8495

Email:

howard.berg
@saintleo.edu


VTT Technicians

Responsible for ma
intaining the bridge and troubleshooting VTT.




Darius Lewis

Mail Code: 2066

Phone: 352
-
588
-
7582

FAX: (352) 588
-
6425

Email:
darius.lewis@saintleo.edu




Robert Ballard

Mail Code: 2066

Phone: 352
-
588
-
7571


FAX: (352) 588
-
6425

Email:
robert.ballard@saintleo.edu


Help Desk Support Technician

Responsible for help desk operations, trouble ticket recording, trouble triage, problem escalation
and resolution assu
rance.


Phone: 352
-
588
-
8888

Email:
Helpdesk@saintleo.edu



University Center Directors

Overall responsibilities for University Center operations.


Directory:
http://www.saintleo.edu/SaintLeo/Templates/Inner.aspx?pid=103




Table of Contents

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

5


TAB B

ITEACH VTT SITE RESP
ONSIBILITIES


The following defines the responsibilities of all VTT sites:


1. Provide VTT Site C
oordination

a)

Each VTT site will provide a Saint Leo staff member to provide local site coordination of
VTT related activities. Site coordinators perform many of the same support functions
provided traditional face
-
to
-
face courses.

b)

Each VTT site will ident
ify to the VTT Project Manager at the University Campus a
point of contact for matters concerning VTT operations.

c)

The site coordinator assists the VTT at the University Campus with scheduling facilities,
disbursement of materials to facilitators and facult
y and identification of facilitators.

d)

Ensures adequate classroom space is identified to include tables, chairs, carpeting,
lighting and electrical power.

e)

Provide a ‘drop box” location for course facilitators to drop
-
off course materials collected
in class
per the faculty member’s instructions.

f)

Reports to the VP of Continuing Education the educational needs of the site.


2. Provide VTT Course Facilitation

a)

Each VTT site will identify at least one University Center staff members who will
participate in basic t
raining for operation of VTT equipment and facilitation.

b)

Site facilitators must be trained and qualified to operate VTT equipment and facilitate the
classroom in accordance with this instruction. Hands
-
on training of facilitators is
provided by the Offic
e of University Technology Services, by arrangement with local
University Center or online. All site facilitators will comply with this instruction

c)

For academic courses, each VTT site will identify a site facilitator. This facilitator may
be a Universit
y staff member, student, or a student in the academic course. Personnel
performing duty as site facilitators may be University staff, selected students, or
temporary contracted personnel. These people are capable of providing basic facilitation
of the VTT
equipment.

d)

Academic course site facilitators will be compensated one
-
hundred and fifty dollars
$150

at the end of the course.

e)

Ensure the availability and report any problems with network communication lines to or
attached equipment in the VTT classroom(s
) and office area.


3. Provide Course Enrollment Services

a)

In accordance with University policies, each VTT site will provide enrollment and
support services to students learning at that site

b)

The VTT sites will be assigned course codes by the University Re
gistrar for instruction
delivered at each site.

c)

University Centers are responsible to advertise, advise, enroll and support students
attending VTT courses at their location in the same way that they support students
learning in traditional courses.

d)

Stude
nts may enroll for courses via eLion or in person at the Center.


Table of Contents


Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

6


TAB C

PERSONNEL RESPONSIBI
LITIES


The responsibilities of key principals in the operation of the ITEACH VTT system are:


1. Associate Chief Infor
mation Officer

a)

Overall responsibility for VTT technical operations and support services.

b)

Maintain operational budget for hub and sites for travel, peripheral equipment, and
services.

c)

Compose funding proposals and fund proposal presentations for efforts tow
ard expansion
and/or modification of the ITEACH Network.

d)

Maintain operational standards, policies and procedures for operating the ITEACH
system.

e)

Put forth plans for the expansion and standard operating procedures and policies of the
ITEACH system.


2. VTT

Project Manager


.

a)

Assist the Associate CIO to maintain accuracy and currency of VTT web page.

b)

Coordinate VTT course schedule with campus and remote sites.

c)

Manage and promulgate network schedule for all VTT sites.

d)

Ensure staff and faculty training is con
ducted for remote sites.

e)

Reserve rooms and VTT equipment for classes and meetings.

f)

Use Polycom Conference Suite to provide course/conference schedule to new sites and
ensure sites are added to the schedule to teach/receive courses.


3. ITEACH Video Confe
rencing Technician


a)

Supervise daily operation and maintenance of equipment in accordance with these
standard operating procedures. Configure hub as required to support training and
conferencing.

b)

Manage and operate hub and remote sites in accordance with th
is instruction.
Troubleshoot hub and remote site outages in a timely manner, coordinating with
equipment and communications link providers as required.

c)

Ensure the accurate programming and scheduling of courses and conferences into bridge.

d)

Keep current on n
ew technologies and advise the Project Manager on equipment
upgrades/enhancements that could improve network operations.

e)

Assist in the implementations of new sites that will be added to the hub. Assistance will
include testing communication lines, equipmen
t, and peripheral devices.

f)

Use

Polycom Global Management System

to monitor, manage and update end
-
points in
the ITEACH system.

g)

Use
Polycom Conference Suite

to provide course/conference schedule to new sites and
ensure sites are added to the schedule to tea
ch/receive courses.

h)

Use Polycom Bridge Management Software to schedule, monitor and control conferences
as required.

i)

Provide site facilitation and train remote site technician/facilitators, either locally at the
Centers or via the VTT system.

j)

Conduct instr
uctor/presenter orientation training as required.

k)

Coordinate procurement of equipment and technical assistance between equipment
contractor and the hub sites.

l)

Perform facilitator duties as required, as shown in TAB H.


Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

7


4.
Network Manager

a)

Establish new co
mmunications lines according to plans and needs as expressed by the
CIO.

b)

Monitor/manage all communication lines for VTT applications.

c)

Provide monthly reports on network utilization or outages.

d)

Ensure QOS parameters are fully functional and operating accord
ing to design.


5. VP of Continuing Education


a)

Coordinate VTT course research and selection with Center Directors, faculty and Deans.

b)

Oversee marketing and advertising of VTT services, courses, and conferences for the
Center’s region. Ensure remote sites p
romote and advertise the VTT courses to students
in their area.

c)

Monitor retention and course satisfaction metrics relative to Saint Leo University
standards and other modes of instructional delivery.

d)

Consult with site facilitators to determine the most ef
fective means to increase utilization
and throughput.


6. Instructional Design Technician

a)

Provide assistance and coordination for the transition of online and traditional courses to
VTT format

b)

Conduct instructor/presenter orientation training.

c)

Provide p
edagogical and content development support for Instruction, Training and
Administrative meetings.

d)


Review training/conference materials for suitability in accordance with established SLU
standards.


7. Registrar

a)

Finalize course schedules and assign course
numbers for VTT courses at each site.

b)

Oversee data entry of courses into Datatel system according to University standards.


8. Site Facilitator (Remote and Host)

a)

Supervise remote site operation and configuration of equipment in accordance with the
standard

operating procedures.

b)

Report site outages in a timely manner, coordinating with help desk technicians as
required.

c)

Provide monthly site schedule and all updates to local quota control as appropriate.

d)

Inform hub site of the number of expected students for
each convening at least 1 day in
advance.

e)

Provide student/attendee utilization figures to hub manager at the end of each week (copy
to chain of command encouraged).


