Lession 07

mustardpruneΔίκτυα και Επικοινωνίες

23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 2 μήνες)

129 εμφανίσεις

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
1
/





1>

eKalbMNgénemeron


-
briyayGMBIlkçN³Biess²rbs;
Standard
nImYy²
.




-
kMNt;sMKal;
elIGgÁkarEdl)ankMNt;sþg;dar
Ne
tworking
.



-
briyayGMBI
eKalbMNgrbs;

OSI Model
nig
Layer
nImYy²
.



-
Bnül;GMBImuxgarrbs;
Layer
nImYy²enAkñúg

OSI Model
.


-
bgðajGMBI
IEEE 802.x

Standard

.




Network
Standard

and

Organization Model

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
2
/

2> l
MnaMedImrbs
;

Network Standard
:


bc©úb,nñmanRkúmh‘unplit
Hardware
nig
Software
CaeRcIn
enA
elIBi
PBelaksMrab;
RTRTg;enAkñúgRbB
½


Computer Network
.

edaysarEtbBaða
enHehIyeTIbbegáIteGayman
Network Standard
KMrUmYyEdlerobcMeLIgkñúgeKalb
MNglubb
M)at;nUvPaBmincuHsMrug nwgKña
énRkúmh‘unplit

TaMgenH
k¾dUcCakarRbKYtRbECgEpñkTIpSar
RBmTaMgeGay]bkrN
_

TaMgenHGaceR
bIR)as;eTAvij

eTAmk)anenAelIRbB
½


Data Communication

enAelIxñatKMrU GnþrCatimYy.

3
>
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)



sþg;daenHR
tUv)anerobcMeLIg
EdldMNageGaysßb½n nig rdæaPi)alrab;Ban;.

eyIgGaccUleTAemIlB½t’manlMGittam
Website:
http://www.ansi.org
.

4
>
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)

and
Telecommunications Industry
Association

(EIA)
:



4
>1>

Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)


GgÁkarBaNiC¢kmµenH
)anerobcMeLIg
EdldMNageGay
Rkumh‘un]sSahkmµEdlplit
eR
KOg eGLicRtUnic Edlqøgkat;shrdæGaemric
eGayrwgmaM
.

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
3
/



-
karerobcMenH
sþg;daenHsMrab;EtRkumh‘unb
¤]sSahrkmµEdlCasmaCik
.



-
CYysMrbsMrYl
Epñkc,ab;EdlGnueRKaH
dl;Rkumh‘un
plit
computer
b¤ ]sSahk
mµplit

eRKOg

eGLicRtUnic
eGayeIklUtlas;.




4
>2>
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA):



sþg;daenHepþateTAelIsþg;dasMrab;B½t’
manviTüa

(Information Technology),
Wireless, Satellite, Fiber optic

nig
sMPar³TUrs½BÞ.


5
>
Institute of Electrical and Ele
ctronics Engineers

(IEEE)



-
sgÁmGnþrCati)a
nerobcMeLIg
énGñkGaCiBCa
visVkr
.



-
man
TisedAedIm,IGPivDÆn_
eLIg

nig
ENnaM
dl;
visVkreGLicRtUnic nig
viTüasa
®sþkuMBüÚT½r.


-
bec©keTs
IEEE

nig sþg;daenH

mankarrMBwgTukx<s;kñúg
viC¢aCIv³
RbB½n§bNþaj
Networ
king
.



eyIgGac
cUleTAemIlB½t’manlMGittam
Website:
http://www.ieee.org
.





6
>
International Telecommunication Union

(ITU):

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
4
/



sþg;darenH)anCYlsMrYlnigeFVIeGaymanr
ebolerobrydl;RbB½n§TUrKmnaKmn_GnþrCati
dUcCa³



-
Radio and TV frequencies



-
Satellite and telephony specifications



-
Networking infrastructure



-
Tariffs applied to global communications



tYya:gdUCa
ÉksarCaeRcInEdlCab;Tak;TgRbB½n§TUrKm
naKmn_CasklenaH ecjeday
]sSah_kmµbec©keTsCak;lak;.

