School of Biotechnology, DAVV, Indore M.Sc. Genetic Engineering ...

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School of Biotechnology, DAVV, Indore
M.Sc. Genetic Engineering Syllabus

Syllabus:
Semester I
Cell Biology & Genetics 3 Credits
Biomolecules 3 Credits
Molecular Biology 3 Credits
Computer Applications in Biology
& Bio-statistics 3 Credits
Analytical Techniques 3 Credits
Practical 12 Credits
Comp. Viva voce 04 Credits
Total 31 Credits
Semester II
Immunology 3 Credits
Microbial Technology 3 Credits
Enzyme Technology 3 Credits
Metabolic Engineering 3 Credits
Bio-informatics 3 Credits
Environmental Biotechnology 3 Credits
Practical 10 Credits
Seminars 1 Credit
Comp. Viva voce 4 Credits
Total 33 Credits
Semester III
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Recombinant DNA Technology 3 Credits
Agriculture Biotechnology 3 Credits
Animal Tissue Culture 3 Credits
Bioprocess Technology 3 Credits
Biosafety, Bioethics and IPR 3 Credits
Home Assignment 2 Credits
Seminars 1 Credits
Practical 10 Credits
Comp. Viva voce 4 Credits

Total 32 Credits
Semester IV
Research project 25 Credits
Comp. Viva voce 04 Credits

Total 29 Credits
Total Credits in 2 years 125
GRADING SYSTEM
PERCENTAGE GRADE
90% and above A+
80% and above, below 90% A
70% and above, below 80% B+
60% and above, below 70% B
50% and above, below 60% C+
40% and above, below 50% C
30% and above, below 40% D
Below 30% F
POINT SCALE : A+=10;A=9; B+=8; B=7;C+=6; C=5 D=4; F=2.

Highest marks obtained in the class, irrespective of the percentage, are taken as
100% and the relative percentage is calculated accordingly for the purpose of grading.
CGPA (CGPA) is defined as CGPA=Sum (ni.xi)/sum (ni), where ni is the number of
credits in the it course and (xi) is indicative of grade (A+=10, B+=8, etc.), it should
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include all credits completed by that date, actual credits have to be taken into account in
the calculation of GGPA.
Percentage marks = 8.1+8.4xCGPA (GGPA)
In general, Ordinance No. 31 is followed for the examination system.
Project: Project will be based upon research and actual bench work in IV
th semester. Project report will be submitted at the end of IVth
semester and evaluated.

Student Seminar: Each student under the supervision of a faculty member will
deliver a comprehensive seminar, which will be evaluated. The
topic normally will be from an emerging area of Modern Biology,
Bio-medical, Biotechnology or its applications.

Laboratory I, II, III, IV: Independent practicals may be held under each course.
However, for examination purposes a single comprehensive 2-3 days practical be held
for each semester, covering different courses offered during that semester. It is
recommended that the practical training be organized as an exercise
, rather
than a simple demonstration. The student must actually perform the

experiments.

Assignments: Regular assignment must be given to each student during the whole
semester in each course. Assignments should be relevant to course
relevant to course content. All assignments must be evaluated as
Internal Assessment.
Invited lectures from Eminent Researchers, Industrialists and others, on recent
issues related to Bio-diversity, Bio-safety, intellectual Property Rights and Patent issues
and Good laboratory and manufacturing practices will be organised.

It is also proposed to include the following areas as part of “ Student Seminar” and
“Assignments”:
1. Proteomics, Functional Genomics and Therapeutic Genomics.

2. Topics on Human Genetics and Genetic dissection of heritable diseases and
detection of associated mutations and diagnostics based on PCR.

3. Technologies being adapted for future applications like cloning of animals, with
capacity to produce human macromolecules.