9. Help Desk

a)

Provide call center services, trouble ticket collection and problem redirect
ion and
escalation.



Table of Contents



Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

8


TAB D

DAILY OPERATIONS


1. Hours of Operation

Standard hours of operation are:


0800 to 2200 EST Monday
-
Thursday.

0800 to 1700 EST Friday
-
Saturday


Facilitation services are available o
n off
-
hours by arrangement.

All participating sites must be capable of full operation no later than 0800 EST. Conferences
involving multiple time zones sites can usually be scheduled to accommodate time differences.


2. Terminology

The following terms app
ly to the procedures contained in this SOP:

a)

Host

-

VTT site where the course instructor is physically located.

b)

Remote Site

-

VTT site other than the host site participating in the course or conference.
There will normally be multiple remote sites for each

host site.


3. Daily Schedule

It is generally desirable to leave the equipment powered on at all times. This ensures that the
equipment is ready to go and that the VTT technicians can perform remote updates and diagnostic
procedures. The Polycom units wi
ll enter “sleep mode” after 3 minutes of non
-
use when not in a
conference. However, it is recognized that the University shares space at Centers with other
entities and as such, it may be necessary to power down and/or move the equipment out of the
way o
f other classes. The VTT technicians may coordinate alternative locations outside of the
classroom(s) where the equipment can be plugged in and used for meetings or stored.


4. Startup

When a site’s first event of the day is scheduled to start later in th
e day, the site staff or site
facilitator must power up the equipment in the morning upon arrival This will provide the VTT
Technician the opportunity to perform maintenance during off
-
hours and test the equipment well
in advance of the next planned use.


By 0900 hours
: In a priority order based on scheduled start times, the VTT technician will
configure and/or confirm the network as required and/or provide coordination instructions for the
day’s schedule by at least 0900 hours the day of an event.


By 30

minutes prior to session



1.

The Course Facilitators should follow the guidelines established for course
facilitation. See TAB H for more details.


Within 15 minutes prior to scheduled start time

-

Make final assurance of good audio and video
capability wit
h site facilitators and participation of all scheduled sites. Turn over video
conference to faculty member, presenter or meeting organizer.


At conclusion



Site facilitator administers critique of session if appropriate. Problem reports
are forwarded
to the VTT Technology Manager and Project Manager.


At 15 minutes after scheduled complete time



terminate bridged conference.


Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

9

Report Problems Promptly

It is critical to immediately report all technical problems to the VTT technician. Sites that have
no
t been active for more than 72 hours will conduct on
-
line systems test with the hub 1 day prior
to their next scheduled network operation. Sites should indicate coordination of this test via
phone with the hub technician.




Table of
Contents

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

10

TAB E

SCHEDULING PROCEDURE
S


1. Scheduling Authorities

a.

The VP of Continuing Education is responsible for researching and coordination
course needs. Requests or questions concerning possible courses and sites should
be directed to that office.

b.

A
cademic scheduling is centrally managed by the Office of the Registrar.
Questions concerning academic schedules should be directed to that office.

c.

Technical scheduling and bridge programming of VTT sessions is centrally
managed by the University Technolog
y Service and managed by the VTT
Technology Manager


2. Non
-
Bridged Conferences

Conferences that do not used the centralized bridge services to connection end
-
points are
generally referred to as non
-
bridged conferences.


a)

The use of VTT equipment for sponta
neous point
-
to
-
point communication between
sites is encouraged. Coordination for such use can be managed independent of
central authority or bridge requirements. However, such spontaneous use is only
allowed if the VTT facilities are not otherwise sched
uled for use.

b)

Most VTT endpoints are capable of performing multi
-
participant conferences without
the use of a bridge. However, this method is not advised as additional network
resources are used which could impact other mission critical computing activi
ties at
the site.


3. Bridged Conferences

Conferences that use the central bridge or multipoint control unit can take advantage of such
features as continuous presence, dial
-
in phone participants and other features. It is also generally
considered a more
efficient use of networking resources to use a bridged service when multiple
sites are participating in a conference.


a)

Academic courses are automatically scheduled into the bridge by the VTT
Technicians using
Polycom’s PCS software

and according to the sch
edule provided
by the VTT Project Manager. The VTT Project Manager will provide the VTT
Technicians with the course schedule at least 21 days prior to the first meeting of the
course.

b)

Meetings, seminars and other conferences can be scheduled by:

1)

Completi
ng the online form at
http://www.saintleo.edu/SaintLeo/Templates/Inner.aspx?pid=15658 or

2)

Contacting the VTT Project Manager by phone or email to request a
reservation.

c)

The VTT Project Manager will coordinate with conference schedulers to verify
informatio
n and determine specific technical settings for each conference. The
information and settings essential include:


1)

The participating sites.

2)

Date and start/finish times of conference

3)

Continuous presence settings. (how many sites will be seen concurrently)

4)

P
eople and content settings: Will content be shown (computer based
images)?

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

11

5)

Special media requests or other technical needs.


4. Scheduling Priority

Academic instruction is the first priority. Academic course scheduling can be guaranteed only
within a 21
-
d
ay window of the course start date. Scheduling priorities are established below.
Schedule requests are made by online, by phone, fax, or message to the VTT Project Manager
and centrally collated on the master schedule at the VTT web site. The master schedu
le is
continuously updated as needed and is sent via email to all VTT Center Directors.


A. Scheduling priority follows:

(1)

Base Command Priority
. On military bases, base command will be provided top priority
use of the VTT system.

(2)

First Priority
. Academic,

for credit, courses. Course requests are made in accordance with
institutional policies and procedures and are the responsibility of the VTT Project
Manager and VP of Continuing Education. The VTT Project Manager in collaboration
with the Center Director
s will establish the course schedule and meetings in accordance
with approved curriculum guides. The course schedule is then forwarded to the VTT
Technology Manager and technicians for input into the Polycom PCS scheduling system
and master schedule calend
ar.

(3)

Second Priority
. Non
-
Credit Courses, faculty development workshops and staff skills
development workshops.

(4)

Third Priority
. Administrative functions and Special Events

(5)

Fourth Priority
. All other activities

(6)

Guest Priority
. Other educational institutio
ns may use the VTT system by making an
advance request to the Assoicate CIO.

2. The VTT Project Manager will produce a monthly utilization report.

3. Points of contact to schedule VTT courses or conferences follow:



VTT Project Manager, Mica Jean Pierre

Phone: 352
-
588
-
7444

Email:
gertrude.pierre@saintleo.edu




Table of Contents

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

12

TAB F

VTT COURSE DEVELOPME
NT GUIDELINES


The full text of the VTT Course Development Guideline can be f
ound online on the VTT website
(
http://www.saintleo.edu/VTT
) . The key points of this document are summarized here. The
following guidelines provide information concerning the adaptation and development of co
urse
materials for delivery in a VTT environment.

1. Conduct a high level review.

Review your current course curriculum and see how it could be adjusted. Examination
of the following questions provides a means of stimulating new thoughts and consider of

different approaches to old teaching challenges:

a.