7
>
International Organization for Standa
rdization


KWCakarRbmUlpþMúénGgÁkarCaeRcIn
Cag 146 RbeTs
.
TisedArbs;GgÁkarenHKWbgðajGMBI

sþg;darbec©kviTüaGnþrCati

edIm,ICYysMrYldl;karpøas;bþÚrB½t’manCask
l nig
eGaymanakarRbKYtRbECg
elIGaCIvkmµedayesrI
.
manelIsBI 300 én
ISO

nigmanCag 14250
sþg;daEdl)anykm
kGnuvtþn_
eTAelI
plitplTak;Tgnwg
kuMBüÚT½r
nig
muxgarmYycMnYneTot.

8
>
Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model




OSI Reference Model
RtUv)anbegáIteLIg
edayGgÁkar
ISO
enAqñaM
1984
kñúgeKalbMNgerobcMkarTM
nak;TMng
saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
5
/

CaxñatGnþrCatielIRbB
½


Data Communi
cation
TUeTAmYyedayminKitBIedImkMenIt
Hardware,
Software
nig
Architecture
.
OSI Model
minEmnCa
Protocol
eT
EtvaCa
Model
mYysMrab;
Network Architecture
EdlGacbt;
EbneTAtamkal³eTs³
ehIyGaceRbIR)as;CalkçN³
Worldwide
)anenAelIBiPBelak.

OSI
man 7
RsTab;dac;edayEL
kBIKña EtRsTab;nImYy²
man
TMnak;
TMngKñaya:gCitsñiT§ nig
mantYnaTIepSg²BIKña.

Layer

TaMg 7 rbs;
OSI
KW³

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
6
/



8
>1

Physical Layer
:



P
hysical Layer
CaRsTab;TI
1
én
OSI Reference Model

Layer
EdlmanmuxgarCaGñksMrbsMrYlExS

Bit

qøgkat;rUbFatucMlg vaTak;TgeTAnig lkçN³
emkanic nig GKÁIsnIsMrab;kartP¢ab;eTA nig

Physical Media

dUcCa
Cable,

Connection (Point
-
to
-
Point or Multipoint Connection)

nig
Topology
.

lkçN³ Biessrbs;
Physical Layer

rYmman³

-

pþl;nUvkar
Transmission

Media

dUcCa
Cable and
Connection
.

-

bkERbnUv
Data

eTACa

Signal

EdlGacbBa¢Únqøgkat;

Media

)an.

-

RtYtBinitünUv
Error

eBlEdlmanbBaðarekIteLIgkñúgkMLú
geBlbBa¢Ún
Data
.

-

kMnt;nUvkMlaMgCav:Ult_
(Voltage Lavels)

sMrab;bBa¢Ún
Data Signal

-

kMnt;nUvRbePT
Signal

dUcCa
Digital, Analog
.

-

bMElg
Data

CaTMrg;
Bit
eTACaeGLicRtU
ma:e
jTic

Signal

kñúgkar
bBa¢Ún Edlmanry³cMgayq¶ay.


8
>
2>
Data Link Layer
:



Data Link Layer

CaRsTab;bnÞab;BI
Physical Layer

én
OSI
Reference Model

EdlmantYnaTInaMnUv
Data Unit

qøgkat;BI
Workstation
mYyeTA
Workstation

mYyeTotedayKµ
anPaB
Error

. vaTTYl
Data Unit

BIRsTab;TI
3

edaybEnßmnUv
Address

eGaymanGtß
n½yeBjelj

eTAelIcMnuc
cab;epþIm
(Header)

nig

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
7
/

cMnucbBa©b;
(Trailer)
kñúgkar
Control Information

sMrab;bBa¢Ún
Data Unit

.
Data Unit

Edl)anbEnßm
Information

ehAfa
Frame

cMENkÉ

Header and Trailer

RtUv)anbEnßmeday]bkrN
_b
Ba¢Ún nig
bkERbRBmTaMgmankar
naMyknUvB½t’
mans
þIGMBI
Synchronization (
mYy
Stop Bit

nigmYy
Bit Start) Sequencing
(
elxlMdab;rbs;
Frame

EdltMNageGaykarbBa¢Ú
n
Data
TaMgmUl
)

nig
Frame
Edlmkdl;cugeRkay
kMueGaymanPaB
Error
ekIteLIgedaymankarRtYtBinitü

eday]bkrN_
TTYl.

tYnaTIrbs;
Data Link Layer

man³

-

Node
-
to Node Delivery:

Fana
naMnUv
Data Unit

BI
Node
-
to
-
Nod
e
.