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Cell Biology and Genetics

1 Diversity of cell size and shape.
2 Cell theory.
3 Structure of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells - Isolation and growth of cells.
4. Cellular organelles- Plasma membrane, cell wall, their structural organization;
mitochondria, Chloroplast; Nucleus and other organelles and their organization.
5. Transport of nutrients, ions and macromolecules across membranes.
6. Cell cycle - molecular events and model systems Apoptosis.
7. Cellular responses to environmental signals in plants and animals- mechanisms of
signal transduction.
8. Cell motility- cilia, flagella of eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
9. Biology of cancer.
10. Cellular basis of differentiation and development - mitosis, gametogenesis and
fertilization, development in Drosophila and Arabidopsis; Spatial and temporal
regulation of Gene Expression.
11. Genes, Mutation and Mutagenesis: UV and chemical mutagens; Types of mutation;
Ames test for mutagenesis; Methods of genetic analysis.
12. Bacterial Genetic System
Transformation, Conjugation, Transduction, Recombination, Plasmids and
Transposons. Bacterial genetics map with reference to E.Coli.
13. Virus and Their Genetic System
Phage I and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA Viruses; Retroviruses.
14. Genetic Systems of Yeast and Neurospora.
15. Extra-Chromosomal Inheritance.
BIOMOLECULES
1. Chemical foundations of Biology - pH, pK, acids, bases, buffers, weak bonds,
covalent bonds.
2. Principles of thermodynamics.
3. Classes of organic compounds and functional groups - atomic and molecular
dimensions, space filling and ball and stick models.
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4. Amino acids and peptides - classification, chemical reactions and physical
properties.
5. Sugars - classification and reactions.
6. Heterocyclic compounds and secondary metabolises in living systems -
nucleotides, pigments, isoprenoids.
7. Separation techniques for different biomolecules.
8. Lipids - classification, structure and functions.
9. Proteins - classification and separation, purification and criteria of homogeneity,
end group analysis, hierarchy in structure, Ramachandran map.
10. Polysaccharides - types, structural features. methods for compositional analysis.
11. Analytical techniques in biochemistry and biophysics for small molecules and
macro-molecules for quantitation.

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

1. Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides from ribose including
regulation, salvage pathways
2. DNA Replication
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication, Mechanism of DNA replication,
Enzymes and accessory proteins involved in DNA replication. DNA Repair.
3. Transcription
Prokaryotic transcription, Eukaryotic transcription, RNA polymerases, General
and specific transcription factors, Regulatory elements and mechanisms of
transcription regulation, 5'-Cap formation, Transcription termination, 3'-end
processing and polyadenylation, Nuclear export of mRNA, mRNA stability.
4. RNA splicing
Nuclear splicing, spliceosome and small nuclear RNAs, group I and group II
introns, Cis- and Trans-splicing reactions, tRNA splicing, alternate splicing.
5. Translation
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation: Synthesis of aminoacyl tRNA, aminoacyl
synthetases, Mechanism of initiation, elongation and termination, Regulation of
translation, co-and post-translational modifications of proteins, Mobility shift
assay, Dipeptide assay, Tripeptide assay. In vitro translation.
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6. Regulation of gene expression
Induction and repression, operon theory, lac operon, his operon, trp operon, ara
operon, attenuation, positive and negative control, catabolite repression,
regulation of transcription by cAMP and CRP, and guanosine tetraphosphate,
Run off transcription. Britten-Davidson and Mated models of gene regulation,
7. Protein Localization
Synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins, Import into nucleus,
mitochondria, chloroplast and peroxisomes, Receptor mediated endocytosis.
8. Antisense and Ribozyme Technology Molecular mechanism of antisense
molecules, inhibition of splicing, polyadenylation and translation, disruption of
RNA structure and capping, Biochemistry of ribozyrne; hammer- head, hairpin
and other ribozymes, strategies for designing ribozymes, Applications of
antisense and ribozyme technologies. RNA interference.
9. Homologous Recombination Holliday junction, gene targeting, gene disruption,
FLP/FRT and Cre/Lox recombination RecA and other recombinases
10. Molecular Mapping of Genome Genetic and physical maps, physical mapping
and map-based cloning, choice of mapping population, Simple sequence
repeat loci, Southern and fluorescence in situ hybridization for genome analysis,
Chromosome microdissection and microcloning, Molecular markers in genome
analysis: RFLP, RAPD and AFLP analysis, Molecular markers linked to disease
resistance genes.
11. Epigenetic regulation of DNA and its role in gene expression levels. Therapeutic
approaches based on modulation of epigenetic changes.
Computer Applications in Biology and Biostatistics