How can I shift from teacher
-
centered teaching to student
-
centered learning?

b.

Which course components need to be synchronous and which can be
done off
-
line?

c.

How can I design a course with appropriate intera
ctive components?

d.

How can I approach assessment differently in order to measure learning?



2. Planning a course is a multi
-
step process that requires the following general steps:

I.

Determine course
objectives
.

Step 1.

Who are your students?

Step 2.

What do they need to

know?

Step 3.

What do they already know?

Step 4.

What will they learn in this course?

II.

Select and sequence course

activities
.

Step 5.

What activities or tasks will student participate in?

III.

Select or assemble instructional
materials
.

Step 6.

What technology or teaching tools might you us
e?

Step 7.


Do you need to create materials, templates, websites or other
materials?

Step 8.

Do you need to get permissions for copyrighted content?

IV.

Determine
evaluation

techniques and assessment mechanisms

Step 9.

How will you assess your students?

Step 10.

How will you get feedback
on your class?

3. Planning a Course Session

a.

Establish Session Objectives

b.

Determine Methods and Activities

c.

Identify the Course Materials

d.

Plan On
-
camera Time

e.

Create Equipment Cues

f.

Prepare Prior to the session


2.

Checklist for the First Class Meeting

a.

Warn stu
dents about the presence of cameras and microphones.

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

13

b.

Explain the use of push
-
to
-
talk microphones if you will be using them.

c.

Explain what your plan is if the video conferencing system fails.

d.

Describe how the facilitator will be setting up and testing the
equipment
prior to each class session.

e.

Have students review the video conferencing etiquette guide.

f.

Set Guidelines and Explain Procedures for Answering Questions

g.

Stress the importance of reducing background noise and use of the .


h.

Clearly establish your e
xpectations for student participation in the course.

i.

Try to get students comfortable with the new way of communicating.

j.

Discuss importance of pre
-
assigned activities.

k.

On
-
Air time is important clearly identify and stress those activities that
must occur o
utside of the on
-
air time.

l.

If you will be posting materials to the web make sure students can access
the website.

m.

Make sure you provide an opportunity to interact in a fun way as part of
your learning exercises. In doing so, students will engage the cou
rse
and each other more enthusiastically.


In addition the course of development, it cannot be stressed enough that sufficient time and
practice be given before attempting to deliver a VTT class.





Table of Contents

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

14

TAB G

GUIDELIN
ES FOR TEACHING WITH

VTT


The following summarizes the contents of the “
Guidelines for Teaching with Video
Conferencing.”

Available on the VTT website at
http://www.saintleo.edu/VTT



The ITEACH system has been configured to make VTT as similar as possible to a traditional
classroom environment, and to make the use of VTT as transparent as possible to the instructors.
However, it is i
mportant that faculty and presenters adequately prepare and practice teaching in
this environment the following points should be followed:


(1)

Attend the VTT Instructor Training Course offered over the ITEACH system. For a
schedule of trainings, contact the V
TT Project Manager.

(2)

Observe another VTT class in session before actually using the system. If possible, do
some practice teaching on the system to remote sites, which can be recorded and
reviewed. Portions of the actual instruction may also be recorded to
evaluate teaching
effectiveness on VTT if desired.

(3)

Ensure graphics meet the established criteria. Consider converting hard copies to Power
Point Graphics if the ELMO, or overhead projector, will be used extensively (this
streamlines your presentation and f
acilitates switching between graphics).

(4)

Wear appropriate clothing in solid color patterns. Neutral colors work best. Avoid
large and bright jewelry pieces.

(5)

Speak more slowly and clearly.

(6)

Have students switch cellular phones or other electronics to the off

or “silent” position
to avoid interruptions.

(7)

Ensure course materials, master course schedule, and course proctor guides are
delivered to the participating sites, and that site facilitators have been briefed on any
specific requirements (e.g., provide a sc
hedule for distributing course materials,
describe any classroom reconfiguration required, provide guidance on grading
examinations to include remediation techniques and two versions of final examination,
etc.).

(8)

Do a communications check with each receivin
g site before continuing instruction after
a break. Notify the facilitator if any site appears to be missing.

(9)

Maintain eye contact with the camera as much as possible.

(10)

View the receiving sites on the rear monitor. When a student at one of the sites presse
s
the push
-
to
-
talk microphone and begins speaking, that student’s site will be displayed.
This allows virtual face
-
to
-
face interaction.

(11)

Encourage students with questions to wait to be recognized before asking them. Data
compression can delay audio transmis
sion by up to 2/3 of a second. The effect is
similar to a cellular phone call. When more than one site speaks at the same time, all
will be heard, but the system will select only one to display. Determine who else has
spoken and ask them to be patient unti
l it is their turn to be recognized.

(12)

Ensure students at your site depress the push
-
to
-
talk microphone when asking questions
so remote sites will hear them.

(13)

Repeat all questions from students to ensure all sites heard them.

(14)

Notify the facilitator of any pr
oblems encountered with the system or equipment
operation, particularly if any of the prompts listed in TAB D are displayed.

(15)

Modify standard questioning strategies to keep receiving sites actively engaged.
Calling on the sites by location and the students
by name will help hold their interest.

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

15

(16)

Inform the students if you will be available on the system during breaks, at lunch, or
after class. Provide remote site students with time either before or after class for extra
instruction or one
-
on
-
one questions.

(17)

Mi
nimize rapid arm movement and fast pacing. Video compression reduces the clarity
of objects in motion.





Table of Contents

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

16


TAB H

FACILITATOR GUIDE


In modern educational philosophy the term "facilitator" is often preferred over "
instructor" since
the object is to facilitate learning. VTT facilitators, however, are not subject matter experts and
have no instructional duties. Their job is to make the VTT environment as pleasant and seamless
as possible for both students and instruct
or. This tab contains guidance for both host and remote
site facilitators.


1. Site Coordinator Responsibilities


At least two (2) weeks before class: Work with VTT Project Manager to identify facilitator
(Center staff or student)

a.

Contact class facilitator

and provide them with facilitator guideline information.

b.

Obtain signed facilitation contract agreement.

c.

Schedule facilitator training session if the facilitator is not previously certified.

d.

Contact course instructor/point of contact to verify course sched
ule and materials to be
used. If materials are not on hand, order 2 weeks out.

e.

Ensure instructions for course proctoring and testing are ready. These materials must be
distributed to the facilitators in advance.


2. Host Site Facilitator Responsibilities



a.

Ensure instructor knows how to operate all VTT presentation equipment, including the
touch screen controls. Be readily available for assistance until the instructor is
comfortable operating the equipment.

b.

Work with the instructor to ensure course present
ation materials are legible in the VTT
environment.

c.

The day prior to a convening, thoroughly prepare classroom, i.e., place materials on desk,
position cameras, and connect appropriate audio/visual media for particular use.

d.

Make sure the bridge is programm
ed with the participating sites and appropriate settings
(e.g. people + content, H263/4, continuous presence, etc.)

e.

Make adjustments to the cameras as required, and show the instructor how to adjust them
if required. Set camera presets as necessary. Posi
tion microphones.

f.

Before the conference begins, inform the instructor of any known issues or possible
interruptions that may occur during course of instruction.

g.

