Social and Ethical Implication of Biotechnology (Genetic Engineering)

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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Social and Ethical Implication of
Biotechnology (Genetic Engineering)
Presented by: Prof. Hon-Ming Lam
honming@cuhk.edu.hk
References
“Genetic Engineering: Science and Ethics on the
New Frontier”by M. Boylanand K.E. Brown
World Watchvol. 15 No. 4 (a special issue on
Human Genetic Engineering)
“基因科技的人文議題”, 時報文教基金會叢書: 30
“Biology: Exploring Life”by G. Brum, L. McKane,
and G. Karp
“Molecular Biotechnology: Principle and
Applications of Recombinant DNA”by B.R.
Glick and J.J. Pasternak
ELSI:
Ethical, Legal, and Social
Implication
Four Ethical Theories
•Ethic Intuitionism
–Immediate grasping of self-evident
ethical truths
–e.g. 錢財如糞土; 仁義值千金
•Virtue Ethics
–Everyone should try to cultivate
excellence
–e.g. 童軍日行一善
Four Ethical Theories
•Utilitarianism
–The greatest Good for the greatest number
–e.g. If we cut down the forest and turn the
land into crop field, how many people will
be benefited and how many will suffer
–Many scientists adopt this theory
•Deontology
–The action itself is inherently right or wrong
based on principles but not the outcomes
–e.g. Genetic engineering is inherently bad,
we should not mess with nature
DNA
RNA
Proteins
•Structural Proteins
•Regulatory Proteins
•Enzymes
Metabolites
Horizontal gene
transfer
Vertical gene
transfer
Genomics
Transcriptonomics
Proteomics
Metabolonomics
Phenomics
Is DNA the Key to Open the
Pandora’s Box of Life?
Is DNA the Key to Open the
Pandora’s Box of Life?
Genetic Engineering Timeline
M. Meselson'sgroup and H.O. Smith, K.W.
Wilson & T. J. Kelystudied and characterized
the first restriction nucleases
1968
Marshall Nirenberg, HarKhorana& Severo
Ochoa elucidated the genetic code
1966
Joe HinTjiodefined 46 as the exact number of
human chromosomes;
Arthur Kornbergisolated DNA polymerase
1955
Watson and Crick described the double helix
structure of DNA
1953
EventYear
Genetic Engineering Timeline
KaryMullis invented the PCR technique1983
First transgenic plants1983
First transgenic mice and fruit flies1981-
82
Louise Brown, the first test-tube baby is born
in England
1978
Sanger's group and Maxam& Gilbert
developed rapid DNA sequencing method
1975-
77
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer created a
transgenic bacterium using recombinant DNA
technology
1973
EventYear
Genetic Engineering Timeline
Working draft of the rice genome sequence
published (indicarice was completed by China)
2002
Working draft of the human genome sequence
published by HGP consortium (Nature) and Celera
Genomics (Science)
2001
FDA approved the sale of the first genetically
modified food the FLAVR SAVR tomato
1994
The cloned sheep Dolly was born at Scotland’s
RoslinInstitute
1996
Sequencing of human genome project completed2003
Beginning of the human genome project1990
First transgenic plants1983
EventYear
Five Major Applications of
Genetic Engineering
•Genetic Testing and Screening
•Cloning
•Somatic Gene Therapy
•Germ-Line Therapy
•Genetically Modified Crops
Genetic Testing and Screening
•Screening for genetic defects
–e.g. Sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis,
Huntington’s disease
–Diagnosis and Prognosis
–Family planning
•Identification of individuals (parentage,
forensic, wild animal poaching, etc.)
Amniocentesis or
ChorionicVillus
Sampling
Amniocentesis or
ChorionicVillus
Sampling
The Remains of RomanovFamily
•1917: Russian Revolution, Russian royal
family members were captured and
imprisoned
•1918: last Czar of Russia (Nicholas II) and
his family members were assassinated by
KGB
•1991: the burial site was revealed and nine
sets of bones were analyzed
The Remains of RomanovFamily
How to Prove that the Remains
Belong to the RomanovFamily
•By mitochondria DNA (DNA from
mother’s side of the family)
•England’s Prince Philip is related to the
maternal side of the Czarina
•Descendent of Louise of Hesse-Casselare
related to the Czar
Anastasia: Dead or Alive?