-

Addressing:

bMBak;nUv
Header and Trailer

edIm,IbEnßmnUvkarbBa¢Ún
Data Unit

eGaykan;EtmanRbsiT§PaB.

-

Access Control:

mantYnaTIRKb;RKg
TAelIkar
Access

rbs;
User

BIr b¤ eRcIn

kñúgeBlEtmYykMueGay
manbBaða
e
kIteLIg.

-

Flow Control:

-

Error Heading:

sMrab;eFVIeGay
Data
manPaBRbRktIeLIgvij edayman
Frame

CaGñkRtYtBinitü.

-

Synchronization:

man
Header and Trailer

kMnt;enAelI
Start Bit

nig
Stop Bit

sMrab;eFVIkar
Synchronization

e
TAelI
Timing
cMeBaHkarbBa¢Ún nig
karkMN
t;
Frame

kMueGaymanPaB
Error

.

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
8
/







The Data Link layer and its sublayers









A NIC’s MAC address



8
>
3>
Network Layer
:



Network Layer

TTYlbnÞúknaMyknUv
Data Packet

BIRbPBTisedAEdlRtUveTA edayqøgkat;
Network
L
ink

C
aeRcIn)anedayeCaKC½y nig man
RbsiT§iPaB.

edIm,IbegIát karnaMeTA b¤
naMykmkvijBIcMnuccab;epþImeTAcMnuccab;
epþIm eTAcMnu
c
bBa©b;
Network Layer

pþl;esva
kmµBIrEdlTak;TgKñaKW³




-

Switching:

KWCakarP¢ab;beNþaHGasnñrvag
Physical Link
.




-
Routing:

eRCIserIs
pøÚvya:gl¥sMrab;bBa¢Ún
Packet
saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
9
/

BIcMnucmYyeq<aHeTA cMnucmYy

eTotenAeBlmanpøÚveRcInCagmYy.



Switching and Routing

tMrUveGaymankarbEnßmCacaM)ac;nUv
Header
EdlkñúgenaH

rYmman
Address

rbs;

Source

nig
Address

rbs;TisedA
(Destination)

EdlRtUveTAr
bs;
Packet
.

lkçN³
Biessrbs;
Network

Layer

rYmman³




-
Source
-
to
-
Destination Delivery:

naMyknUv
Packet

BIkEnøgmYyeTA kEnøgeTot
(Destination)
edayqøgkat;
Network Link
.




-
Logical Addressing:

sMrab;bBa¢Ú
n

Data

BI
Node
mYyeTA
Node

mYysMrab
;
bBa
¢Ú
nTaMg
Source

nig
Destinatio
n Address

kñúg

Header
.




-
Routing:

eFVIkar
Routing

eTAelI
Packet

faetI
Packet

mYyNa EdlTTYlyk.




-
Address Transformation:

bkERb
Logical Address

edIm,Irk
rUbFatu EdlmanfµI.




-
Multiplexing:

eRbIrU
b
FatucMlgmYyedIm,InaMyknUv
Data

rvag]bkrN_ CaeRcInkñúgeBl
EtmYy.


8
>
4>
Transport Layer
:



Transport Layer

CaGñknaMyknUv
Me
ssage

eTAnigmk
BI
Source to

Destination (End to End)

müa:geTot
Transport Layer

erobcMnUv
Me
ssage

TaMgmUlEdlmkdl;

eda
yKµan)at;bg; nig
sßitenAeRkambgÁab;bBa¢a
BIrKų
Error

Control and
Flow Contro
l

enARtg;
Source
-
to
-
Destination Level

.

Transport

Layer

TTYlbnÞúkdUcxageRkam³

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
10
/




-
End
-
to
-
End Me
ssage Delivery:

RtYtBinitüelIkarbBÚ
¢Ün nig

karmkdl;nUv
Packet

rbs;
Segment

enARtg;
Destination point

.




-
Port Address (Service Point):

FanakarnaM

Message

eTAni
g mk vijeBl

Computer

kMBug
Run Multiple Application
.