Show the students how to operate the push
-
to
-
talk microphone (remind them to ensure
the microph
ones are not activated unless they are actually being used). Stress to the
students co
-
located with the instructor that they must use the microphones so the other
sites can hear their questions. Direct them to give their name and site, then be recognized
b
y the instructor before asking their question. Remind the instructor to mute the podium
microphone during breaks to avoid inadvertent comments.

h.

Notify the VTT Technician of any problems encountered that cannot be immediately
rectified.




3.
Remote Site Fa
cilitator Responsibilities


The following summarizes the responsibilities of the remote site facilitator. Additional
facilitation materials are available online at
http://www.saintleo.edu/VTT

. A tri
-
fold
Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

17

bro
chure is also available to help facilitators prepare a classroom for video conferencing.


a.

30 minutes prior to the course start obtain materials from site coordinator for distribution
during class per faculty’s instructions.


b.

15
-
30 minutes prior to the star
t of the class thoroughly prepare classroom for
course/conference:

1.

Place course materials on desks,

2.

Position both TV carts and cameras.

3.

Verify power is turned on at both TVs and Polycom CODEC equipment

4.

Perform microphone checks to ensure proper audio volu
me,

5.

And connect appropriate audio/visual media for particular use.


c.

On first day of class distribute the VTT etiquette guidelines.

1.

Distribute the VTT etiquette flyers.

2.

Show the students how to operate the push
-
to
-
talk microphones.

3.

Direct the students to g
ive their name and site, and then be recognized by the
instructor before asking their question.

4.

Remind them that what the do and say can be seen and heard by other people
outside of the classroom.

5.

Remind them that all subject matter questions must be addre
ssed to the
instructor, not the local site facilitator.


d.

During the course

1.

remind students of good video conferencing etiquette as necessary. Make
adjustments with camera or volume and reposition microphones if necessary.

2.

Distribute materials per instruc
tor’s directions.

3.

If you have trouble during the course with the video or audio portion, contact
the hotline at
352
-
588
-
7400.


e.

At the end of the class session

1.

Collect all materials per instructor’s request and turn into the Center office.

2.

Return the chairs

and carts to their appropriate locations.

3.

Put away microphones and relocate carts to an appropriate spot in the
classroom. (LEAVE THE CODEC EQUIPMENT POWERED ON).

4.

Notify the VTT technicians via the VTT Class Report Form
(http://www.saintleo.edu/SaintLeo/T
emplates/Inner.aspx?pid=15660) of any
problems encountered that cannot be immediately rectified.


f.

At the end of the last course meeting, ensure students fill out course critiques upon
completion of course. Stress that comments are encouraged. Turn in the e
valuations to
the University Center Office.


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VTT Standard Operating Procedures

18


TAB I

VIDEO CONFERENCING E
TIQUETTE


Etiquette refers to a set of behaviors or community standards that a group of people has agreed to
abide by. The following informati
on outlines these behaviors in a video conferencing
environment. Your adherence will help ensure that videoconference is an enjoyable and
rewarding experience for everyone.


1. Review proper etiquette with students and attendees.

VTT etiquette should be
reviewed with students during the first course meeting and reinforced
periodically as necessary. A tri
-
fold brochure with these etiquette guidelines is available from
http:
//faculty.saintleo.edu/resources/Vidconf/etiquette_brochure.pdf
. Facilitators will provide a
copy of this document to each participant during the first course meeting. In addition, a short
introductory video on etiquette is also available on the web sit
e.


Video conferencing etiquette guidelines are:


Be Aware

First of all, please remember that there are cameras and microphones in a video
conferencing classroom. This means that you can be heard and seen by other people not
in the room even if we can’t s
ee or hear them.


Keeping Noise to a Minimum

Stray noises and side conversations within a video conference may distract from the
primary conversation. The microphones and speakers do not differentiate between
relevant and irrelevant sounds. They are ver
y sensitive and will readily pick up any
conversation, whispers or transmit a sneeze.

If there is a noisy activity at the participating sites planned during the videoconference,
mute the audio during the activity.


Use your Normal Voice

Be sure that your
speech is clear, loud enough to be heard in a regular situation (adjust
volume if need be), and slow enough to be easily understood.



Be aware of possible voice delays across the system and accommodate for the delays.


Look at the camera and far
-
site audi
ence when talking to ensure that you are interacting
with your far
-
end audience as well as the participants in the same room.


If you are
wearing a microphone, be sure the volume is properly adjusted.


If you are using a fixed
microphone, be sure that you
are in range to pick up your voice.


Keep Movements to a Minimum

Excessive movements can be very distracting and can degrade video quality. Avoid
rocking, pacing or dramatic gesturing.

Wear Video Friendly Clothing

Avoid bright or patterned clothing and f
lashy jewellery. These can be distractions over
televisions. Neutral or dark tones in solid patterns tend to work best in the video
conferencing setting. For fashion hints that work, take note of what TV news journalists
wear on the air.



Taking Turns
Talking

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VTT Standard Operating Procedures

19

In larger meetings, once the session has commenced, if you wish to speak, wait for the
chair to invite you to do so, wait for a suitable pause, or make a silent visual signal to the
chair of the meeting. It is easy to accidentally interrupt or talk

over someone, because of
the slight delay in audio between sites, and the comparative lack of ‘body language’.


Mute the Microphone When Not Talking

When your site is not the current focus, and if there is not an ongoing discussion, it is a
good idea to
mute the microphone. Coughs, sneezes or fidgets will otherwise be heard by
all, and will cause a distraction at every site. In a multipoint conference these noises will
cause your site to be the visual focus of the meeting.


Announce Yourself

When you do g
et the opportunity to speak, identify yourself if you are not known to the
other sites, and speak clearly. Try not to pause for too long, and, if necessary, indicate
when you have finished.


Start and End on Time

Be aware that the meeting needs to start an
d finish promptly, and take notice of any
instructions given by the chairperson. Be prepared for his/her invitations to contribute,
and explain explicitly if there are no further points from your site.



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Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

20

TAB J

RE
PORTING REQUIREMENTS


1. Cost avoidance is the term used to describe travel and per diem savings that are realized
through the use of VTT. Network
-
wide cost avoidance is carefully documented, since any
location not cost effective (i.e., does not save more
money than it costs to run) may be
disestablished as a VTT site.


2. Each site will track the following information and forward to the VTT Project Manager each
month for conferences not scheduled through VTT.


a.

Conferences or course sessions conducted in
cluding:

i.

Date and time of conference

ii.

Length of conference

iii.

Purpose of conference

iv.

Sites participating

v.

Names/number of participants at each site


2. VTT maintains logs of electronics and network problems. However, system outages must be
carefully documented
to provide matching evidence and determine overall system reliability and
impact. Remote sites will log all outages and reasons for outages.


a.

Hotline Notification: If an outage or problem occurs, the Hotline should be
immediately contacted.

b.

Summary Repor
t: A summary of outages should be included in the end
-
of
-
month
report provided to the VTT Project Manager. A brief summary of the impact of
outages on scheduled training should also be provided in this report.