1. Overview of computers: generations of computers, Classification of computer,
Hardware, software, Operating system (Windows and Unix).
2. Number systems: Binary, decimal, octal, hexadecimal.
3. Introduction to Programming: Development of Algorithms and flow charts, low-
level and high-level programming languages, C, C++, Java and SQL
4. Introduction to data structures and database concepts.
5. Introduction to lnternet and its applications.
6. Introduction to MS-OFFICE: MS Word, MS Powerpoint, MS Excel
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7. Introduction to Haward Graphics/Corel Draw.
8. Computer-Oriented Statistical Techniques: SPSS, Matlab.
9. Sampling - Sampling procedure, homogenization of samples, samples size,
Selection of random sample, Limitation of analytical methods, classification of
errors, measurement of averages and variation, minimization of errors.
10. Types of data, Frequency distribution, Frequency table of single discrete
variable, Bubble sort
11. Graphical representation of Data, Histogram, Frequency polygon, Pie Chart
12. Measure of central values - Mean, median and mode, Measures of dispersion -
range, mean deviation, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, moment,
Skewness and kurtosis.
13. Probability, Concept of Probability Theory, Events, Trials, Mutually exclusive
events, favorable events, exhaustive events, Bayesian theorem of Probability,
Addition theorem, Multiplication theorem
14. Binomial distribution, Normal distribution, Poisson distribution & their
applications.
15. Testing of hypotheses: chi-squared test and its significance. Small sample test –
Z-test & T-test for Means, Paired T-test.
16. Design of experiments, ANOVA (one-way and two-way), F-test.
17. Simple regression and correlation
Analytical techniques

1. Introduction to biophysics : Molecular organization, of proteins - primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure.
2. Conformational analysis : Nucleic acids and their organization in living cells,
interactions of nucleic acids.
3. Methods in biophysical analysis : CD, ORD and fluorescence spectroscopy,
Raman spectroscopy.
4. Separation of bio-molecules: Various types of Chromatography TLC, and
Column chromatography ( partition chromatography, Adsorption
Chromatography, Ion-exchange chromatography, Gel filtration chromatography,
affinity chromatography, reverse phase chromatography, HPLC,
chromatofocussing.
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5. Electrophoresis: Agarose, Starch, PAGE including SDS-PAGE, Pulsed Field Gel
Electrophoresis, Isoelectrofocussing, Isotachophoresis.
6. Centrifugation: Differential centrifugation, Density gradient centrifugation,
Ultracentrifugation.
7. Absorption and emission spectroscopy- theory, instrumentation and application
of visible, UV, IR, AAS, NMR, ESR and Mass spectroscopy.
8. Characterization of macromolecules using X-ray diffraction analysis.
9. Microscopy, phase contrast, fluorescence microscopy, Electron microscopy and
scanning tunneling microscopy.
10. Radio isotope technique : Detection and measurement of radio activity Geiger
Muller counters, scintillation counting, auto radiography and RIA Application of
isotopes in biological studies.