-
Segmentation and Reassemble:

TTYlbnÞúkEckcay
Message

eTACa
Segment

EdlGacbBa¢Ün)an
ehIybegáIt
Segment Number

enAelI
Segment

nImYy².

elxsMgat;TaMgenaHGaceGay
Transport Layer

to Reassemble
the Message
Destination

nigman lkçN³bBa¢ak;
RBmTaMgCMnY
s
mkvijnUv

Packet
Edl)at;bg;k
ñ
úgeBlbBa¢Ún.




-
Connection Control:

eFVIkarsMerccitþNamYy
b¤minbBa¢Ún
Packet
TaMgenaHtampøÚvEtmYy.















8
>
5>
Session Layer
:

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
11
/



Session Layer

KÅCa
Network Dialog Control

vaman
smtßPaBEfTaM nig
Synchronization

rvag]bkrN_
Communication
.

enARtg;
Session Layer

enH
KW
begáIteLIgedaymankarEck

Session

eTA
Ca

Sub
Session

eday eRbIR)as;
Check Point
s‘kcUleTAkñúgExS
Data
.
Data unit

kñúgRsTab;enHGacnaMyklkçN³sMKal; rbs;
Session Layer

rYmman³




-
tMrUveGay
Logical Connection

eFV
I
GaymanmUldæanekIteLIgenAelI
End
User
mann½yfaebI
User

cg;bBa¢Ún
File

enaH
Session Layer

)anbBa¢ÚnB½
t’manTItaMgrbs;
File

enAelIRbB½n§GñkeRbIR)as; nigTItaMgrbs;
File

EdlRtUveTAenAÉ
Remote Computer
.




-
Session Management:

eFVIkarEbgEck
Session

eTACa
Sub Session

edayeFVIkarbMEbk
Message

Evg²eTACaEpñkxøI²ehAfa
Dialog Unit

sMrab;bBa¢Ún.




-
Synchronization:

eFVIkarvinicä½y
nigbBa¢aedIm,IbBa¢Ún
Dialog Unit

eTA
Transport Layer

ehIyenAkñ
úgkarbBa¢ÚnRtUvkarbBa¢aBI]bkr
N_TTYl.




-
D
ialog Control:

vinicä½yya:geBjeljeTAelI
Data

nigeBlevla kñúgkarbBa¢Ún
Data
.




-
Graceful Close:

eFVIkarbBa¢ak;ya:gRtwmRtUvnUvkarbþÚrKñ
aeTAvijeTAmk

RtUv)anbMeBj

muneBl
Session

biT.

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
12
/



8
>
6>
Present
ation

Layer
:



enAkñúg
Layer
enHmantYnaTIeFVIeGay
Computer

Gac
eFVIkar
Communication

Kña)ankñúgkrNIman
Character Code

xusKña.

vapþl;nUvkar
bkERbya:gsMxan;sMrab;
Control Code

epSg²eTotEdlGnuBaØatieGay]bkrN_TaMgBIr
)
anyl;BIkarbBa¢ÚndUcKña.
Header

e
nAelIRsTab;enH)anbBa¢ak;BIRbePT
)a
:
ra:E
mRt nig

Rb
E
vg

(
cMnYnénkarbBa¢Ún
)
.

mux
gar niglkçN³Biess
rbs;
Present
ation

Layer

kñúgRsTab;enHrYmman³




-
Translation:

pøas;bþÚrTMrg;rbs;
Message

Edl)aneRbIR)as;eday
]bkrN_bBa¢ÚnCakaryl;RBmTTYlsÁal;eTAvije
TAmkmYy bnÞab;mkenA Rtg;TisedAEdlRtUv

eTA
KWeFVIkarpøas;bþÚrTMrg;enaHeTACaT
Mrg;mYyGacyl; )a
neday]bkrN_TTYl
(
bkERbBI
ASCII Code to EBCDIC Code)
.




-
Encryption and Decryption of Data:

kñúgeKalbMNgrkSanUv suvtþiPaB
Data

RBmTaMg
Compression and Explantion of Data

enAeBlcaM)ac;
NamYy sMrab;bBa¢Ún
Data

edaymansuvtþiPaB.




-
Security:

bBa¢ak;fa
P
asswo
rd and Login

Ca
Code

BitR)akd.