Table of Contents

Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

21


TAB K

NEW SITE IMPLEMENTAT
ION CRITERIA


1. Implementation of additional sites will be limited by the availability of funding. Site evaluation
will include but is not limited to the following:


• Potential Cost Avoidance

• Sites requesting VTT

• Alternati
ve delive特 methods.

• Training

• University Strategic Plan.

• Existing VTT sites in close

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implementation. Although it is di晦fcult to p牥cisely
estimate potential savingsI the 景llowing
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Determine the number of potential students for VTT courses currently offered, or
which could be offered if demand was great enough.

b.

Availability of expert faculty near a University Cente
r for programs offered by
that site.

c.

Potential for travel savings and other administrative productivity gains.

d.

The combine all expected conferences and courses to estimate a total savings and
course enrollment revenue that a potential site could realize f
rom VTT. If the
total is somewhere near $30,000 per year, the site will almost certainly be cost
effective. An additional $25,000 (one
-
time cost) is also required for VTT and
peripheral equipment and room modifications.

e.

If the potential site teaches course
s other VTT locations could use, additional
cost savings could result. If the potential site teaches courses already available on
VTT, additional cost savings may result from eliminating the local instructor
costs.

f.

Sites that meet accreditation, contract,
strategic other critical issues that may be
facilitated by VTT, but do not meet savings potential criteria, will be reviewed on
a case
-
by
-
case basis and forwarded to the President’s staff for further
consideration.

g.

Initial requests for new VTT sites shoul
d be forwarded to the VP of Continuing
Education:


VP of Continuing Education

Mail Code: MC 2277

Saint Leo University

PO Box 6665

Saint Leo, FL 33574
-
6665

Phone: (352) 588
-
8206

FAX: (352) 588
-
8207


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Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

22


TAB L

GLOSSA
RY





1TR6

The German ISDN standards.

2B+D ISDN

One of the two network
-
to
-
customer interface standards defined under ISDN
(also called ISDN Basic Rate Interface). 2B+D ISDN comprises two B (bearer)
channels capable of transmitting 64kps of digitized in
formation from voice,
video, and data, and one D "data" channel for control information.

4CIF


Four times Common Intermediate Format: 704x576 pixels.



A

ACELP

Algebraic code excited linear prediction is a coding used for voice compression
The reference

to a 'code' is analogous to a 'look
-
up table' which contains likely
waveforms, which are based on statistical analysis of known signals (e.g.
human voice).

ADPCM

Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation. Differential pulse code modulation
that also u
ses adaptive quantitations; an audio coding algorithm which provides
a modest degree of compression together with good quality. Reduces
bandwidth requirements by storing differences between successive digital
samples rather than full values. An extension o
f the PCM audio encoding
format.

ADSL


Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. High bandwidth network technology that
transmits at a higher rate in one direction than the other.



AGC


Automatic Gain Control. Algorithm to normalize volume regardless of the
s
peaking persons position relative to microphone.


A
-
Law


Is used in Europe, A commanding method for encoding
-
decoding audio signals
in 30channel pulse
-
code
-
modulated (PCM) systems.

Algorithm


A computational procedure that includes a prescribed set of pro
cesses for the
solution of a problem in a finite number of steps; the underlying numerical or
computational method behind a code or process. Algorithms are fundamental to
image compression as they allow an information
-
intensive file or transmission
to be s
queezed to a more economical size.

AMI

Alternate mark inversion .The binary modulation code used by telephone
companies for data and digital voice transmission. AMI uses RZ coding in an
Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

23

alternate bipolar scheme, with logical zeros corresponding to 0 V, a
nd logical
ones alternating between + 3 V and
-

3 V. Self synchronization is possible with
this approach, but the number of continuous zeros must be limited.

ANSI

American National Standards Institute. The primary standards organization for
the U.S., ANS
I plays a significant role in defining ISDN standards.

Antialiasing

A method for smoothing the jagged edges (stair steps) often seen in graphics or
video. The method reduces the jagged edges by placing intermediate shades of
color or gray around the steps
.

ASF

Active Streaming Format. A Microsoft file format for digital video playback over
the Internet, or on a standalone computer. Kind of a wrapper around any of a
number of compression types, including MPEG. Part of Netshow, a proprietary
streaming media
solution from Microsoft. Biggest competitor is Real Networks.
While this 'wrapper' support many standard formats, ASF files are themselves
proprietary.

Auto
-
tracking

Feature of a Pan/Tilt/Zoom camera that enables it to follow a speaker either by
voice dete
ction (usual), by a color pattern recognition or by Radio signals (rare).
Helps to allow the speaker to move freely during a videoconference.

AVI

Audio Video Interleaved. A Microsoft format for digital audio and video playback
from Windows 3.1 Somewhat cr
oss
-
platform, but mostly a Windows format.
Has been replaced by the ASF format, but still used by some multimedia
developers.


API

Application Programming Interface. A software application used to request and
carry out lower
-
level services performed by a
computer operating system or a
telephone system operating system.

Application

An application is a software program that performs a particular useful function
for a user.

Application Sharing

This is a feature that allows two or more people to work toget
her when one the
individuals does not have the same application, or same version of the
application. In application sharing, one user launches the application and it runs
simultaneously. Both users can make changes to the information using the
keyboard and

mouse. Files associated with the application can be easily
transferred, so the results of the collaboration are available to both users
immediately. The person who launched the application can lock out the other
person from making changes, so the locked
-
o
ut person sees the application
running but cannot control it (view only or Application Viewing).



Application Viewing

In personal conferencing, the users sharing the application can see every
keystroke or mouse movement made by the one user who is runnin
g the
application. The other users have no control over the application.

ARP

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Address Resolution Protocol. The procedures and messages in any
communications protocol which resolve local addresses to those of the network.
In TCP/IP, the protocols for trans
lating between IP addresses and physical
addresses.

ARPANet

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
-

The precursor to the Internet.
Developed in the late 60's and early 70's by the US Department of Defence as
an experiment in wide
-
area
-
networking that

would survive a nuclear war.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a digital coding scheme
that is capable of representing 256 characters. ASCII is a 7
-
level code for
asynchronous character transmission over a network. It is a "unive
rsal" code;
for instance, a file that uses another coding scheme can nearly always be
saved as an ASCII text so other systems that use other coding schemes can
get at the data. With 7
-
level ASCII, an eighth bit can be used for parity checking
that can be d
efined as odd or even.

ASF

Active Streaming Format. A Microsoft file format for digital video playback over
the Internet, or on a standalone computer. Kind of a wrapper around any of a
number of compression types, including MPEG. Part of Netshow, a propri
etary
streaming media solution from Microsoft. Biggest competitor is Real Networks.
While this 'wrapper' support many standard formats, ASF files are themselves
proprietary.


Asynchronous

Lacking synchronization. A method of transmitting data over a netwo
rk using a
start bit at the beginning of a character and a stop bit at the end. The time
interval between characters may be of varying lengths. In video, a signal is
asynchronous when its timing differs from that of the system reference signal
.


AT&T 5ESS


The leading telephone switch platform, made by AT&T.

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode. High speed (up to 155 mbps), high bandwidth,
low
-
delay, transport technology, integrating multiple data types (voice, video,
and data). ITU has selected ATM as the basi
s for the future broadband network
because of its flexibility and suitability for both transmission and switching. Has
a lot of future expectations.