Immunology

1. Introduction:Phylogeny of Immune System , Innate and acquired immunity ,
Clonal nature of immune response.
2. Organization and structure of lymphoid organs.
3. Nature and Biology of antigens and super antigens.
4. Antibody structure and function.
5. Antigen- antibody interactions.
6. Major histocompatibility complex,
7. BCR & TCR, generation of diversity.
8. Complement system.
9. Cells of the immune system: Hematopoiesis and differentiation, Lymphoeyte
trafficking, B- Iymphoeytes, T-lymphocytes, Macrophages, Dendritic cells,
Natural killer and Lymphokine activated killer cells, Eosinophils, Neutrophils and
Mast-Cells.
10. Regulation of immune response
11. Antigen processing and presentation, generation of humoral and cell mediated
immune responses
a. Activation of B- and T- lymphocytes
b. Cytokines and their role in immune regulation
c. T-cell regulation, MHC restriction
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d. Immunological tolerance.
12. Cell - mediated cytotoxicity: Mechanism of T cell and NK cell mediated lysis,
Antibody dependent cell mediated.cytotoxicity, macrophage mediated
cytotoxicity.
13. Hypersensitivity.
14. Autoimmunity.
15. Transplantation
16. Immunity to infectious agents ( intracellular parasites, helminthes & Viruses).
17. Tumor Immunology.
18. AIDS and other Immunodeficiences.

1. Hybridoma Technology and Monoclonal antibodies
Microbial Technology

1. General concept of microbial technology
2. Principles of exploitation of microorganism, primary and secondary metabolism,
regulation of metabolism
3. Biofertilizers and Biopesticides
4. Biopolymers and bioplastics
5. Mushroom cultivation
6. Single Cell Protein
7. Biocatalyst selection, immobilization and performance
8. Microbial lipids
9. Use of microbes in mineral beneficiation and oil recovery
10. Extremophiles and their applications
11. Methods in Microbial Technology
12. Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of
microbial nutrition Construction of culture media; Enrichment culture techniques
for isolation of chemoautotrophs, chemoheterotrophs and photosynthetic
microorganisms.

13. Microbial Growth
The definition of growth, mathematical expression of growth, growth curve,
measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous
culture., Growth as affected by environmental factors like temperature, acidity,
alkalinity, water availability and oxygen; Culture collection and maintenance of
cultures.
14. Microbial Evolution, Systematics and Taxonomy
Evolution of earth and earliest life forms; Primitive organisms and their metabolic
strategies and molecular coding; New approaches to bacterial taxonomy
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classification including ribotypeing; Ribosomal RNA sequencing; Characteristics
of primary domains; Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Bergey's Manual.

15. Overview of Basic Metabolism & Microbial Nutrition

16. Metabolic Diversity among Microorganisms

Photosynthesis in microorganisms; Role of Chlorophylls, carotenoids and
phycobilins; Calvin cycle; Chemolithotrophy; Hydrogen - iron - nitrite - oxidizing
bacteria: Nitrate and sulfate reduction; Methanogenesis and acetogenesis;
Fermentations - diversity, syntrophy, role of anoxic decompositions;Nitrogen
metabolism; Nitrogen fixation-, Hydrocarbon transformation.


ENZYME TECHNOLOGY

1. Discovery, classifications and nomenclature of enzymes.
2. Techniques of enzyme isolation
3. Techniques of enzyme assay
4. Intracellular localization of enzymes, Techniques used in the purification of
enzymes. Criteria of enzyme homogeneity Techniques used for determination of
native and sub-unit molecular weight of enzymes
5. Isoenzymes
6. Multienzyme complexes and multifunctional enzymes
7. Physico-chemical characterization of enzymes
8. Enzyme kinetics : Enzyme catalysis in solution - kinetics and thermodynamic
analysis, effects of organic solvents on enzyme catalysis and structural
consequences. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition
9. Allosterism including half of the site activity phenomena
10. Enzyme memory and pnemonical enzymes
11. Structure and activity of the enzymes
12. Mechanism of action of chymotrypsin, glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate dehydrogenase,
lysoenzyme, carboxy peptidase, ribonuclease, aldolase etc.
13. Various techniques used for the immobilization of enzymes, Applications of
immobilized enzyme in Biotechnology
14. Riboenzyme and catalytic antibodies- Functional proteins- structure and drug targets
(enzymes and receptors)

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Metabolic Engineering

1. The concept of Metabolic Engineering, Historical and current views,

2. Carbohydrate Metabolism : Regulation of Embden, Meyerhoff and Parnass
(EMP) Pathway & its regulation, Krebs cycle and its regulation, Krebs Kornberg
Cycle, Pentose Phosphate pathway and its regulation, Glucuronate- Xylulose
pathway, Oxidative phosphorylation.

