Network Architecture Models and the Internet operation

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1


Research
Project

Due date:
Apr
il

30
th

200
9

Network Architecture

Model
s

and
the Internet

operati
on



Introduction


By
the end of 1970s
, the
International Organization for Standard
ization

had defined
the first international
n
etwork
a
rchitecture
m
odel

for

computer communications called the
Reference Model for Open Systems
Interconnection
, or
OSI Model
.

The OSI model describes how data communications should take place in
computer networks. It divides the process into seven groups

of tasks
, called layers
. Ac
cording to the OSI
model, data
communications

should take place as illustrated in Figure 1

(
s
ee Appendix)
.
As illustrated in
Figure 1,
hardware and software standards (called
protocols
) govern
data
transmission between
peer layers

in the network
.

A p
rotoc
ol can be defined as a set of rules for communicati
on

between
network devices
.
Protocols govern
data formatting, timing, sequencing, and error control. Without protocols,
a

computer
cannot make sense

of the

stream of incoming bits.
A
ll
nowadays’
networks
,

including the
Internet
,

use
some
kind of n
etwork
a
rchitecture
m
odel created based on the OSI
Reference
model.

TCP/IP and Hybrid TCP/IP
-
OSI

are
among the
n
etwork
architecture m
odels created based on the OSI Reference model.




Your assignment



To use cours
e material, Web
-
based references, and textbooks relating to the
subject matter

in order to
make

a
comprehensive

document (10 pages or
less
)

including the following:


1)

A general presentation of the OSI reference model

2)

A detailed description of the roles or f
unctions each layer in the OSI model

3)

A description of

the
Client/Server
processing
system used in the Internet operation.

This should
include
(1)
the role of the Client and the role of the server in terms of

the specific jobs they perform;
(2) how Client/S
erver
differs

from other processing systems like File Server Program Access and
Peer
-
to
-
Peer.

4)

A description of
the
Encapsulation/De
-
encapsulation processes that take place on Client PCs and
Web

servers

using the
Internet (TCP/IP)

model

or

the Hybrid
OSI
-
TC
P/IP

m
odel.

5)

A description of

routers’ functions in the Internet operation
.



Evaluation Criteria



-

Form (clear, concise, easy to follow, logically arranged)

-

Content (logical, use and understanding of
references and
course material
)

-

Proper indication

of your sources (references)

-

Use of Web
-
based as well as textbook references.



Note:

No Copy/Paste. Turni
tin

software will use to track plagiarism.

Note:

References must be indicated at appropriate places

in your document in the form
(Author,



Year:Page)
. Also,
a
n alphabetical b
ibliography including all references used must
appear on


the last page
.

(See Appendix for examples of acceptable references formats)


2

Some

W
eb
-
based references
:


Buchanan William J., Introduction to Networks
,

http://www.dcs.napier.ac.uk/~bill/cnds2002_03/unit01.pdf

visited on
January

29
th
, 200
9
.


Cisco,
Internetworking Basics,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/introint.htm
,

v
isited on
January 29
th
,
2009
.


IT Architect,
Network protocols: Part 1,
http://www.itarchi
tect.com/article/NMG20000720S0002
,
visited on January 29
th
, 200
9


IT Architect,
Network protocols: Part 2,
http://www.itarchitect.com/article/NMG20000726S0007
,
visited on January 29
th
, 2
00
9
.


Brain Marshall, “How Web Servers Work”,
http://www.howstuffworks.com/web
-
server.htm

v
isited
on
January 29
th
, 200
9
.


Franklin Curt “
How DSL Works
”,

http://www.howstuffworks.com/dsl.htm

v
isited on
January 29
th
,
200
9
.



Some O
nline dictionaries:


TechEncyclopedia:
http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/

Whatis.com:
http://www.whatis.com

Protocols.com
http://www.protocols.com




3

Appendix

























Figure 1:

OSI reference Model illustrated




Examples of acceptable T
extbooks


reference

formats


White, Curt,
Business Data Communications and Computer Netw
orks
,
3
rd

edition ,
Course Technology,
U
SA
, 2004
.


White, Curt, (2002)
Business Data Communications and Computer Networks
,
3
rd

edition, Course
Technology, USA.



Examples of acceptable Websites’

reference

formats


Cisco, The OSI Model explained,
www.cisco.com/training/osi.htm

visited on January 3rd 2004.


Buchanan
William J
., Introduction to Networks
,
http://www.dcs.napier.ac.uk/~b
ill/cnds2002_03/unit01.pdf

visited on June 18
th
, 2003
.