•Two children were missing form the
remains: Anastasia and Alexei
•1920: a young woman (Anna Anderson)
was rescued from canal in Berlin and
hospitalized in a mental institution
•She claimed herself Anastasia
•1984: Anna died; DNA tests disproved her
claim
Concerns on Genetic Testing and
Screening
•How to deal with the results?
–Should we tell a young adult that he/she
has a 50% chance getting Huntington’s
disease that cannot be cure at this moment
–Will you call off a wedding if you and
spouse cannot have a normal child
–Complex genetic defects (e.g. obesity) are
due to multiple genes and strongly
affecting by environment, how to evaluate
the risk factors?
Concerns on Genetic Testing and
Screening
•Misuse of the results
–Genetic disease carriers may be
discriminated by employers and insurance
company
–Sex discrimination: abortion of female infant
–Forensic record versus personal privacy
–Eugenics
Five Major Application of
Genetic Engineering
•Genetic Testing and Screening
•Cloning
•Somatic Gene Therapy
•Germ-Line Therapy
•Genetically Modified Crops
Cloning
•Cloning of genes: recombinant DNA
•Cloning of microorganisms:
recombinant DNA, making medicinal
products (e.g. insulin, etc)
•Cloning of plants: vegetable
propagation, tissue cultures
•Cloning of animals: Dolly
•Cloning of human?
Cloned Plants
Cloned Sheep
Will You Accept Human Cloning?
•As an alternation to in vitrofertilization
•Bring back a dead loved one
•Reproduce oneself
•For experiments
•Act as an organ reserve
Cloning Cells and Tissues to
Produce Organs
•To allow transplantation
•Sources of cells
–Stem cells/Tissue and ES cells from
aborted fetuses
–Excessive ES cells from frozen blastocysts
produced after IVF treatment
–Pluripotentialstem cells from adult tissue
–From animals?
Five Major Applications of
Genetic Engineering
•Genetic Testing and Screening
•Cloning
•Somatic Gene Therapy
•Germ-Line Therapy
•Genetically Modified Crops
Ex VivoGene Therapy
In Vivo
Gene Therapy
Adenosine DeaminaseDeficiency (SCID)
Cystic Fibrosis
Will You Accept Somatic Gene Therapy?
•Is it just in principle similar to organ transplant,
blood donation, or other medical treatments?
•Counter argument: due to so much unknown
in human genome and its regulation, if a
treated patient turns out to be dangerous to
the health of the society, could we just simply
terminate the experimental target?
•People are dying (patient don’t have time)
versus precautionary principle (what’s the
rush, it’s not ready)
•How would you choose if your loved one is
suffering?
Five Major Applications of
Genetic Engineering
•Genetic Testing and Screening
•Cloning
•Somatic Gene Therapy
•Germ-Line Therapy
•Genetically Modified Crops
Germ-Line Therapy
•Introduction of gene(s) into germ-line cells
•Permanent change; inheritable; irreversible
•Permanently correcting a defect in a genetic
population
Major Concerns of
Germ-Line Therapy
•What are good genes?
–Sickle-cell anemia allele: more resistant to
malaria
–CF allele: more resistant to cholea
•How to correct?
•How to preserve human dignity?
•Are we playing God?
•“Brave New World”by AldousHuxley
•Eugenics; further polarization of society (i.e.
privileged groups get more privilege)
Under Virginia’s
1924 eugenic
sterilization law
(based on the case
of Emma, Carrie,
and Vivian): 7,000
p
eople were
surgically
sterilized between
1924 and 1979
because they are
feeble-minded,
mentally defective
epileptics
Constructing a
Perfect Human?