3. Biosynthesis of glycogen in animals and its regulation.

4. Lipid Metabolism: Beta Oxidation of Fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis,
Biosynthesis of simple fat, phospholipids, cholesterol , sulfolipids and their
possible regulation.

5. Secondary metabolites, various pathways for secondary metabolites viz.
Alkaloids, Phenolics, Lignins, Terpenoids Flavonoids , Porphyrins, polyketides
and their possible regulation. Importance of secondary metabolites in medicine
and agriculture.

6. Rare metabolic conversions, mass balances, rates and experiments, models for
growth and product formation.
7. Bacterial transcriptional regulation of metabolism.
8. Modeling tools for metabolic engineering; Metabolic flux analysis, control
analysis, multiscale modeling of metabolic regulation, validation of metabolic
models.

5. Biomolecules transformation pathways
6. Networking of the secondary pathways

Concepts of common “global” regulation and response. Possible links between different
pathways via intermediates Implications of adding a new pathway. Resource
restructuring
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Bioinformatics

Major Bioinformatics Resources: NCBI, EBI, ExPASy
The knowledge of various
databases and bioinformatics tools available at these resources, the major content of the
databases, purpose and utility in life sciences, Literature databases.

• Nucleic acid sequence databases: GenBank, EMBL, DDBJ
• Protein sequence databases: SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, PIR_PSD
• Genome Databases at NCBI, EBI, TIGR, SANGER

Sequence analysis:
• Various file formats for bio-molecular sequences: genbank, fasta, gcg, msf, nbrf-pir
etc.
• Basic concepts of sequence similarity, identity and homology, definitions of
homologues, orthologues, paralogues.
• Scoring matrices: basic concept of a scoring matrix, Matrices for nucleic acid and
proteins sequences, PAM and BLOSUM series
• Sequence-based Database Searches: what are sequence-based database searches,
BLAST and FASTA algorithms, Various versions of basic BLAST and FASTA,
• Pairwise and Multiple sequence alignments:
basic concepts of sequence alignment,
Needleman & Wuncsh, Smith & Waterman algorithms for pairwise alignments,

Progressive and hierarchial algorithms for MSA. use of pairwise alignments and
Multiple sequence alignment for analysis of Nucleic acid and protein sequences and
interpretation of results; Sequence patterns and profiles: PSI-Blast, PSSM
• Taxonomy and phylogeny: Basic concepts in systematics, taxonomy and
phylogeny; molecular evolution; nature of data used in Taxonomy and Phylogeny,
Definition and description of phylogenetic trees and various types of trees,

Prediction of protein structure
• Secondary structure: algorithms of Chou Fasman, GOR methods;
• Tertiary Structure: basic principles and protocol of Homology Modeling
• P
rotein structure comparison and classification: classes, folds; the concepts in 3D
structure com
parison, purpose of structure comparison, algorithms such as FSSP,
VAST and DALI

Molecular modeling and simulations
• Visualization of structures using Rasmol or SPDBViewer or CHIME
• Basic concepts in molecular modeling:, different types of computer repre
sentations of
molecules

Concepts of force fields: representations of atoms and atomic interactions, potential
energy representation



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ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