Audio

In video communications, electrical signals that carry sounds.

Audio Bridge

Equipment that mixes m
ultiple audio inputs and gives feedback to composite
audio to each station after removing the individual station's input.

B

B8ZS

Binary 8
-
Zero Substitution. Line
-
code type, used on T1 and E1 circuits, in which
a special code is substituted whenever 8 con
secutive zeros are sent through
the link. This code is then interpreted at the remote end of the connection. This
Saint Leo University

VTT Standard Operating Procedures

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technique guarantees ones density independent of the data stream. Sometimes
called bipolar 8
-
zero substitution.

B channel

The ISDN circuit
-
s
witched bearer channels, capable of transmitting 64kps of
digitized information.

B
-
ISDN


Broadband ISDN. The ITU
-
T is developing the B
-
ISDN standard, incorporating
the existing ISDN switching, signaling, multiplexing and transmission standards
into a high
er
-
speed specification that will support the need to move different
types of information around the public switched network.

Bandwidth


A term that defines the information carrying capacity of a channel. In analogue
systems, it is the difference between t
he highest frequency that a channel can
carry and the lowest, measured in hertz. In digital systems the unit of measure
of bandwidth is bits per second.

Bandwidth
-
on
-
demand


The ability to vary the transmission speed in support of various applications,
in
cluding videoconferencing. In videoconferencing applications, an inverse
multiplexor of I
-
Mux takes a digital signal that comes from a codec and divides
it into multiple 56 or 64 kbps channels for transmission across a switched digital
network. On the dist
ant end, a compatible I
-
Mux recombines these channels for
the receiving codec, and therefore ensures that even if the data takes different
transmission paths, it will be recombined at the receiving end.

Bearer mode


The type of coding or compression which

the telephone network is permitted to
perform on the bit stream carried on the bearer channel. In POTS, the bearer
mode will always be 3.1 kHz voice. A data bearer mode implies that the data
stream will not be compressed by the network (the connection is
clear channel.

Binary


A method of coding in which there are only two possible values: 0 and 1 for a
given digit. Each binary digit is called a "bit".

Bit


Binary Digit. The basic signaling unit in all digital transmission systems used.

Bit rate

(Bps)

T
he number of bits of information transmitted over a channel in a given second.

Bit rate allocation signal (BAS)


As specified in the ITU
-
T H.320 series of recommendations, bits in a frame that
enable the transmission of code words to describing the capabi
lity of a terminal.
Used to structure the capacity of the channel or synchronized multiple channels
in various ways and commanding a receiver to demultiplex and make use of the
constituent signals in such structures. The BAS signal is also used for control
s
and indications.


Blanking


An ordinary television signal consists of 30 separate still pictures or frames sent
every second. They occur so rapidly; the human eye blurs them together to
form an illusion of moving pictures. This is the basis for televisio
n and motion
picture systems. The blanking interval is that portion of the television signal that
occurs after one picture frame is sent and before the next one is transmitted.
During this period of time special data signals can be sent which will not be
p
icked up on an ordinary television receiver.

B
-
Mac


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A method of transmitting and scrambling colored television signals. In such
transmissions MAC (Multiplexed Analogue Component) signals are time
-
multiplexed with a digital burst containing digitized sound
, video synchronizing,
authorization, and information. MAC (A, B, C, D2) Subtypes refer to the various
methods used to transmit audio and data signals.

BONDING


Method for making several B channels look like one high
-
rate line by use of an
IMUX (inverse m
ultiplexer.)

bps


Bits per second, a unit of measurement of the speed of data transmission and
thus of bandwidth.

BRI


Basic Rate Interface. In ISDN there are two interfaces, the BRI and the PRI or
Primary Rate Interface. The BRI offers two circuit
-
switc
hed B (bearer) channels
of 64 kps each and one packet
-
switched D (delta) channel that is used for
exchanging signals with the network.

Bridge


In videoconferencing terminology, a bridge connects three or more conference
sites so that they can simultaneous
ly communicate. Bridges are often called
MCUs (Multiple Conferencing Units).

A bridge is also considered a device that interconnects LAN's or LAN segments
at the data
-
link layer of the OSI model to extend the LAN environment
physically. They work with fra
mes (as opposed to packets) of data, forwarding
them between networks. They learn station addresses and they resolve
problems with loops in the topology by participating in the spanning tree
algorithm

The term bridge can be used in audio conferencing to r
efer to a device t
e
hat
connects multiple voice calls so that all participants can hear and be heard.

Broadband


The term applied to networks having bandwidths significantly greater than that
found in telephony networks. Broadband systems are capable of ca
rrying a
large number of moving images of a vast quantity of data simultaneously.
Broadband techniques usually depend on coaxial or optical cable for
transmissions. They utilize multiplexing to permit the simultaneous operation of
multiple channels or serv
ices on a single cable. Frequently division multiplexing
or cell relay techniques can both be used in broadband transmission.

Buffering

The process by which a codec stores temporarily captured video frames before
encoding or decoding them in order to ensu
re regular and timely transmission
or reception. In videoconferencing, buffering is very limited, since
communications must take place in almost real
-
time, which allows for delays of
only a fraction of a second.

Byte


Is equal to 8 bits.

C

Caller ID


An
identification (number, name) of the party calling. Can be in a form of an IP
in case of Video Conferencing

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CAP set


Data passed between an MCS and a conferencing system that identifies the
capabilities of the equipment, such as audio coding and transfer r
ate
capabilities.

CCITT


Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and Telephony. Known as
the International Telecommunications Union.

CELP


Codebook Excited Linear Prediction. A digital voice compression technique
invented by AT&T, which provi
des good voice quality down to about 8kb/s and
sometimes to 4kb/s. The voice is first digitized as PCM and then passed
through CELP circuits. Like all source
-
coder systems, CELP transmits a
“profile” of the voice characteristics, and then reconstructs a cl
ose synthesis of
the voice at the other end.

CEPT


Comite Europeanne des Postes et Telecommunications: European Conference
of Post and Telecommunications.

CERN


Centre Europeen pour la Recherche Nuclaire (CERN) is a large particle
-
physics
laboratory loc
ated in Geneva on the French
-
Swiss border. The World Wide
Web originated at CERN

Chair
-
control video switching


A video
-
switching method using the ITU
-
T Recommendation H.243 standard in
which a participant at a conference site selects the current broadcas
ter from the
controls provided by the conferencing system. The conference must be using
voice
-
activated video switching, and the H.243 Chair Control option must be
installed at the site. Contrast with user
-
selected video switching.

CIF


Common Intermediate

Format, an optional part of the ITU
-
T's H.261 and H.263
standards. CIF specifies 288 non
-
interlaced luminance lines that contain 352
pixels. CIF is to be sent at frame rates of 7.5, 10, 15, or 30 per second. When
operating with CIF, the number of bits tha
t result cannot exceed 256 K bits
(where K equals 1024)

CIR
-

Committed Information Rate.

The rate at which a Frame Relay network agrees to transfer information under
normal conditions, averaged over a minimum increment of time. CIR, measured
in bits per

second, is one of the key negotiated tariff metrics.

Circuit Switched

An ISDN bearer service that provides a 64 kbps (sometimes 56 kbps) path
between two users for the duration of the call.