-
Compression and Decompression Data

:
begáIteGaymanRbsiT§iPaBx<s;.



8
>
7>
Application Layer
:

saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
13
/



Application Layer

vaeFVIkarbMerIeGay
Windows

sMrab;
User

nig
Application Process

edIm,IGaceRbI
Network
Service

)an.

vapþl;nUvkar
eRbIR)as;TaMgsgxagdUcCa³

E
-
mail, Remote File Access, Transfer, Shared

Database Management

.

muxgarrbs;
Application Layer

rYmman³




-
File Access, Transfer and Management:

GaceGayGñk
eRbIR)as;enARtg;
Remote Computer Access File

enAkñúg
Host
d¾éTeToted
aybegáItkarpøas;bþÚrrWGan
Data,
Retrieve File

BI
Remote

Computer

sMrab;enAkñúg
Local Computer
nigRKb;RKg b¤ RtYtBinitükñúg
Remote Computer

enAkñúg
Computer

enaH.




-
Mail Service:

pþl;CamUldæansMrab;
E
-
mail
(
GacbBa¢ÚneTA b¤ sþúbTuk
) Directory Service

pþl;k
arEckcayRbPB
Database and Access

sMrab;B½
t
’manelIEpndI GMBImuxgar
nigesva
.




-
Directory Service:

pþl;karEbgEckRbPB
Database

ehIyBt’man elIBiPBelaksþIGMBI
Object and Service

GacecjcUl)an.

Applying the OSI Model








saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
14
/



9
>

IEEE 802.x Standard



IEEE

(Inst
itute Electronic and Electronic Engineering)
KWCashKmn
_
visVkr

FMmYyenAelIBiPBelakQaneTArkkarvivtþn_
Standard
sMrab;
Computing, Communication, Electrical Engineering and Electronic
.
vaCa
Standard
mYyya:gsMxan;sMrab;
Local Area Network
EdlehAeQaµH
fa
Project
802

mann½yfa ExkumÖ³
qñaM1980
.


IEEE 802 Categories

Specification

Description

802.1

Ca
Standard
mYyEdl)anvivtþn_eday
Project 802
sMrab;
LAN
kñúgkar RKb;RKgeTAelI
Internetworking
nig
System Management
.

802.2

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;RKgeTAelI
Data
-
Link La
yer (LLC, MAC)
enAkñúg
LAN
.

802.3

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;RKgeTAelI
MAC layer
rbs;
LAN
edayeRbIR)as;
viFIsaRsþ
CSMA/CD Access Method
.

802.4

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;RKgeTAelI
MAC layer
elI
Network
edayeRbI
Bus Topology
.

802.5

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;R
KgeTAelI
MAC layer
elI
Network
edayeRbI
Ring Topology
.

802.6

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;RKgeTAelI
Metropolitan Area Network (MANs)
sMrab;
LAN
.

802.7

Ca
Standard
shKmn_RkumRbwkSapþl;eyabl;
saklviTüal½y ebolR)ay saxaesomrab


Computer N
etwork

eroberogeday
R
BM suPaNuc


TMB½r
15
/

elIkareRbIR)as;
Broadband Technical
enAkñúg
LAN
.

802.8

Ca
Standard
shKmn_RkumRbwkSapþl;eyabl;
elIkareRbIR)as;
Fiber
-
Optic Technical
enAkñúg
LAN
.

802.9

Ca
Standard
shKmn_RkumRbwkSapþl;eyabl;
elIkareRbIR)as;
Integrated Voice/Data Communication
Technical
enAkñúg
LAN
.

802.10

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;RKgeTAelI
Network Securi
ty
.

802.11

Ca
Standard Special Protocol
EdleRbIR)as;enAkñúg
Wireless Network LAN
.

802.12

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;RKgeTAelI
Demand Priority Access LAN, 100Base VG
-
AnyLAN
.

802.13

Unused

802.14

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;
RKg
eTAelIkar
eRbIR)as;
Cable
nig
Mod
em
.

802.15

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;
RKg
eTAelIkar
eRbIR)as;

Wireless

Personal Area Network(WPAN)
.

802.16

Ca
Standard
mYysMrab;RKb;
RKg
eTAelIkar
eRbIR)as;
Broadband Wireless
.