1. Environment: Basic concepts and issues
2. Environmental Pollution: types of pollution, Methods for the measurement of
pollution; Methodology of environmental management - the problem solving
approach, its limitations.
3. Air pollution and its control through Biotechnology.
4. Water Pollution and Its Control: Water as a scarce natural resource, Need for
water management, Measurement of water pollution, sources of water pollution,
Waste water collection, Waste water treatment -physical, chemical and
biological treatment processes.
5. Microbiology of Waste Water Treatments, Aerobic Process: Activated sludge,
Oxidation ditches,trickling filter, towers, rotating discs, rotating drums, oxidation
ponds.
6. Anaerobic Processes: Anaerobic digestion, anaerobic filters. Upflow anaerobic
sludge blanket reactors.
7. Treatment schemes for waste waters of dairy, distillery, tannery, Sugar, antibiotic
industries,
8. Microbiology of degradation of Xenobiotics in Environment . Ecological
considerations, decay behaviour & degradative plasmids; Hydrocarbons,
substituted hydrocarbons, oil pollution, surfactants, pesticides.
9. Bioremediation of contaminated soils and waste land.
10. Biopesticides in integrated pest management.
11. Solid wastes: sources and management (composting, wormiculture and methane
production).
12. Global Environmental Problems: Ozone depletion, UV-B, green -house effect and
acid rain, their impact and biotechnological approaches for management.

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Recombinant DNA Technology

1. Scope of Recombinant DNA Technology, Milestones In Genetic Engineering,
Isolation of enzymes, DNA sequencing, synthesis and mutation, detection and
separation, cloning, gene expression. Cloning and patenting of life forms. Genetic
engineering guidelines.

2. Molecular Tools and Their Applications: Restriction enzymes, modification enzymes,
DNA, and RNA markers.
3. Nucleic Acid Purification, Yield Analysis
4. Nucleic Acid Amplification and Its Applications
6. Gene Cloning Vectors: Plasmids, bacteriophages, phagemids, cosmids, Artificial
chromosomes.
7. Restriction Mapping of DNA Fragments and Map Construction. Nucleic Acid
Sequencing.
8. cDNA Synthesis and Cloning: mRNA enrichment, reverse transcription, DNA
primers, Linkers, adaptors and their chemical synthesis, Library construction and
screening.
9. Alternative Strategies of Gene Cloning: Cloning interacting genes- Two-and three
hybrid systems, cloning differentially expressed genes. Nucleic acid microarray
arrays, Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).
10. Site-directed Mutagenesis and Protein Engineering
11. How to Study Gene Regulation?
DNA transfection, Northern blot, Primer extension, S1 mapping, RNase protection
assay, Reporter assays.
12. Expression Strategies for Heterologous Genes: Vector engineering and codon
optimization, host engineering, In vitro transcription and translation, expression in
bacteria, expression in Yeast, expression in insects and insect cells, expression in
mammalian cells, expression in plants.
13. Processing of Recombinant Proteins: Purification and refolding, characterization of
recombinant proteins, stabilization of proteins.
14. Phage Display
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15. T-DNA and Transposon Tagging: Role of gene tagging in gene analysis, T-DNA and
transposon tagging, Gene Traps, Identification and isolation of genes through T-DNA
or transposon.
16. Transgenic and Gene Knockout Technologies, Strategies of gene delivery, Targeted
gene replacement, Chromosome engineering.
17. Gene Therapy: Vector engineering., gene replacement/augmentation, gene
correction, gene editing, gene regulation and silencing.

Agriculture Biotechnology

1. Conventional Plant Breeding
2. Introduction to cell and Tissue Culture, tissue culture as a technique to produce
novel plants and hybrids.
3. Tissue culture media (composition and preparation).
4. Initiation and maintenance of callus and suspension culture; single cell clones.
5. Organogenesis: somatic embryogenesis: transfer and establishment of whole
plants in soil.
6. Shoot-tip culture: rapid clonal propagation and production of virus-free plants.
7. Embryo culture and embryo rescue.
8. Protoplast isolation, culture and fusion; selection of hybrid cells and regeneration
of hybrid plants; symmetric and asymmetric hybrids, cybrids.
9. Anther, pollen and ovary culture for production of haploid plants and homozygous
lines.
10. Cryopreservation, slow growth and DNA banking for germ plasm conservation.