Channel negotiation


In the ISDN Q.931 protocol, the process b
y which a stored
-
program control
system enables the equipment at the customer premises to request a channel
that is different from the one indicated in the setup message.

Clock


A reference source for timing information for communication and computing
equ
ipment and systems.

CODEC


A sophisticated digital signal
-
processing unit that takes an analogue input and
converts it to digital on the sending end. At the receiving end, another codec
reverses this by reconverting the digital signal back to analogue.

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C
odec is a contraction of code/decode (some experts in the video industry
assert it also stands for compress/decompress). A codec takes the form of a set
of hardware or software components, or a combination of both.

Companding


A combination of a compressi
ng at one point in a communications path for
reducing the volume range of signals, and followed by an expansion at another
point for restoring the original signal range.

Composite Video

A method of carrying video information, which combines chrominance an
d
luminance on a single wire, resulting in lower video quality than S
-
Video.

Compression


'Reducing the representation of the information, but not the information itself.
Reducing the bandwidth or number of bits needed to encode information or
encode a sig
nal, typically by eliminating long strings of identical bits or bits that
do not change in successive sampling intervals. Compression saves
transmission time or capacity. It also saves storage space on storage devices
such as hard disks, tape drives, and f
loppy disks.

Continuous Presence


An optional type of conference where all sites view four other sites arranged in
a quadrant
-
screen display.

CPE
-

Customer Provided Equipment


Equipment not part of the public (ISDN) network located and owned by the end
user. This includes telephones, computers, etc…

CS
-
ACELP


Conjugate structure algebraic code excited linear prediction is a coding used for
voice compression.

CSD


Circuit
-
Switched Data. An ISDN circuit
-
switched call for data in which a
transmission path
between two users, is assigned for the duration of a call at a
constant, fixed rate.

CSMA/CD


Carrier sense multiple access collision detect. Media
-
access mechanisms
wherein devices ready to transmit data first check the channel for a carrier. If no
carri
er is sensed for a specific period of time, a device can transmit. If two
devices transmit at once, a collision occurs and is detected by all colliding
devices. This collision subsequently delays retransmissions from those devices
for some random length of

time. Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 use CSMA/CD
access.

CSU
-

channel service unit


A device that interfaces between a communication network and data terminal
equipment. In
T1

applications, referred to as a DSU (data service unit).

CSV


Circuit
-
Switched Voice. An ISDN circuit
-
switched call for voice where the
transmission path between two users is assigned for the duration of a call at a
constant rate.

CSV/CSD


Alternate Circuit
-
Switched Voice/Circuit
-
Switched Data. A B
-
channel
configuration that allows either circuit switch voice or data communication.


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D

D
-
Channel


An ISDN channel that provides a 16
-
kbps or 64
-
kbps packet
-
mode connection
between a servicing sw
itch and a customer's premises. The channel carries
signal and control information for B
-
channel activity and also can carry user
data in the form of packets

Dataconferencing


A type of conferencing in an H.320 environment where conferencing systems
trans
mit ITU
-
T T.120 information
-
for example, a PC file
-
for interactive use by
conference participants.

DCE


Data Circuit
-
Terminating Equipment. A term that refers to the network side of a
communication link.

De
-
Multiplex


The process of separating two or mor
e signals previously combined for
transmission over a shared channel. Multiplexing merges multiple channels
onto one channel prior to transmission; de
-
multiplexing separates them again at
an appropriate network node.

DES encryption


A data encryption algo
rithm in the public domain. It is the Data Encryption
Standard of the United States National Bureau of Standards.

Digital hierarchy (DS0, DS1)


A system of standardized transmission rate for digital signals using time
-
division multiplexing techniques. The

rates are:



DS0, 64 kbps (one voice channel)



DS1, 1.544 Mbps (24 voice channels) DS1C, 3.152 Mbps (48 voice
channels) DS2, 6.312 Mbps (96 voice channels)



DS3, 44.736 Mbps (672 voice channels) DS4NA, 139.264 Mbps (2,016
voic
e channels)

Distance Learning


The incorporation of video and audio technologies into the educational process
so that students can attend classes and training sessions in a location distant
from that where the course is being presented. Distance learning
systems are
usually interactive and are becoming a highly valuable tool in delivering of
training and education to widely dispersed students in remote locations or in
instances where the instructor cannot travel to the student's site.

Dithering

Giving the

illusion of new color and shades by combining dots in various
patterns. This is a common way of gaining gray scales and is commonly used in
newspapers. The effects of dithering would not be optimal in the video
produced during a videoconference.

DMZ

De
-
M
ilitarized Zone. A Term borrowed from the military where two forces are
separated by a physical boundary. In networking the term is used to represent
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the area between a public network (Internet) and a private network. In firewalls,
the DMZ host is forwarde
d all incoming connections from the public network.

Document Sharing


Sharing documents between two remote sites and being able to modify it from
the two groups (or more) and viewed by the others.

DSSI Protocol


Digital Subscriber Signaling System No. 1. T
he network access signaling
protocol for users connecting to ISDN. It includes the CCITT Q.931 and Q.932
standards.

DTE


Data Terminal Equipment. In a data communication network, the data source,
such as a computer, and the data sink, such as an optical s
torage device.

DTMF


Dual
-
Tone Multi
-
Frequency. A method of telephony signaling.

E

E1

A Europe
-
based digital system for transmitting voice and data over 31 channels
operating at a combined rate of 1.920 Mbps.

Echo Canceller

An electronic circuit that

eliminates the echo effect on videoconference
telephony links. Echo cancellers are largely replacing obsolete echo
suppressors.

Echo Effect


A time
-
delayed electronic reflection of a speaker's voice. This is largely
eliminated by modern digital echo canc
ellers.

Echo suppression

Used to reduce annoying echoes in the audio portion of a videoconference. An
echo suppressor is a voice
-
activated "on/off" switch that is connected to the
four
-
wire side of a circuit. It silences all sound when it is on by tempor
arily
deadening the communication link in one direction.

EKTS

Electronic Key Telephone Service. The National ISDN
-
1 (USA) standard for
working with supplementary service on an ISDN telephone or analogue
telephone connected to an NT1 Plus device.

Etherne
t

A LAN running on coaxial or twisted pair wiring, at 10 mbps. In Ethernet, all
terminals are connected to a single common highway or bus. A 10Mbps
broadcast bus technology with best
-
effort delivery and distributed access
control. It is a bus because all
stations share a single communications channel;
it is broadcast because all transceivers receive every transmission. A Local
Area Network (LAN) characterized by 10Mbits transmission using CSMA/CD
-

Collision Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.

Ethernet switch

A device than connects local area networks (LAN). Ethernet switching is viewed
as one solution to deliver 10Base
-
T networks that are bandwidth
-
constrained
because of a new requirement to carry multimedia messages and interactive
videoconf
erencing communications. To qualify as an Ethernet Switch, a device
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must be capable of switching packets from one Ethernet segment to another
and exhibit very low port
-
to
-
port latency.

ETSI

European Telecommunications Standards Institute, a group charged

with
devising Europe
-
wide telecommunications standards.

This group issues Common Technical Regulations (CTRs) some of which
pertain to video communications.