Five Major Applications of
Genetic Engineering
•Genetic Testing and Screening
•Cloning
•Somatic Gene Therapy
•Germ-Line Therapy
•Genetically-Modified Crops
Crash Between Green Groups
and Scientists
•Many green groups are “in principle”
against any release of GM crop into the
environment (Deontology)
•Many scientists are concerning what
GM crops will benefit human without
major negative impacts on the
environment (Utilitarianism)
•The story of “golden rice”
Vitamin A Enriched Rice
•Transgenic rice producing β-carotene
(precursor of vitamin A)
•Rice lacks vitamin A
•Rice is a major food for Asia and Africa
•250,000 children go blind each year
because of insufficient vitamin A
Vitamin A Enriched Rice
Who Will Win and Who Will Lose
in the Era of Biotechnology?
•Should human genes be patented?
•Who will own my genes?
•Will multi-national giant companies get most
of the profit?
•How to distribute the profit between
developing countries (with natural resources)
and developed countries (with venture capital
and new technologies)?
•How to transfer technology to the developing
countries?
People in
Developing
Countries
Natural
Resources in
Developing
Countries
No useNo value
Lost due to
destruction
Use
Giant
Companies
High value
preservation
Investment
Investment
Ethical and Philosophical Issues
•Advancement of mankind versus hands-off
policy to nature
–Maintaining the status quo?
•Society development versus resource
sustainability
–The case of green revolution
–Is organic farming an viable alternatives?
•Religious concerns
–Different schools of thought
Source: www.a
g
bioworld.or
g
/biotech-info/reli
g
ion/churchen
g
land.html
Statement from Church of England
8. Postscript
From time to time, public thinking about the use of new scientific
techniques can be unduly influenced by slogan words that are
unreflectively taken to carry sinister meanings. A striking example of
this happening has been with irradiated food. This carefully controlled
process is effective in making food safer by killing harmful bacteria.
However, public fear inspired by the word 'irradiation' (perceived as
invariably signifying an invisible menace) led to demands for labelling,
which in turn proved to be the kiss of death for this food safety measure
because of unjustified public fear. It would be regrettable if asimilar
story repeated itself in relation to GM foods.
As with almost all scientific and technical developments, GMOsoffer
opportunities for good use and for bad use. As with almost all scientific
and technical developments, careful review and monitoring of their use
is important, particularly in the early years of development. Itwould be
unwise, either to ban GMOsfrom foods, or to fail to keep their use
under scrutiny.
Source: www.agbioworld.org/biotech-info/religion/vaticanhonesty.html
Position of the Roman Church
The Church's Position
Bishop ElioSgreccia, vice-president of the Pontifical Academy for Life and
director of the Institute of Bioethics of the Sacred Heart University of
Rome, explained that "there are no specific indications from the
Magisteriumof the Church on biotechnology.
Because of this, I have stopped all those who demand the condemnation
of these products." "The book, 'Animal and Vegetable Biotechnology: New
Frontiers and New Responsibilities,' is a contribution toward clarifying this
question. We give the ideological lines: research in the biotechnological
field could resolve enormous problems as, for example, the adaptation of
agriculture to arid land, thus conquering hunger. The biotechnological
products must contribute to man's wellbeing, giving guarantees in face of
possible risks. Therefore, what is needed is honesty. Once the proper
health characteristics of the product are guaranteed, it is right that the
consumer should know if it has been genetically modified."
Source: www.agbioworld.org/biotech-info/religion/halal.html
Are GMOsHalal?
According to the Islamic Jurisprudence Council (IJC), foods
derived from biotechnology-improved (GMO) crops are halal-
fit for consumption by Muslims. Some scholars have
suggested that foods derived from biotechnology-improved
crops could possibly become haram(non-halal) if they
contain DNA from forbidden foods. For example, swine DNA
in soy could make the soy product haram. This issue is still
the subject of some debate among scholars and certifying
organizations. Should a product be brought to market with a
gene from a haramsource, today it would at least be
considered Mashbooh--questionable --if not outright haram.
However, all biotechnology-derived foods on the market
today are from approved sources.