11. Plant Transformation technology: basis of tumor formation, hairy root, features of
TI and RI plasmids, mechanisms of DNA transfer, role of virulence genes, use of TI
and RI as vectors, binary vectors, use of 35S and other promoters, genetic
markers, use of reporter genes, reporter gene with introns, use of scaffold
attachment regions, methods of nuclear transformation, viral vectors and their
applications, multiple gene transfers, Vectors- less or direct DNA transfer, particle
bombardment, (electroporation, microinjection, transformation of monocots.
Transgene stability and gene silencing.
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12. Application of Plant Transformation for productivity and performance: herbicide
resistance, phosphoinothricin, glyphosate, sufonyl urea, atrazine, insect resistance,
Bt genes, Non-Bt like protease inhibitors, alpha amylase inhibitor, virus resistance,
coat protein mediated, nucleocapsid gene, disease resistance, chitinase, 1-3 beta
glucanase, RIP, antifungal proteins, thionins, PR proteins, nematode resistance,
abiotic stress, post- harvest losses, long shelf life of fruits and flowers, use of ACC
synthase, polygalacturanase, ACC oxidase, male sterile lines, bar and barnase
systems, carbohydrate composition and storage, ADP glucose pyrophosphatase.
13. Chloroplast Transformation: advantages, vectors. success with tobacco and potato.
14. Metabolic Engineering and Industrial Products: plant secondary metabolities,
control mechanisms and manipulation of phenylpropanoid pathway, shikimate
pathway; alkaloids, industrial enzymes, biodegradable plastics,
polyhydroxybutyrate. therapeutic proteins, lysosomal enzymes, antibodies,
edible vaccines, purification strategies, oleosin partitioning technology.
15. Molecular Marker-aided Breeding: RFLP maps, linkage analysis, RAPD
markers, STS, microsatellites, SCAR (sequence characterized amplified
regions), SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism), AFLP, QTL,
map based cloning, molecular marker assisted selection.
16. Arid and semi-arid plant biotechnology.
17. Green House and Green-Home technology.

Animal Tissue Culture

1. Structure and organization of animal cell
2. Equipments and materials for animal cell culture technology
3. Primary and established cell line cultures
4. Introduction to the balanced salt solutions and simple growth medium, Brief
discussion on the chemical, physical and metabolic functions of different constituents of
culture medium. Role of carbon dioxide. Role of serurn and supplements.
5. Serum & protein free defined media and their application.
6. Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity.
7. Biology and characterization of the cultured cells, measuring parameters of growth.
8. Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture in vitro; disaggregation of tissue and
primary culture.,maintenance of cell culture; cell separation.
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9. Scaling-up of animal cell culture.
10. Cell synchronization.
11. Cell cloning and micromanipulation.
12. Cell transformation.
13. Application of animal cell culture.
14. Stem cell cultures, embryonic stem cells and their applications
15. Cell culture based vaccines
16. Somatic cell genetics.
17. Organ and histotypic cultures.
18. Measurement of cell death
19. Apoptosis
20. Three dimensional culture and tissue engineering

BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY
1. Introduction to Bioprocess Engineering.

2. Isolation, Preservation and Maintenance of Industrial Microorganisms.

3. Kinetics of microbial growth and death.

4. Media for Industrial Fermentation.

5. Air and Media Sterilization.

6. Types of fermentation processes: Analysis of batch, Fed-batch and continuous
bioreactions, analysis of mixed microbial populations.
7. Bioreactors. specialized bioreactors (pulsed, fluidized, photobioreactors etc.)

8. Measurement and control of bioprocess parameters.

9. Downstream Processing: Introduction, Removal of microbial cells and solid
matter, foam reparation, precipitation, filtration, centrifugation, cell disruptions,
liquid-liquid extraction, chromatography, Membrane process, Drying and
Crystallization.

10. Industrial Production of Chemicals: Alcohol (ethanol), Acids (citric, acetic and
gluconic), solvents (glycerol, acetone, butanol), Antibiotics (penicillin,
streptomycin, tetracycline), Aminoacids (lysine, glutamic acid).