ESF
-
Extended Super frame Format

A framing format that extends a DS1 super frame from 12 to 24
frames so that
an 8 kbps F
-
bit pattern can be broken into three separate patterns: framing,
cyclic redundancy check, and a data link.

EWSD

The name of central office or Exchange equipment manufactured by Siemens
Stromberg
-
Carlson.



F

Fast Ethernet

A w
ay to run Ethernet at 100 mbps on one or two pairs of standard, unshielded
telephone copper wire.

FDDI


Fiber Distributed Digital Interface. A high bandwidth networking scheme that
uses fiber optic cable. The topology relies on two rings for redundant 100
Mbps
transmissions. FDDI uses a token passing access method similar to token ring
that results in a more deterministic performance than the contention
-
based
Ethernet.

fps


Frames per second. The number of frames contained in a single second of a
moving se
ries of video images. 30 fps is considered to be "full
-
motion" video in
Japan and the US, while 25 fps is considered to be "full
-
motion" video in
Europe.

Fractional T
-
1

FT or fraction T
-
1 refers to any data transmission rate between 56 kbps and
1.544 mbp
s. It is typically provided by a carrier in lieu of a full T
-
1 connection
and is a point
-
to
-
point arrangement. A specialized multiplexer is used by the
customer to channel the carrier's signals.

Frame


A segment of an analogue or digital signal that has a

repetitive characteristic, in
that corresponding elements of successive frames represent the same things.

Frame Relay

Industry
-
standard, switched data link layer protocol that handles multiple virtual
circuits using HDLC encapsulation between connected
devices. Frame Relay is
more efficient than X.25, the protocol for which it is generally considered a
replacement.

Frame Rate


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Frequency in which video frames are displayed on a monitor, typically
described in frames
-
per
-
second (fps). Higher frame rates i
mprove the
appearance of video motion. Broadcast TV (full motion video) is 30 frames
-
per
-
second.

Frequency division multiplexing (FDM)

Division of a transmission facility into two or more channels by splitting the
frequency band transmitted by the facili
ty into narrower bands, each of which is
used to constitute a distinct channel.

Full
-
CIF

Full Common Intermediate Format: A 352
-
by
-
288 video format that is described
by the ITU's H.261 specification. FCIF is sometimes called CIF.

Full
-
duplex

Two
-
way, s
imultaneous transmission of data; a communication protocol in
which the communications channel can send and receive data at the same
time. Compare to half
-
duplex, where information can only be sent in one
direction at a time.

Full
-
motion video

Video repr
oduction at 30 frames per second (fps) for NTSC signals or 25 fps for
PAL signals. Also known as continuous
-
motion video. Videoconferencing
systems today run 10 to 15 frames per second at 128 Kbps, at higher speed
such as 384 Kbps a 30fps is achievable.

G

G.711

An ITU
-
T Recommendation entitled, "Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of Voice
Frequencies". G.711 defines how a 3.1 kHz audio signal is encoded at 64 kbps
using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and either Mu
-
law (US and Japan) or A
-
law (Europe) commanding.

G
.721

An ITU
-
T Recommendation entitled that defines how a 3.1 kHz audio signal is
encoded at 32 kbps using Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
(ADPCM).

G.722

An ITU
-
T Recommendation that defines how a 7.5 kHz audio signal is encoded
at a data rat
e of 64 kbps.

G.723


An ITU
-
T Recommendation entitled, "Dual Rate Speech Coder for Multimedia
Communication Transmitting at 5.3 and 6.4 kbps".

G.723 is part of the H.323 and H.324 families.

G.728

An ITU
-
T Recommendation for audio encoding using Low Dela
y Code Excited
Linear Prediction (CELP). The bandwidth of the analogue audio signal is 3.4
kHz whereas after coding and compression the digitized signal requires a
bandwidth of16 kbps.

G.729

Part of the ITU
-
T's H.323 standard for videoconferencing over n
on quality
-
of
-
service guaranteed LANs.

Gamma Correction


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It is a non
-
linear correction of intensity by a gamma value. Because the human
eye responds logarithmically to light, we need Gamma correction to see picture
brighter.

Gateway


The gateway allows L
AN
-
based H.323 systems to interoperated with other
H.32x products. For instance, the gateway could link the H.323 session with an
H.320 (ISDN
-
based) system; an H.321 (ATM
-
based) system; an H.322
(isoEthernet
-
based) system; or an H.324 (POTS
-
based) system.
At the present,
most H.323 gateway implementations are concerned with linking H.323 and
H.320 systems across a LAN/WAN connection.

GateKeeper


The Gatekeeper is an H.323 entity on the network that provides address
translation and controls access to the ne
twork for H.323 terminals, Gateways
and MCUs. The Gatekeeper may also provide other services to the terminals,
Gateways and MCUs such as bandwidth management and alias to network
address translation. It can also deny access or limit the number of simultane
ous
connections to prevent network congestion.

Generic


Applicable to a broad range of applications, that is an independent application.

Genlock


The synchronization of a piece of video equipment by means of an external
video signal. In videoconferencing

systems, all cameras should be genlocked
together.

Group 3 Fax


Currently, the most widely used facsimile protocol, which operates over
analogue telephone lines or with a terminal adapter over ISDN.

Group 4 Fax


A facsimile protocol that allows high
-
spe
ed, digital fax machines to operate over
ISDN.

GroupWare


Software that runs on a LAN, and allows co
-
workers to work collaboratively and
concurrently. GroupWare is now being enhanced with video capabilities and
many of the new desktop conferencing product
s offer capabilities commonly
associated with GroupWare.

GSTN


General Switched Telephone Network a.k.a. Public Switched Telephone
Network (PSTN)

H

H0

In the ISDN, a channel that provides a 384
-
kbps connection, or the equivalent
six B channels, via a sw
itched or non
-
switched portion of a network.

H11


In the ISDN, a channel that provides a 1.536
-
Mbps (equivalent to T1)
connection via a switched or non
-
switched portion of a network. The connection
operates at the equivalent 24 B channels.

H12


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In the IS
DN, a channel that provides a 2.048
-
Mbps (equivalent to E1)
connection via a switched or non
-
switched portion of a network. The connection
operates at the equivalent 30 B channels.

H21


In the ISDN, a channel that provides a 32 Mbps connection via a switc
hed or
non
-
switched portion of a network. The connection operates at the equivalent
512 B channels.

H.221

A framing portion of the ITU
-
T's H.320 Recommendation that is formally known
as "Frame Structure for a 64 to 1920 kbps Channel in Audiovisual Tele
-
s
ervices". The Recommendations specifies synchronous operation in which the
coder and decoder synchronize timing.

H.222

H.320 Recommendation specifies generic coding of moving pictures and
associated audio information.

H.223

Part of the ITU
-
T's H.324 st
andard specifying a control/multiplexing protocol,
which is formally called "Multiplexing protocol for low bit rate multimedia
communication".

H.230

A multiplexing Recommendation that is part of the ITU
-
T family of video
interoperability Recommendations.

The Recommendation specifies how
individual frames of audiovisual information are to be multiplexed onto a digital
channel.

H.231


A Recommendation added to the ITU
-
T's H.320 family specifying multipoint