11. Introduction to Food Technology
a. Elementary idea of canning and packing.
b. Sterilization and Pasteurization of food Products.
c. Technology of Typical Food/Food products (bread, cheese, idli)
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d. Food Preservation.
12. Microbial production of nucleosides, nucleotides and pigments
13. Beverages: Wine, Beer
14. Microbial transformation of antibiotics and steroids
15. Synthesis of commercial products by recombinant microorganisms (RE,
antibiotics, biopolymers etc.)
16. Large scale production of proteins from recombinant microorganisms

Biosafety, Bioethics and Intellectual Property Rights
1. Bioethics: Legality, morality and ethics, the principles of bioethics: autonomy,
human rights, beneficence, privacy, justice, equity etc.
2. Transgenics and Bioethics: The expanding scope of ethics from biomedical
practice to biotechnology, ethical conflicts in biotechnology - interference with
nature, fear of unknown, unequal distribution of risks and benefits of
biotechnology, bioethics vs. business ethics, ethical dimensions of IPR,
technology transfer and other global biotech issues.
3. Biosafety in the laboratory institution: Laboratory associated infections and other
hazards, assessment of biological hazards and levels of biosafety, prudent
biosafety practices in the laboratory/ institution
4. Biosafety regulations in the handling of recombinant DNA processes and
products in institutions and industries, biosafety assessment procedures in India
and abroad.
5. Biotechnology and food safety: The GM-food debate and biosafety assessment
procedures for biotech foods & related products, including transgenic food crops,
case studies of relevance.
6. Ecological safety assessment of recombinant organisms and transgenic crops,
case studies of relevance (Eg. Bt cotton).
7. Biosafety assessment of biotech pharmaceutical products such as drugs /
vaccines etc.
8. International dimensions in biosafety: Catagena protocol on biosafety,
bioterrorism and convention on biological weapons
9. Ethical issues in biotechnology. Biosafety and Risk assessment of GMOs. Public
perception. IPR and Trade related aspects. Methods for producing transgenic
plants and animals. Important genes of agronomic interest. Current trends in
finding useful genes. GMO Act 2004. Traceability. Legislative aspects.
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10. Bioethics & Animal Experimentation: Chronology of Biotechnological studies
on animals – Law & legislation on animal experimentation in India and world –
Moral status of animals as objects of experiments – Contemporary view on
animal experiments – Moral responsibility of scientists over animal experiments.
11. Bioethics & Human Person: Personhood – Abortion – Bioethical issues in
reproduction, population explosion and control – Assisted reproduction – AIDS –
Egg donation – Prenatal screening & sex selection – Cloning - Ethical issues on
life & death – Brain Vs Cortical death – Persistent vegetative state – Voluntary
euthanasia & physician assisted suicide – Organ donation & Transplantation.
12. Bioethics & Society (Indian context): Ethical issues on New Genetics –
Human Genome Project – Gene therapy – Genetic screening – Experimentation
with human subjects - National Practice of health care – Public & Private medical
practice – National resource allocations.
13. Intellectual property rights (IPR), sovereignty rights, CBD, bioethics and patenting
14. General agreement on trade and tariffs Indian sui-generis system for animal
variety and farmer’s rights protection act. WTO with reference to biotechnological
affairs, TRIPs.
15. General Introduction: Patent claims, the legal decision – making process,
ownership of tangible and intellectual property, Patent litigation.
16. Basic Requirements of Patentability: Patentable subject matter, novelty and the
public domain, non obviousness
17. Special issues in Biotechnology Patents: Disclosure requirements, Collaborative
research, Competitive research, plant
18. Plant biotechnology Indian patents and Foreign patents, Plant variety
protection act, The strategy of protecting plants.
19. Recent Developments in Patent System and Patentability of biotechnological
inventions.
20. IPR issues in Indian Context Role of patent in pharmaceutical industry,
computer related innovations. Case studies Rice, Haldi, neem, etc. and
challenges ahead.